Submitted By fezi

Words 257

Pages 2

Words 257

Pages 2

Most businesses exist in the market in hope that they make profit. To make profit, a business needs to maximise their sales revenue and minimise their costs of production. A profit is basically a reward for taking risk. Profit and loss account is record of all the ups and down of a business over a period of time, this is normally recorded annually.

Turnover – This is the amount of sales revenue made by a business in a specific period f time.

Cost of Sales – this is the expenses of producing a good or a service. This directly attributes to the production of the good or service. For example: * For a manufacturer the cost of sales would be the cost of materials to produce that product. * For a retailer it is the cost of merchandising the product.

Gross Profit – gross profit is calculated by taking away the cost of sales from the total revenue. Gross profit does not take in account of cost of production.

Stock – a stock are the products that are bought by a business but are yet to be sold. It is still in the process of being sold. But the costs of these products are added to the cost of sales.

Mark-up – this is the percentage of the products cost added on to its price, so the product sold for more than it is bought for. This equals to profit.

Gross Profit margin – this is percentage of profit that a business makes form the sales of its product.…...

...Date: Current date To: Lead Economist Laura From: Your name Subject: Sample Report 1 for Voter Anna I have completed my research and analysis for Voter Anna’s needs. My findings are provided below. Local officials collect property taxes and fees to fund many different governmental programs. One of the most important is the public school system. Local tax dollars are combined with funds received from the state and the federal government to pay the salaries of teachers, staff, and administrators as well as cover the costs associated with building and maintaining schools. There are also many different services provided by the local government, such as garbage collection, police protection, fire protection, parks, libraries, and road maintenance. The local government also determines regulations, such as whether or not stores can sell alcohol or restaurants can allow smoking. Because these services are all important to residents, it is crucial that local politicians be dedicated, honest, and competent. The state government collects sales taxes and fees to fund programs and support education, transportation, health, and welfare. State universities are funded by a combination of state grants and tuition. State highways and railroads are built and maintained to allow residents to easily travel as well as ensure delivery of goods and services to local markets. The state government provides health insurance for children living in poverty and provides......

Words: 744 - Pages: 3

...exe”. Specific control codes should be downloaded to your FPGA board before the control panel can request it to perform required tasks. The control codes include one .sof file and one .elf file. To download the codes, just click the “Download Code” button on the program. The program will call Quartus II and Nios II tools to download the control codes to the FPGA board through USB-Blaster[USB-0] connection. The .sof file is downloaded to FPGA. The .elf file is downloaded to either SDRAM-U2 or SSRAM, according to the user option. To activate the Control Panel, perform the following steps: 1. Make sure Quartus II and NIOS II are installed successfully on your PC. 2. Connect the supplied USB cable to the USB Blaster port, connect the 12V power supply, and turn the power switch ON 3. Set the RUN/PROG switch to the RUN position 4. Start the executable DE2_70_control_panel.exe on the host computer. The Control Panel user interface shown in Figure 3.1 will appear. 5. Select the target memory, SDRAM-U2 or SSRAM, on the control panel. Note. The .elf file will be downloaded to the target memory and the memory will be read-only in later memory access operation. 6. Click Download Code button. Note, the Control Panel will occupy the USB port until you 11 DE2-70 User Manual close that port; you cannot use Quartus II to download a configuration file into the FPGA until you close the USB port. 7. The Control Panel is now ready for use; experiment by setting the value of some LEDs......

Words: 22395 - Pages: 90

...COURSE EXPECTATIONS for BUS102: Fundamentals of Customer Service This document tells you exactly what will be expected of you in this course, and what you can expect in the course and from your faculty member. It is very important that you read this document carefully. You might even want to print it for later reference. ONLINE MOODLE TUTORIAL: If you have not done so already, take some time to watch the two Moodle tutorials. The tutorial will help you to navigate the course site more efficiently and will help you to work smarter instead of harder. Online Course Tutorial Part 1: Becoming Familiar with ECPI Online Courses Online Course Tutorial Part 2: Participating in Your Online Course COURSE TEXTBOOK AND MATERIALS: Review the Course Textbook link in your course to confirm that you have the correct textbook, software or web resources for the course. ONLINE CAMPUS STUDENTS: If a course utilizes an eBook or other web-based materials, Online students will receive the access codes via their student email account. If you have not received them by the first day of class, contact me ASAP and also contact onlinesupport@ecpi.edu. If a hard copy book is used in the course, you should receive it in the mail prior to the start of the term. STUDENTS FROM ALL OTHER CAMPUSES: You must see your academic advisor on or before the first day of class to get your textbooks and any required web-based resource access codes from your campus. In addition to the Course Textbook link, be......

Words: 1674 - Pages: 7

...to w = 0) if any point of it can be joined to the origin by a straight-line segment which lies in the domain. The variability regions S* for the subfamily of schlicht functions which map \z\ < 1 onto star-like domains are also related to the regions Pn in a simple way. This follows from the fact that if ƒ maps | z | < 1 onto a star-like domain, then (3.6) ƒ(*) J-L-piz), zf(z) 424 D. C. SPENCER [May where p(z) is regular and has positive real part in \z\ < 1 . Conversely, if p(z) is regular and has positive real part in | s | < 1 , then (3.7) I —~rd^ J o tp{£) is regular in \z\ < 1 and maps the unit circle on a star-like domain. Writing /«-«exp 00 p{z) - 1 + 2 X ) ^ V , r-l we have 2 ^ ^ Ù2 = — 2Ci, #3 = ~" ^2 + 4Ci, s a4 = ( - 2c3 + Udc2 - 24*0/3, The parametric representation of Pn given by (3.3) may be used to define a parametric representation of Sn*. Let (3.9) ah = A*(01, 02, • • • , 0n-lî Ml, M2, * • ' , Mn-l) (3.8) be the £th coefficient of the function (3.10) ƒ(*) = — y=i , /*, ^ 0, 2 > , ^ 1, II (1 ~ e**z)** which maps |JS| < 1 on a star-like domain. As the parameters vary over the parameter space, the point (a2, as, • • • , an) sweeps outS w *. The boundary of 5„* is characterized by the condition (3.11) Z \ , = 1, p«i and to each boundary point defined in this way there belongs the unique function given by (3.10). In this case the function (3.10) maps \z\ < 1 on the plane minus q ( l ^ g ^ w — 1)......

Words: 3481 - Pages: 14

...Hjdbvfhbcxn,mw Basic forms of business ownership[edit] Forms of business ownership vary by jurisdiction, but several common forms exist- * Sole proprietorship: A sole proprietorship is owned by one person and operates for their benefit. The owner may operate the business alone or with other people. A sole proprietor has unlimited liability for all obligations incurred by the business, whether from operating costs or judgements against the business. All assets of the business belong to a sole proprietor, including, for example, computer infrastructure, any inventory, manufacturing equipment and/or retail fixtures, as well as any real property owned by the business. * Partnership: A partnership is a business owned by two or more people. In most forms of partnerships, each partner has unlimited liability for the debts incurred by the business. The three most prevalent types of for-profit partnerships are general partnerships, limited partnerships, and limited liability partnerships. * Corporation: The owners of a corporation have limited liability and the business has a separate legal personality from its owners. Corporations can be either government-owned or owned by individuals. They can organize either for profit or as not-for-profit organizations. A non-government for-profit corporation is owned by its shareholders, who elect a board of directors to direct the corporation and hire its managerial staff. A privately owned, for-profit corporation can be either......

Words: 1997 - Pages: 8

...three targets are attacked the indi erence conditions imply that the probabilities of attack are in the proportions v2v3 : v1v3 : v1v2 and the probabilities of defense are in the proportions z ; 2v2v3 : z ; 2v3v1 : z ; 2v1v2 where z = v1v2 + v2v3 + v3v1. For an equilibrium we need these three proportions to be nonnegative, which is equivalent to z ; 2v1v2 0, or v3 v1v2=(v1 + v2). 36.3 (Technical result on convex sets ) NOTE: The following argument is simpler than the one suggested in the rst printing of the book (which is given afterwards). Consider the strictly competitive game in which the set of actions of player 1 is X , that of player 2 is Y , the payo function of player 1 is u1(x y) = ;x y, and the payo function of player 2 is u2(x y) = x y. By Proposition 20.3 this game has a Nash equilibrium, say (x y ) by the de nition of an equilibrium we have x y x y x y for all x 2 X and y 2 Y . The argument suggested in the rst printing of the book (which is elementary, not relying on the result that an equilibrium exists, but more di cult than the argument given in the previous paragraph) is the following. Let G(n) be the strictly competitive game in which each player has n actions and the payo function of player 1 is given by u1(i j ) = xi yj . Let v(n) be the value of G(n) and let n be a mixed strategy equilibrium. Then U1( 1 n) v(n) U1( n 2) for every mixed strategy 1 of player 1 and ev2 1 ery mixed strategy 2 of player 2 (by Proposition 22.2). Let x n = Pn=1 n (i)xi i......

Words: 27123 - Pages: 109

...forces i.e. without gravity. → ∂− u − − = −(→ )→ − u u ∂t D= 1 ϕ+ Re 2→ − u (1) (2) Guess (P*) , (U*) n , (V*) n n Solve Momentum eq. for (U*) n+1 , (V*) n+1 →=0 − u Where equation (2) is a continuity equation which has to be true for the ﬁnal result. Solve Poisson eq. for (P’) If not coverged 3 Primitive variables formulation P n+1 = (P*) n + (P’) U n+1 = (U*) n + (U’) V n+1 = (V*) n + (V’) If coverged First we will examine SIMPLE algorithm which is based on primitive variables formulation of NS equations. When we say ”primitive variables” we mean u, v, p where u = (u, v) is a velocity vector, and p is pressure. We can rewrite equation (1) in diﬀerential form for both velocity components: ∂u2 ∂uv ∂p 1 ∂2u ∂2v ∂u =− + − + ( + 2) ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂x Re ∂x2 ∂y ∂v 2 ∂uv ∂p 1 ∂2u ∂2v ∂v =− + − + ( + 2) ∂t ∂y ∂x ∂y Re ∂x2 ∂y Visualize Results Figure 1: SIMPLE Flow Diagram (3) 3.2 (4) 3.2.1 Numerical Methods in SIMPLE Staggered Grid We rewrite continuity equation in the following form: ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y (5) These equations are to be solved with SIMPLE method. 3.1 SIMPLE algorithm SIMPLE algorithm is one of the fundamental algorithm to solve incompressible NS equations. SIMPLE means: Semi Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations. Algorithm used in my calculations is presented in the ﬁgure (1). First we have to guess initial values of the pressure ﬁeld2 (P ∗ )n and set initial value of velocity ﬁeld - (U ∗......

Words: 3456 - Pages: 14

...following are column vectors with 2; 2; 3, and 3 components, respectively: 2 3 2 1:5 3 ! ! 1 1 3 6 27 ; ; 4 5 5; 4 35 2 À4 À6 À15 We also note that any operation deﬁned for row vectors is deﬁned analogously for column vectors. 1.3 Vector Addition and Scalar Multiplication u ¼ ða1 ; a2 ; . . . ; an Þ v ¼ ðb1 ; b2 ; . . . ; bn Þ Consider two vectors u and v in Rn , say and Their sum, written u þ v, is the vector obtained by adding corresponding components from u and v. That is, u þ v ¼ ða1 þ b1 ; a2 þ b2 ; . . . ; an þ bn Þ The scalar product or, simply, product, of the vector u by a real number k, written ku, is the vector obtained by multiplying each component of u by k. That is, ku ¼ kða1 ; a2 ; . . . ; an Þ ¼ ðka1 ; ka2 ; . . . ; kan Þ Observe that u þ v and ku are also vectors in Rn . The sum of vectors with different numbers of components is not deﬁned. Negatives and subtraction are deﬁned in Rn as follows: Àu ¼ ðÀ1Þu and u À v ¼ u þ ðÀvÞ The vector Àu is called the negative of u, and u À v is called the difference of u and v. Now suppose we are given vectors u1 ; u2 ; . . . ; um in Rn and scalars k1 ; k2 ; . . . ; km in R. We can multiply the vectors by the corresponding scalars and then add the resultant scalar products to form the vector v ¼ k1 u1 þ k2 u2 þ k3 u3 þ Á Á Á þ km um Such a vector v is called a linear combination of the vectors u1 ; u2 ; . . . ; um . EXAMPLE 1.2 (a) Let u ¼ ð2; 4; À5Þ and v ¼ ð1; À6; 9Þ. Then u þ v ¼ ð2 þ 1; 4 þ ðÀ5Þ;......

Words: 229129 - Pages: 917

...Table of Contents Assignment – Part A 3 Section 1: 3 Section 2: 5 Assignment –Part B 7 Section 1: 7 Section 2: 8 References 10 Assignment – Part A Section 1 – Site Breakdown: The SCR website has been entered and reviewed with the following acknowledgement and understanding applicable to the corporate request conducted by Jesse: • The data library includes essential corporate information including personnel records within each subset identified below: o SCR Function and Organizations - This includes senior management, as well as existing groups with assigned personnel and, applicable objectives and missions associated with these groups. o SCR Training Records (2-months) - Shows training data with personnel contact information for past two month time period. o JAD Session Example - Outlines effective utilization and employment of JAD team members through correspondence and brainstorming of techniques and processes for efficiency honing. o Cost - Benefit Summary- Outlines potential impact associated with salaries, training, supplies and misc. in conjunction with earned revenue to establish baseline for potential profit achievements and ROI possibilities. o Sample of Questionnaire Results - Establishes sample questionnaire for students taking courses to include, top classes and applicable rating trends associated with classes achieved by instruction......

Words: 1612 - Pages: 7

...`I��ƪL���j���w�0P��P�K��L"M��5_E@����r6/Q�0�Ԯ�~���a����kX[K�K^�f����2V.㲮.�L���I�7w��)R��'�IP$I) BG�`��9)*�G��)�cP`�(eMҺG?K7�� �$U0����$�Q$�p�MP0z ���2H �0XR\ :0YAI����`�]/Xi�2�O�K}-&7���a�� a(��t"���h�J D*�+5����dh���s���ꨦыT�Z� ������K�����QeMg.O��%$�i���~@���|H?m� G�ܵ oA��rs""&�gB@~@B�0av��y9=������ݦ���}%�F�J�,�5{d�M;���� =R���2�|d��ۍ����Z}��;��MqJ�$�Q"���3�˺�|}&�poT� )!�!`�b ��D��6@��8���`��3�Uj�_�涌�8�`$P�86@�H�&`�RBd����w����;e����9g�x�u2I���5i$5���y�H�-�w ���D�M��q3 0"tn���ۻ�|f�Η���L�Q��>|��{SK�h�~A����*�3�V,ʣ��8���I�=2T��!22�A4^ b} d��B[�6�=3OGj�% �]47��QFa ���܈Y�g�?"�\L�n.b� ��̶�W.Қ�='2���>�v�c�w".Bĭ��2�4�f��%*[�4Y�G���x�\Y���!����N^�����b�99��fɱ$�N�9���ߑ�Q��KJ $Y|�*����@�ԉ%7����`��b%Yy/BXM��l$�7�T�e�$�a^�� ���a�� �nK`�樁��@Q��� `�8L,lz��i��no�n���MGJ+|�h`�$��=�#J...

Words: 496 - Pages: 2

...BBA Program Basic Mathematics Course Code: ASC161 Pre-requisite Courses: Nil WELCOME TO THE CLASS Introduction: I look forward to have a fruitful and meaningful interaction with each one of you during the term. This will however depend on your active participation and attention during the class sessions and an active follow up afterwards. Course Description: The course will stress mainly on developing basics concepts of mathematics. It will include basic mathematical operations, factorization, solving first and second-degree equations, solving first and second-degree inequalities, analytical geometry (graph, linear equation – slope-intercept form), solving simultaneous equations, mathematical functions (concept of domain and range), quadratic functions, mathematics of finance and matrices. All topics will be discussed along with their applications. Some features of Microsoft Excel on graph and matrices are also included in the course. Course Objective: This is the first course in mathematics and the main objective of this course is to improve the level of quantitative abilities possessed by students and prepare them for the applications of mathematics in the courses like finance, economics, operations research, etc. Teaching Methodology & Requirements: Please arrive and leave on time. Class will begin promptly five minutes after the hour and will end exactly on the hour. Late arrivals and early departures disrupt class and ruin the presentations......

Words: 876 - Pages: 4

...1 Would you rather have a savings account that paid interest compounded on a monthly basis, or one that compounded interest on an annual basis? Why? Unless you are talking six digits there usually actually isn’t too much of a difference in the end between monthly compounding compared to a year. Looking at this from a savers perspective and a borrowers perspective is two different things. As a saver who like to see my money grow monthly I would definitely be a saver who would vote for monthly compounding. If for some reason there was different interest rates I would want to do the math first to get an idea of what that would mean. If someone is continuously putting money away, saving for something big and not touching it. Usually they want the most out of it possible. The saver would want monthly compounded interest. By the end of 12 months compounded they will be so happy they did not touch it, but they were able to see the fruits of their labor through that year time frame. Usually the savers like to see what they are doing and this make that possible. They are almost getting rewarded each month for putting in more money and making their overall finances grow. The bower on the other hand usually has plans with their money. Every month tit might be different but they rarely just save the money to save it. The borrowers would end up wanting the annually compounded interest that ends up being on an annual basis. The reason why they want that is......

Words: 872 - Pages: 4

...negation. This information is useful in building digital logic in a laboratory setting where TTL logic family NAND gates are more readily available in a wide variety of conﬁgurations than other types. The Procedure for constructing NAND-NAND logic, in place of AND-OR logic is as follows: • Produce a reduced Sum-Of-Products logic design. • When drawing the wiring diagram of the SOP, replace all gates (both AND and OR) with NAND gates. • Unused inputs should be tied to logic High. • In case of troubleshooting, internal nodes at the ﬁrst level of NAND gate outputs do NOT match AND-OR diagram logic levels, but are inverted. Use the NAND-NAND logic diagram. Inputs and ﬁnal output are identical, though. • Label any multiple packages U1, U2,.. etc. • Use data sheet to assign pin numbers to inputs and outputs of all gates. Example: Let us revisit a previous problem involving an SOP minimization. Produce a Product-OfSums solution. Compare the POS solution to the previous SOP. CHAPTER 8. KARNAUGH MAPPING 258 Out= A B C D + A B C D + A B C D + A B C D + A B CD + A BCD + A B C D + A B C D + ABCD CD A B 00 01 11 10 00 1 1 1 01 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 10 CD A B 00 01 11 10 00 1 1 1 0 01 1 1 1 0 11 1 1 1 0 10 0 0 0 Out= A C + A D + B C + B D 0 CD A 00 01 11 10 B 00 1 1 1 0 01 1 1 1 0 11 1 1 1 0 10 0 0 0 0 ⋅ Out= ( A + B) ( C + D ) Solution: Above left we have the original problem starting with a 9-minterm Boolean......

Words: 29763 - Pages: 120

...man to ....... we owe some thanks, saved our mom's life on that car accident. (a) which (b) whom (c) who (d) whose © 2003—2006 www.english-test.net 61. elementary-61 English Grammar / Incomplete Sentences / Elementary level # 61 Some, any, few, little Q1 Wow! Look at that! How ....... books do you have on your shelf? I have to tell you, it's quite a great collection! (a) much Q2 (c) many (d) often (b) any (c) a little (d) a few (b) many (c) any (d) few (b) some (c) any (d) few (b) much (c) a little (d) any How many gallons of water did you bring for the trip? — I just have ....... gallons. (a) much Q9 (b) more There are ....... people trying to go to the U2 concert this weekend. (a) many Q8 (d) much No, I don't have any. But I have ....... apples, if you'd like to make apple juice instead. (a) a little Q7 (c) some I want to make orange juice. Have you got ....... oranges? (a) much Q6 (b) an I only have ....... dollars. (a) some Q5 (d) some How ....... money do you have? (a) much Q4 (c) any Would you like ....... juice? (a) a Q3 (b) many (b) any (c) a little (d) a few Jessica spent a lot of money on her car. Now she only has ....... money left to pay for her living expenses. (a) many (b) a few (c) a little (d) much Q10 How ....... time do you have left before you have to go to school? (a) some (b)......

Words: 152824 - Pages: 612

...income/Total assets; W7 = Funds from operations/Total liabilities; W8 = One if net income was negative for the last 2 years, zero otherwise; W9 = (Net incomet - Net incomet-1)/(|Net incomet| + |Net incomet-1|). 123 538 M. Xu, C. Zhang The ﬁtted value of Oit is known as the O-score for company i in year t. The greater the O-score, the higher its bankruptcy risk. Both Altman’s model and Ohlson’s model continued to work well in the 1980s and the 1990s, as shown by Altman (1993), Begley et al. (1996) and Dichev (1998). In the current paper, we adopt the same sets of variables to determine the bankruptcy risk for Japanese listed companies, by using a hazard model to estimate the coefﬁcients: ~ Zit ¼ Uða0 þ a1 V1it þ a2 V2it þ a3 V3it þ a4 V4it þ a5 V5it Þ; Oit ¼Uðb0 þ b1 W1it þ b2 W2it þ b3 W3it þ b4 W4it þ b5 W5it þ b6 W6it þ b7 W7it þ b8 W8it þ b9 W9it Þ; ð3Þ ð4Þ ~ where the observations of Zit and Oit are one if company i goes bankrupt within a year and zero if not, U is the cumulative standard normal distribution function, and ~ the ﬁtted values of Zit and Oit are the models’ predictions of the probability of bankruptcy within a year. The independent variables are the same as those in Altman (1968) and Ohlson (1980). Note that what we call the Z-score and O-score refer to the accounting variables used in the original work. The method we use to estimate the model follows Shumway (2001). As shown by Shumway (2001), the hazard model is theoretically preferable to......

Words: 13066 - Pages: 53