The World Trade Organisation (Wto)

In: Business and Management

Submitted By blaine
Words 2636
Pages 11
Cases in the Global Business Environment
The World Trade Organisation (WTO)

It has been suggested that “of all major economic institutions, the WTO has the worst reputation”. Outline the role of the WTO, and explain why it has proved difficult to reach agreement in recent WTO meetings in Doha, Geneva and Hong Kong. The World Trade Organisation (WTO)

The WTO was founded in 1995 after the 8 year Uruguay round of talks, and it succeeded the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) created in 1947. Most of the WTO's current work comes from the Uruguay Round of negotiations (1986-1994). Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the WTO has 151 members (as at 27th July 2007), accounting for over 97% of world trade. The organisation is governed by a Ministerial Conference, which meets every two years, a General Council which implements the conference's policy decisions and a director-general appointed by the Ministerial Conference.
The World Trade Organization deals with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business. These agreements are the legal ground-rules for international commerce
Global trade deals are negotiated at the Ministerial Conference meetings, which are known as trade rounds and are aimed at reducing barriers for trade. One of the central principles of the WTO is non-discriminations, where products imported from one member country or member bloc, are treated the same as those from any other country.
The WTO is a member driven organisation with its rules and agreements resulting from negotiations among member governments. These decisions are made by consensus among the members, which are then ratified by the members’…...

Similar Documents

World Trade Report07 E

...WORLD TRADE REPORT 2007 WTO MEMBERS (As of 27 July 2007) Albania Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Bahrain, Kingdom of Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Congo Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Democratic Republic of the Congo Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Estonia European Communities Fiji Finland Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) France Gabon The Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong, China Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kenya Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Latvia Lesotho Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao, China Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Romania Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent & the Grenadines Saudi Arabia Senegal Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Solomon Islands South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Chinese Taipei Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey......

Words: 269728 - Pages: 1079

World Trade Report 2007

...WORLD TRADE REPORT 2007 WTO MEMBERS (As of 27 July 2007) Albania Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Australia Austria Bahrain, Kingdom of Bangladesh Barbados Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Botswana Brazil Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Congo Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Democratic Republic of the Congo Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Estonia European Communities Fiji Finland Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) France Gabon The Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong, China Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kenya Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyz Republic Latvia Lesotho Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao, China Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Mauritania Mauritius Mexico Moldova Mongolia Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nepal Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Norway Oman Pakistan Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Romania Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent & the Grenadines Saudi Arabia Senegal Sierra Leone Singapore Slovak Republic Slovenia Solomon Islands South Africa Spain Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Chinese Taipei Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey......

Words: 269728 - Pages: 1079

The World Trade Organization (Wto)

...b Introduction 1. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on January 1, 1995. The organization deals with regulation of trade between participating countries; it provides a framework for negotiating and formalizing trade agreements, and a dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants' adherence to WTO agreements which are signed by representatives of member governments and ratified by their parliaments. The WTO has 153 members, representing more than 97% of total world trade and 30 observers, most seeking membership. The WTO's headquarters is at the Centre William Rappard, Geneva, Switzerland. 2) Belarus expressed its wish to participate in the WTO and there are 9 main reasons why it will have positive influence on the country: 1. economy opening and it’s liberalization. More competition means price decreasing, range of goods expansion, and fast vanishing of ineffective projects. 2. access to cheaper import resources that will lead to increasing of the real sector competitiveness. 3. an opportunity to protect belorussian exporters outside the country 4. protection against anti-dumping persecution that will help to achieve a status of market economy. 5. increasing of law stability in trade that will influence an investment climate well. 6. taking part in making new international trade rules taking into account bel.interests. 7. Belarus has...

Words: 1031 - Pages: 5

World Trade Organisation

...The world trade organization is an organization can be looked at in a number of ways; firstly the WTO is an organization for trade opening; a forum where governments discuss trade agreements; and as platform for solving trade disputes. Further on, the WTO functions as a system of trade rules and as a place where member states sort out their trade issues among themselves. This organization was founded out of negotiations and its modus operandi is that of negotiation. Today, most of WTO’s current operations stem from the Uruguay Round as well as other negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). It is currently hosting the new negotiations that were birthed from the “Doha Development Agenda” of 2001 (Wto.org,. 2014). Where states have been confronted with trade barriers and want them lowered, deliberations at the WTO have facilitated opening of markets for trade. In conjunction, the WTO is not only about opening of new markets, it also supports maintenance of trade barriers- for instance where consumer rights are threatened or to prevent harm to the consumers. At the core of WTO are the agreements that have been negotiated and sealed by the majority of the world’s trading states. These agreements present the legal guidelines for international trade. They are in essence contracts that bind governments to maintain their trading rules within the set limits (Wto.org,. 2014).. While they are signed and negotiated by states, the aim remains to help the......

Words: 3037 - Pages: 13

The World Trade Organisation Has the Worst Reputation”.

...Preparing For Structural Reform in the WTO Thomas Cottier World Trade Institute, Berne September 26, 2006 I. Structure-Substance Pairing Negotiations at the WTO are mainly driven by domestic constituencies and governments. They define outcomes. The structure of the organisation is instrumental to this goal, and does not in itself decide on outcomes. Nevertheless, the structure and operation of the WTO is not without impact. The ways by which decisions are prepared and made do affect outcomes and results. This is common to all law, domestic and international law. Process and substance are inextricably intertwined. We call this substance-structure pairing. Effective global governance requires open attitudes towards multilateralism, shared perceptions on objectives, but also clear structures on all layers of government, local, national, regional and global. It is equally true for the WTO. While international trade regulation is almost exclusively treaty-based, the process in the WTO often deviates from written rules and is mainly shaped by custom and diplomatic practices developed under GATT 1947. Except for dispute settlement, it is not clearly framed in institutional terms. Difficulties to achieve agreement and to make progress among the currently 149 Members of the WTO are partly due to these practices. Except for the General Council and the Ministerial Conference, no body is mandated and authorised to address procedural issues in a comprehensive manner, coming forward......

Words: 2596 - Pages: 11

World Trade Organisation -Assignment

...world trade organisation | SHIRISH SAWANT 321618 | world trade organisation | SHIRISH SAWANT 321618 | WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION: INTRODUCTION: * WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO) is an organization which was established with the motive of negotiations between the countries regarding trade problems. * WORLD TRADE ORGANIZTION was established on 1st January 1995 after the failed attempt made in 1948 to make INTERNATIONAL TRADE ORGANIZATION. * It is considered as the biggest reform of international trade. * From 1948, GENERAL AGREEMENT OF TARIFF AND TRADE (GATT) WTO has taken the rules for its system. * GENERAL AGREEMENT led to establishment of an unofficial international organization also known as GATT. * GATT changed through many rounds of negotiations, but the biggest round was Uruguay Round which almost lasted eight years from 1986-1994. * Which led to the formation of WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO). * When GATT is concerned it only used to look after the trade in goods, but WTO looks after trade in services and in traded invention, creations and designs. * WTO is located in GENEVA, SWITZERLAND. * The membership of WTO is 160 countries till 26th June 2014. * The secretarial staff of WTO is 640. * The current Director- General of WTO is Roberto Azevedo. * When it comes to India, India is the member of WTO from 1st January 1995, and member of the GATT since 8th July 1948. FUNCTIONS OF WTO: ...

Words: 1411 - Pages: 6

World Trade Organization

...Introduction to Economics I TRADE AGREEMENTS AND WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION PROFESSOR ASSISTANT STUDENTS Nataša Tandir Nedžad Isaković Sejid Abaz Sarajevo, December 2011. CONTENT Trade Agreements.......................................................................................................................... 3 Bilateral and Multilateral Agreements................................................................................. 3 Trade Agreements and Trading Blocks............................................................................... 3 Different types of trade agreements..................................................................................... 3 1. Free Trade Areas (FTA)........................................................................................... 3 2. Common Monetary Area (CMA)............................................................................. 5 3. Customs Union......................................................................................................... 5 4. Common Market...................................................................................................... 6 5. Monetary Union....................................................................................................... 6 6. Economic Union...................................................................................................... 7 World Trade Organization......................

Words: 2886 - Pages: 12

China Trade Before and After Wto

...Change in China trade policy before and after WTO 1. Different aspects of china WTO accessions 1.1.Trade in goods One of the major parts of WTO accessions the changes in the trade of good policy which is mainly divided into two major components which are the reduction of tariffs and the elimination of the quotas. Due to WTO accessions china is obliged to reduce or eliminate all tariffs on imported goods mostly by 2004 with special condition in industrial material which tariffs reduced to an average of 9 percent and tariffs on agricultural goods will be lowered to an average of 15 percent. 1.2.Policy on trade of services The other major component of the change in trade policy is the changes in the service sector which aim is to ensure foreign firm to have an transparent and simple process for acquiring license in various sector such as banking and insurance, legal and other professional services, Telecommunications and tourism. 1.2.1. Right to trade and distribution Right to trade is one of the most regulated change due to WTO accession as it controls the right for foreign firm to import, export or retail goods in china. In the WTO accessions it is stated that within two years (by end-2003) foreign service suppliers will be permitted to engage in the retailing of all products, within three years (by end-2004)all firms will have the right to import and export all goods except those subject to state trading monopolies (e.g., oil or......

Words: 533 - Pages: 3

The World Trade Organisation

...   The  World   Trade   Organization  (WTO)  is  an  organization  that  intends  to   supervise   and   liberalize   international   trade.   Essentially,   the   WTO   is   a   place   where  member  governments  go,  to  try  to  sort  out  the  trade  problems  they  face   with  each  other.   At  its  center  are  the  WTO  agreements,  negotiated  and  signed  by   the   majority   of   the   worlds   trading   nations.   These   documents   provide   the   legal   ground-­‐rules  for  international  commerce.  This  traduces  essentially  in  contracts,   binding  governments  to  keep  their  trade  policies  within  agreed  limits.     Currently,   the   organization   faces   an   impasse   attempting   to   complete   the   negotiations   of   the   Doha   Round,   which   was   launched   in   2001   with   an   explicit   focus   on   addressing   the   needs   of   developing   countries.   The   reasons   for   this   impasse  can  be  explain  by  the  awareness  of  the  implications  of  the  commitments   that  countries  undertake  in  the  WTO.  The ......

Words: 537 - Pages: 3

World Trade Organisation

...WTO AND INDIAN ECONOMY (AGRICULTURAL IMPLICATIONS) BY: RAYNAH FERNANDES 13 SRUSHTI GANGAN 14 NEHA GAONKAR 15 INDEX 1. WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION  GATT  Principles of WTO  Objectives & Function 2. INDIA & WTO 3. INDIAN ECONOMY 4. INDIAN AGRICULTURE  Agricultural Trade  Agricultural Support Policies  Importance Of Indian Agriculture 5. AGREEMENT ON AGRICULTURE  The Three Boxes: Green, Amber and Blue  Trend In Pattern Of Consumption  Implication Of Agreement : Short Term and Long Term 6. WTO & INDIAN AGRICULTURE  India’s Commitment  India’s Agricultural Trade Under WTO Regime 7. A STUDY & ITS FINDINGS 8. SUGGESTIONS 9. BIBLIOGRPHY ACKNOWLEGEMENT We would like to acknowledge and express our sincerest gratitude for the efforts and timely guidance of our professor Mrs. Neelam Shetty of Managerial Economics for providing us the opportunity to study the impact of WTO agreements on the Indian economy especially focused on the agricultural sector. We would also like to thanks and express our gratitude towards professor Mr. Agnelo Menezes of economics from the Bachelors of Arts faculty and his student from XRCVC Master Prashant Lindayat. Each and every team member gave in his best to make sure that this report has all the necessary inputs and is completed on time. We definitely had a knowledgeful and enriching experience. WORLD TRADE...

Words: 12777 - Pages: 52

World Trade Organisation

...1. Introduction The World Trade Organisation (WTO) was formally made in January of 1995, and essentially supplanted the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which had been in power subsequent to 1948, a couple of years after the Second World War (Study.com, 2015). The WTO is a multilateral establishment charged with directing rules for exchange among 145 official member countries. The United States and different members partaking in the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations (1986-1994) required the arrangement of the WTO to encapsulate the new trade disciplines received amid those transactions (Wto.org,. 2015). This essay will firstly evaluate the roles of the WTO and then the challenges the World Trade Organisation face in the world economy and these how challenges are addressed. 2. The Role of the WTO in the Global Economy The World Trade Organisation exists to encourage the implementation, administration and operation, and additionally to facilitate the goals of the WTO agreements (Ruttley, P., Macvay, I. & George, C., 1998). Beyond this general purpose, the WTO has four particular functions. Firstly, to provide a meeting for arrangements among its members concerning their multilateral trade cognations in matters dealt with the accedences in the Annexes of the Marrakech Agreement for both current matters and any future understandings. The WTO may withal provide a forum for further negotiations among its members concerning their......

Words: 915 - Pages: 4

World Trade Organisation

...WTO members operate a non-discriminatory trading system that spells out their rights and their obligations. Each country receives guarantees that its exports will be treated fairly and consistently in other countries’ markets. Each promises to do the same for imports into its own market. The system also gives developing countries some flexibility in implementing their commitments. GATT is now the WTO’s principal rule-book for trade in goods. The Uruguay Round also created new rules for dealing with trade in services, relevant aspects of intellectual property, dispute settlement, and trade policy reviews. The complete set runs to some 30,000 pages consisting of about 30 agreements and separate commitments (called schedules) made by individual members in specific areas such as lower customs duty rates and services market-opening. Non-discrimination A country should not discriminate between its trading partners and it should not discriminate between its own and foreign products, services or nationals. More open Lowering trade barriers is one of the most obvious ways of encouraging trade; these barriers include customs duties (or tariffs) and measures such as import bans or quotas that restrict quantities selectively. Predictable and transparent Foreign companies, investors and governments should be confident that trade barriers should not be raised. With stability and predictability, investment is encouraged, jobs are created and consumers can fully enjoy the......

Words: 455 - Pages: 2

World Trade Organization

...[pic]World Trade Organization [pic] The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on January 1, 1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1948. The organization deals with regulation of trade between participating countries; it provides a framework for negotiating and formalizing trade agreements, and a dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants' adherence to WTO agreements which are signed by representatives of member governments and ratified by their parliaments. Most of the issues that the WTO focuses on derive from previous trade negotiations, especially from the Uruguay Round (1986–1994). The organization is currently endeavoring to persist with a trade negotiation called the Doha Development Agenda (or Doha Round), which was launched in 2001 to enhance equitable participation of poorer countries which represent a majority of the world's population. However, the negotiation has been dogged by "disagreement between exporters of agricultural bulk commodities and countries with large numbers of subsistence farmers on the precise terms of a 'special safeguard measure' to protect farmers from surges in imports. At this time, the future of the Doha Round is uncertain." The WTO has 153 members representing more than 97% of total world trade and 30 observers, most seeking......

Words: 4976 - Pages: 20

Free Trade in the Real World

...Free Trade in the Real World: Competing perspectives about the role and impact of trade in developing countries. By James Lawrie Since the end of the Second World War the Western World has lead the way in the quest for free trade between nations. In particular, various arms of The United Nations, chiefly The World Bank, The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and The World Trade Organisation (WTO) have been the main bodies through which the developed world has pushed its agenda of liberalisation. The policies pursued by these supranational organisations are based on western economic concepts and theories and have become broadly known as the ‘Washington Consensus’, a term first coined by John Williamson in 1989. The Washington Consensus is rooted firmly in the Neoclassical approach to economic thinking and has been criticised by two main schools of thought; Structuralists and Dependency Theory. These two schools question many of the assumptions made by the Neoclassical framework and use real world observations to discredit Neoclassical policies. While Neoclassical theory suggests that all free trade is eventually mutually beneficial to everyones welfare, Dependency Theory advocates argue that free trade is a destructive force and a threat to the Developing World or the Least Developed Countries (LDC’s). Structuralist make their position in the middle ground and acknowledge that while there are gains from free trade to be made for LDC’s and Developed Countries (DC’s)......

Words: 2331 - Pages: 10

The World Trade Organisation

...THE WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established and incorporated in January 1st 1995 at the amendment of the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT) in 1994 with the aim of regulating international trade. The creation of this organization clearly underscored the acceptance and commitment of trade liberalization by most of the international communities. Upon signing and ratifying the WTO Agreement, each member state of the WTO committed itself through a series of agreements to ultimately liberalize its trade in goods, services and trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights. Each member state signed the WTO Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes as well as the Agreement relating to the Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM).  This action required member states to periodically subject their national trade and economic policies for examination to ensure that their respective mandates are in keeping with the WTO’s commitments. (Strategic Plan of the Foreign Trade Division 2002). The expansion of trade has often played a significant role in the growth of the global economy since World War II, but it was not until the commencement of trade negotiations in the Uruguay Round in 1986, that multilateral trade deals tended to be limited to that of industrial countries.  While developing countries benefited significantly from the growth in global trade, they were rarely active participants in the......

Words: 1376 - Pages: 6