Vedic Multipier

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By ash007
Words 2343
Pages 10

Students of Department of ECE,SACET, Chirala, AP, India
Associate Professor of the Dept ECE, SACET, Chirala, AP, India
Electronics and Comunication Department, St.Ann‟s college of engineering & Technology, Chirala, india.,,, 2

Abstract: This project presents a binary floating point multiplier based on Vedic algorithm. To improve power efficiency a new algorithm called URDHVA-TRIYAKBHYAM has been implemented for 24 X 24 bit multiplier design. By using this approach number of components can be decreased and complexity of hardware circuit can be decrease. In this project, Vedic multiplication technique is used to implement IEEE 754 floating point multiplier. The Urdhava-Triyakbhym sutra is used for the multiplication of Mantissa i.e., 24x24 bits. The sign bit of the result is calculated using one XOR gate and a Carry Save
Adder is used for adding the two biased Exponents. The underflow and overflow cases are handled. The inputs to the multiplier are provided in IEEE 754, 32 bit format. The multiplier is implemented in VHDL and Spartan3E FPGA is used.
The result consists of 32 bit binary number of which MSB represent sign, next 8 bit represents Exponent and remaining 23 bits represents Mantissa.
Keywords: Vedic Mathematics, Urdhva -Triyakbhyam sutra, Floating Point multiplier, Field Programmable Gate Array (
FPGA), Carry Save Adder

main aims of designing floating point units (FPUs) for reconfigurable hardware implementation are: (a) to parameterise the precision and range of the floating-point format to allow optimizing the FPUs for specific applications, and (b) to support optional inclusion of…...

Similar Documents


...kept consistent and accurate court records after the year 841 BCE, with the beginning of the Gonghe regency of the Western Zhou Dynasty. An exemplary piece of narrative history of ancient China was the Zuo Zhuan, which was compiled no later than 389 BCE, and attributed to the blind 5th century BCE historian Zuo Qiuming. In ancient India, literature originated from stories that were originally orally transmitted. Early genres included drama, fables, sutras and epic poetry. Sanskrit literature begins with the Vedas, dating back to 1500–1000 BCE, and continues with the Sanskrit Epics of Iron Age India. The Vedas are among the oldest sacred texts. The Samhitas (vedic collections) date to roughly 1500–1000 BCE, and the "circum-Vedic" texts, as well as the redaction of the Samhitas, date to c. 1000-500 BCE, resulting in a Vedic period, spanning the mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BCE, or the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age.[2] The period between approximately the 6th to 1st centuries BC saw the composition and redaction of the two most influential Indian epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, with subsequent redaction progressing down to the 4th century AD....

Words: 590 - Pages: 3

Business and Me

...components that make up ROE. ROE = Net Income Common Stock Equity ROE = (ROA)*(Equity Multiplier Ratio) remember: ROA = Net Income Total Assets Total Assets Common Stock Equity Equity Multiplier Ratio = shows the asset base supported by common equity; high equity multiplier shows a lot of risk or may be due to low market value relative to book value. ROE = ROE = (ROA) Net Income Total Assets * * (Equity Multiplier Ratio) Total Assets Common Stock Equity ROA = (Profit Margin)*(Total Asset Turnover) where: Profit Margin Total Asset Turnover = = Net Income Sales Sales Total Assets Extended DuPont Equation may be most beneficial to use as analysis tool. ROE = PROFIT * MARGIN Net Income Sales * TOTAL ASSET Sales Total Assets * EQUITY MULTIPIER RATIO Total Assets Common Stock Equity ROE = * ROE is separated into profitability of each $ of sales (profit margin), efficiency of asset management (total asset turnover), and company risk (equity multiplier ratio). Can now get insight into whether company's return is due to high profitability, good management, or compensation for risk. Keys to using Ratio Analysis (1) (2) (3) Compare ratios to industry Look at trend of ratios over time Be aware of the limitations in using ratio analysis LIMITATIONS TO RATIO ANALYSIS (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Difficult to fit conglomerate into specific industry - or company make-up may change over time. Focus on some 'important' ratios may adversely effect overall firm......

Words: 710 - Pages: 3

Compulsory Licensing

...11/14/12 Vedic way to eradicate corruption LONG AGO A NASTY REPORTER CONFRONTED THE Indian Iron Lady, Indira Gandhi, who had dismembered Pakistan, with the rampant corruption at almost all levels of administration. Indeed indirectly she shouldered the responsibility of overseeing the governance of a big nation with a large and diverse population. She deftly brushed aside the loaded question by a swipe of her hand accompanied by a short sentence that Corruption was a global phenomenon. How true and how false. Undoubtedly large amounts of cash changed hands in big offices in Japan for granting favours illegally and resigning when caught in the act. Same was the case with the developed countries of the West. But India walked away with the cake in being submerged inb corruption from top to toe in all walks of life. How is it now, one may ask. Well, the situation on the corruption front has gone from bad to worse. Now under the present regime at the Centre, headed by the same Congress party to which Indira Gandhi belonged, there is a scam a day, There is hardly a Minister of the government who is not directly or indirectly involved in a scam. So, no one can claim that he or she is more pious than the Pope. No one is in a position to exercise the right of throwing the first stone at the sinner because all are sinners and sailing in the same boat. WHAT IS CORRUPTION The dishonest or illegal behavior of people in authority for granting favours for a consideration is......

Words: 2150 - Pages: 9

History of India

...Germany or Scandinavia, Edward Mayer suggested Plateau of Pamir and Dr B.K.Ghosh and Gordon Childe suggested South Russia. There are others who vouch for an Indian origin of the Aryans, like Ganganath Jha (origin from Brahmarishi Desh), D.S.Kala (hilly region of Himalayas and Kashmir), Avinashchandra Das (Saptasindhu Pradesh) and Rajbali Pandey (Madhya Desh). The Aryans developed a remarkable culture, popularly known as Vedic culture, which was markedly different from the Harappan Culture. The Vedic period is divided into the Rig Vedic Period (1500-1000 B.C.) and the Later Vedic Period (1000-600 B.C.). The Vedic period can be considered as the foundation stone for the Indian culture in all its multitudinous aspects. It laid the foundation for the Hindu Dharma and produced a host of religious and secular texts, which constitute a very important part of the religious heritage of India. The Vedas, Upavedas, Upanishads, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and the Dharmashastras were produced during these times. The institution of gotra and the caste system appeared in the later Vedic times. From this period onwards, India functioned as a virtually self-contained political and cultural unit, which gave rise to a distinctive tradition that was associated primarily with Hinduism, although other religions, notably Buddhism and Jainism in the ancient times, Islam in the medieval period and Christianity in the modern times, did make a strong impact on the socio-cultural aspects of India. Endless......

Words: 3382 - Pages: 14

Distinguishing Republics and Kingdoms in Ancient India

...regarding the origin of kingship occurs in the Vedic literature. Aitareya Brahmana refers to war between the devas(gods) and danavas(demons) in which gods were repeatedly defeated. The gods then realized the reason for their defeat was the absence of a leader to lead them while their counterparts had one, the king. They decided to try this experiment, elected a king in either Indra or Varuna, which the texts are unclear about and triumphed over the demons. This clearly indicates that the kingship arose out of a military necessity, and that a king must be a capable general whose leadership must be acknowledged by all. Some writers have averred that monarchy was the only form of government known to ancient India, dismissing republics as nothing more than tribal states. Even if this view is granted, there is evidence to support that these tribes had a republican form of government. Faintly hinted at by Vedic literature of the existence of such tribes at a very early date where the tribe or clan members retained their independence and a local governing authority, though owing allegiance to chiefs belonging to a certain family. It is believed that the spirit of war and conquest led to well-constituted sub-divisions of such organizations came into existence governed by gana, which is interpreted by historians to mean a republican form of government where the power is vested not in one person, but in a gana or group of people. The Vedic literature is pre-eminently religious,......

Words: 1049 - Pages: 5

Ancient History

...the downfall of this Vedic age - The Vedic period (Vedic age) was a period in history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed. The time span of the period is uncertain. Philological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Rig-Veda, the oldest of the Vedas, was composed roughly between 1700 and 1100 BC. We can divide Vedic age into two parts. Aryans first appeared in Iran and a little later than 1500 BC they appeared in India. Kassite Inscription of about 1600 BC and Mittani Inscription of 1400 BC found in Iraq bear some Aryan names, which suggest that from Iran a branch of Aryans moved towards west. The Rig Veda has many things in common with the Avesta - the oldest text in Iranian language. Rig Veda is the earliest specimen of any Indo-European language. According to Rig Veda, early Aryans first settled in the region called ‘Sapta-Sindhava’ or the land of seven rivers encompassing the present East Afghanistan, Punjab and Western UP. Early Aryans were semi-nomadic and kept large herds of cattle. As they settled down in villages, they also became cultivators. Using ox to draw their ploughs. They were ruled by warriors, who depended upon priests to perform the rituals to protect their crops and cattle, and insure victory in war. The Indian sub-continent got its name Bharat Varsha after the Bharata tribe, which was the strongest one. During the later Vedic phase, the Aryans moved away from their 1. Early Vedic Period (1500-1000......

Words: 16723 - Pages: 67

History Project

...------------------------------------------------- ECONOMY IN ANCIENT INDIA:FROM EARLY VEDIC PERIOD TO 712 A.D. HISTORY Submitted by: Suyogaya Awasthy 2014127 ------------------------------------------------- SEMESTER I DAMODARAM SANJIVAYYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY Visakhapatnam ------------------------------------------------- OCTOBER 2014 TABLE OF CONTENT TITTLE | PAGE NO. | ACKNOWLEDGMENT | 4 | INTRODUCTION | 5 | SECTION TITLE * Economy: During Early Vedic Age * Economy: During Later Vedic Age * Economy: During Gupta Period * Economy: During Mauryan Period * Guild System:The base of Ancient Economic India | 7891012 | CONCLUSION | 19 | BIBLIOGRAPHY | 20 | | ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I have endeavored to attempt this project. However, it would not have been feasible without the valuable support and guidance of Dr.Vishwachandra Madasu. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to her. I am also highly indebted to Damodaram Sanjivayya National Law University Library Staff, for their patient co-operation as well as for providing necessary information & also for their support in completing this project. My thanks and appreciations also go to my classmates who gave their valuable insight and help in developing this project. INTRODUCTION Condition of Economy: Early Vedic to later Vedic period The agriculture was the main economic activity of the people in the Vedic......

Words: 2074 - Pages: 9

History of Hindu

...The earliest evidence for prehistoric religion in India date back to the late Neolithic in the early Harappan period (5500–2600 BCE).[21][22] The beliefs and practices of the pre-classical era (1500–500 BCE) are called the "historical Vedic religion". Modern Hinduism grew out of the Vedas, the oldest of which is the Rigveda, dated to 1700–1100 BCE.[23] The Vedas center on worship of deities such as Indra, Varuna and Agni, and on the Soma ritual. Fire-sacrifices, called yajña were performed, and Vedic mantras chanted but no temples or icons were built.[24] The oldest Vedic traditions exhibit strong similarities to Zoroastrianism and other Indo-European religions.[25] The major Sanskrit epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata, were compiled over a protracted period during the late centuries BCE and the early centuries CE[citation needed]. They contain mythological stories about the rulers and wars of ancient India, and are interspersed with religious and philosophical treatises. The later Puranas recount tales about devas and devis, their interactions with humans and their battles against demons. Three major movements underpinned the naissance of a new epoch of Hindu thought: the advent and spread of Upanishadic, Jaina, and Buddhist philosophico-religious thought throughout the broader Indian landmass.[26] Mahavira (24th Tirthankar of Jains) and Buddha (founder of Buddhism) taught that to achieve moksha or nirvana, one did not have to accept the authority of the Vedas or the......

Words: 732 - Pages: 3


...government h)Name two all Indian national political parties i)What is the election symbol of BJP j)What do you mean by single citizenship Maximum Marks: 80 No of pages:2 m co Attempt all questions from this part [1*10=10] Question 2: a)What were eight fold Path b)State two cause for Muryan Downfall c)What was the importance of Ajantha caves d)What are Fundamental rights and duties of citizen e) What are function general council f)Name the three tiers of Panchayati Raj g)What are election Petitions h)How is Indian national congress i)what are advantage of nyaya panchayat j)Why are seats reserved for minority PART II (50marks) Question 3: a)Name the crop grown by Harappans b)How was the early vedic society c)List any 5 difference between early vedic period and later vedic period Question 4: a) What was the importance of Sangam Literature .e du rit e. [2*10=20] w w w [1m] [4m] [5m] [4m] b)What is Tamil brahmi c)Why is Sangama literature importance for understanding of ages Question5: a)What was the important work of Kalidasa b)Features of Gupta temples c)What was the impact of Islam on the Indian life and culture Question 6: a)How was the invention of printing press b)Who was Thomas More c)What was the impact of Renaissance on Reformation Question 7: a) What were the cause for Industrial Revolution b)Name the factors responsible for rise of nation states c)Who were Jesuits? What was their role in counter Reformation d)What were the two......

Words: 451 - Pages: 2


...(Molloy 78) Molloy, Michael. Experiencing the World's Religions, 5th Edition. McGraw-Hill Learning Solutions, 2010. VitalBook file. The Earliest Stage of Indian Religion 1 What is noteworthy about the ancient Harappa culture? The Religion of the Vedic Period 1 Describe the main theories that have sought to explain the origins of the Vedas and the religion they describe. 2 What were the chief features of Vedic religion? The basic characteristics of the Vedic religion were deification of the forces of nature, animism, and primitive magic. The Vedas 1 Briefly describe the content or focus of the Vedas. The Upanishads and the Axis Age 1 What were some of the questions posed during this period? The value of the Vedic sacrifices The ancient belief in many gods instead of seeking a single divine reality, which might be the source for every thing. Brahman and Atman 1 Define the term Brahman and relate an illustration from the Upanishads seeking to explain it. Brahman is the spiritual essence of the universe; it is the cosmic powers present in the Vedic sacrifice and chants, over which the priest had control – a divine reality at the heart of things. The story of salt in water illustrates Braham as something that is known to be present but cannot be seen. An invisible and subtle essence is the Spirit of the......

Words: 1343 - Pages: 6


...pivotal time periods are granted acknowledgement for the development of Buddhism. These time periods are known as the Later Vedic era and the Secondary Urbanization period. In the Gangetic Valley around 500-400 BCE, Buddhism along with Jainism began to emerge as prevalent religions. The main features within these non-Vedic religions appealed to the individuals within the Gangetic valley. Buddhism as well as the Non-Vedic religions seemed to flourish in this region because of their rejections to the Vedic religions and its acceptance of Urbanization. The first time period that was mentioned was know as the Later Vedic period. This era took place around 1000-500 BCE and put an emphasis on a more settled lifestyle leaving behind the nomadic way of life previously practiced in the early Vedic era. During this time period people practiced a non-urban lifestyle in which they lived in villages (Course, Reading, “Theravāda Buddhism,”). Around 1000-800 BCE iron began to be used more frequently, allowing the intensification of plough agriculture and increasing the surplus from cultivation. Rice and barley were the main source of food grown during this era (Course, Reading, “Theravāda Buddhism,”). Long distance trade started to develop stimulating the finding of new land and new routes. A hierarchal ranked system known as the Varna was performed during the Later Vedic period. A famous hymn located in the tenth book of the Rig Veda, describes the Varna system. In this hymn there is a......

Words: 1185 - Pages: 5


...metaphysical proclamations of the oneness behind the material world to worship of images representing a multiplicity of deities. Today, Sanatana Dharma is the preferred alternative label, which means that these traditions have always existed. When researching Hindu religion, its origins are can be traced by to the Vedic age, thousands of years ago where the Vedas were taught in various schools. Vedas are the religious texts that are often viewed as the foundations of Hinduism according to the Aryan Invasion Theory. The religion is made up of various traditions and philosophical systems the have certain features in common. The most well-known systems are Samkhya, Advaita Vedanta, and Yoga. The original idea of Hinduism is the belief in the ultimate reality called Brahman (universal soul) and its classification with the Aatman (individual soul). All creatures go through a cycle of birth and rebirth. The status of the being in each birth is determined by the principle of Karma. Post-Vedic Hinduism in all its forms accepts the doctrine of karma, according to which the individual reaps the results of his good and bad actions through a series of lifetimes. The post-Vedic Puranas deal with these themes. They also elaborate myths of the popular gods. They describe the universe as undergoing an eternally repeated cycle of creation, preservation, and dissolution, represented by the trinity of Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver, and Shiva the destroyer as aspects of the......

Words: 341 - Pages: 2

History of Indian Mathematics

...symbols for nine numerals and a symbol for zero were well-established by the fifth century AD. The decimal system is believed to have originated in India. Arab Mathematicians – Al Khawarizmi and Al-Nasavi in 825 AD and 1025 AD respectively – refer to it as ta-rikh ai Hindi and al-amal al-Hindi. The Three Pramanas The acquisition of mathematical knowledge and competence covers three aspects that are in fact the mainstay for mastering any discipline: a) Pratyaksha i.e. perception b) Anumana i.e. inference c) Agama or Sabda i.e. traditional or textual knowledge. These three together are known as pramanas. History of Geometry The science of geometry originated in India in connection with the construction of the altars meant for Vedic sacrifices. Sulbas are studies in early Hindu geometry. The Sulbas or the Sulba Sutras are the manuals for the construction of the altars for worship.Dr Bibhutibhushan Datta, author of History of Hindu Mathematics, in his The Science of the Sulba has described a number of postulates, which must have been tacitly assumed by the geometers of the Sulba for the geometric operations. The postulates of the Sulba are connected with the division of figures such as straight lines, rectangles, circles and triangles. . The postulates 1. A given finite straight line can be divided into any number of equal parts. 2. A circle can be divided into any number of equal parts by drawing diameters 3. Each diagonal of a rectangle bisects it.......

Words: 1023 - Pages: 5

Understanding the Aryans

...Aryans. Strictly speaking, however, the precise self-ascription of the word ‘Aryan’ applied only to two particular sub-groups, the Avestan and the Rig Vedic people. They alone, of all the neighboring and displaced tribes of the original settled peoples, claimed a special status of honour and nobility in the territories they invaded and inhabited.[xvii] A deeper understanding of this Aryan culture can be gained only by studying the languages, religious customs and traditions of the Avestan and the Rig Vedic people, both of whom co-existed in eastern Iran and Afghanistan.[xviii] Common ties of language,[xix] culture, mythology and rituals developed amongst them before they ultimately separated. In their religious beliefs and practices they together worshipped a number of deities. They both shared a tradition of composing lavish hymns in praise of their gods. In both traditions the descriptions of such nature gods as those of wind and sun, for example, are similar in tone and feeling. Some of their earliest prayers also bear similarities. Sanskrit is very close to the language of the Yashts, the earliest hymns of the Avesta, the sacred text of the present day Zoroastrians of Iran and India. The Iranian prayers are part of the Avesta collection. Some sections of the Avesta resemble, not only in language but in content as well, the Rig Vedic hymns that were composed by the Indian bards. The two groups once shared a common practice of drinking the juice of an originally......

Words: 11691 - Pages: 47

Vedic Maths

...List of available projects - HTTrack Website Copier HTTrack Website Copier - Open Source offline browser Index of locally available projects: No categories · vedic maths Mirror and index made by HTTrack Website Copier [XR&CO'2002] © 2002 Xavier Roche & other contributors - Web Design: Leto Kauler. file:///C|/My%20Web%20Sites/vedic%20maths/index.html12/22/2005 8:49:27 AM - Vedic Mathematics - Course INDEX I. Why Vedic Mathematics? II. Vedic Mathematical Formulae Sutras 1. Ekadhikena Purvena 2. Nikhilam navatascaramam Dasatah 3. Urdhva - tiryagbhyam 4. Paravartya Yojayet 5. Sunyam Samya Samuccaye 6. Anurupye - Sunyamanyat 7. Sankalana - Vyavakalanabhyam 8. Puranapuranabhyam 9. Calana - Kalanabhyam 10. Ekanyunena Purvena Upa - Sutras 1. Anurupyena 2. Adyamadyenantya - mantyena 3. Yavadunam Tavadunikrtya Varganca Yojayet 4. Antyayor Dasakepi 5. Antyayoreva 6. Lopana Sthapanabhyam 7. Vilokanam 8. Gunita Samuccayah : Samuccaya Gunitah III Vedic Mathematics - A briefing 1. Terms and Operations 2. Addition and Subtraction 3. Multiplication 4. Division 5. Miscellaneous Items IV Conclusion file:///C|/My%20Web%20Sites/vedic%20maths/vedic%20maths/ 8:49:34 AM - Vedic Mathematics - Why Vedic Mathematics Vedic Mathematics | Sutras EKĀDHIKENA PŪRVE•A The Sutra (formula) Ekādhikena Pūrvena means: “By one more than the previous one”. i) Squares of numbers ending in 5 : Now we relate the sutra to the ‘squaring of......

Words: 35403 - Pages: 142