The Pulse of Europe 2009: 20 Years After the Fall of the Berlin Wall

In: Science

Submitted By edgarvcalderon
Words 2845
Pages 12
The Pulse of Europe 2009: 20 Years After the Fall of the Berlin Wall (Pew Research Center)
End of Communism Cheered but Now with More Reservations

Nearly two decades after the fall of the Berlin Wall, publics of former Iron Curtain countries generally look back approvingly at the collapse of communism. Majorities of people in most former Soviet republics and Eastern European countries endorse the emergence of multiparty systems and a free market economy.
However, the initial widespread enthusiasm about these changes has dimmed in most of the countries surveyed; in some, support for democracy and capitalism has diminished markedly. In many nations, majorities or pluralities say that most people were better off under communism, and there is a widespread view that the business class and political leadership have benefited from the changes more than ordinary people. Nonetheless, self reported life satisfaction has risen significantly in these societies compared with nearly two decades ago when the Times Mirror Center1 first studied public opinion in the former Eastern bloc.
The acceptance of — and appetite for — democracy is much less evident today among the publics of the former Soviet republics of Russia and Ukraine, who lived the longest under communism. In contrast, Eastern Europeans, especially the Czechs and those in the former East Germany, are more accepting of the economic and societal upheavals of the past two decades. East Germans, in particular, overwhelmingly approve of the reunification of Germany, as do those living in what was West Germany. However, fewer east Germans now have very positive views of reunification than in mid-1991, when the benchmark surveys were conducted by the Times Mirror Center for the People & the Press. And now, as then, many of those living in east Germany believe that unification happened too quickly.
One of the most…...

Similar Documents

After 20 Year

...20 YEARS LATER CLASS IS IN SESSION The fundamentals of doing the same job every day, applying the same related skills, in which if you are asked a question relating to that job, the right response is usually not hard to accomplish. Applying your knowledge to provide the correct answer with confidence is shown within your body language, and facial expression, which tends to make everything and everyone in your surrounding area move in a more effective and efficient state of mind. What happens when that job is over, and you are no longer in that comfort zone, and realize that the time has come for you to move on, and challenge yourself to greater depths, in which you began to encounter situations that make you think outside of the box. Some of the basic knowledge that we take from our childhood days, from attending elementary school up until we receive that high school diploma never goes away. But what happens to all of the missed knowledge not received when you decide never to attend school again until 20 years later, and you find yourself sitting in class again, not to mention that you are sitting in the front row, and the teacher ask you a basic question, and the only demonstrative communication that you can give him is the shrugging of your shoulders, or the I’m lost look upon your face, with a tone in your voice of embarrassment of why are you asking me. An example of effective demonstrative communication relates to what you are more accustomed to within your......

Words: 338 - Pages: 2

History of the Berlin Wall

...History of the Berlin Wall Eastin Bartholio Modern History Dr. Mallon May 6, 2013 The construction of the Berlin Wall was an actual feature that split Berlin into two parts: East and West Berlin. East Berlin had a communistic ruling and West Berlin had a democratic ruling enabling the West to get stronger. When the wall fell it freed East Berlin allowing them to join together with their other half, West Berlin. The building of the wall physically separated Berlin making it weaker, but with the wall falling it allowed Berlin’s halves come together making their future much brighter. Even before the wall was built East and West Berlin were separated. They were separated because after WWII. Germany’s land was given up to the two superpowers: The Unites States of America and the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union got the east and the United States got the west. Giving part of Berlin to each of these superpowers caused separation because the U.S.A is democratic and the Soviet Union is not. As John F. Kennedy said, “There are many people in the world who really do not understand-or say they don’t-what is the great issue between the free world and the communist world. Let them come to Berlin!” Unfortunately when the land was given away it split Berlin in half creating their separation before it was physically separated. Yes, before the wall was built there was conflict between East and West Berlin, but at least the border between them was open to all......

Words: 1502 - Pages: 7

The Berlin Wall

...The rise of the Berlin Wall physically began the morning of August 13th 1961, but the separation of East and West Germany began years before. The life span of the wall lasted until November 9th 1989, just a mere 28 years later. The purpose of the Berlin wall was to separate the East and the West sides of Germany. The result of WWII divided Germany into zones; those zones were given to Great Britain, the United States, France and the Soviet Union. The rise and the fall of the Berlin Wall were key moments in our global history, as it was a series of events that shaped a country. World War II was a success in conquering Germany; The Potsdam Agreement officially broke up Germany into 4 zones. The furthest South was the United States territory, the Southwest territory belonged to the French, the British were in control of the Northwest Territory and Soviets had the East. This division was eventually broken down into a division of the West and East Germany, the West part of Germany was called composed of the United States, France and Great Britain, and was also known as the Federal Republic of Germany. The East side of Germany was the Soviet Union’s portion after the Potsdam Agreement; this side was also known as the German Democratic Republic. The West side of the berlin wall was very different than the East. The west side was the one that sought after to live in by the people of the East side. After the war and the separation of Germany between the four countries West......

Words: 2246 - Pages: 9

Fall of the Wall

...Fall of the Wall Fall of the Wall The Berlin Wall was a physical division between West Berlin and East Germany from 1961 to 1989 and the symbolic boundary between democracy and Communism during the Cold War. After World War II, the Allied powers divided Germany into four zones, each occupied by the United States, Great Britain, France, or the Soviet Union. Berlin, Germany’s capital, was also divided. As the liaison between the Soviet Union and the other three Allied powers abruptly broke up, the new relationship turned Germany into West versus East, in other words, democracy versus Communism (Rosenberg, n.d.). The demolition of the Berlin Wall and the global market revolution that followed liberated millions of people, and two decades later the world has gained significantly from the democratic and economic incorporation. The destruction of the Berlin Wall is one of the most extraordinary political events of history. It set millions of people free and brought to an end a global conflict that threatened nuclear obliteration. For business, far reaching changes in the global economic atmosphere started at that time: The changeover to the market based economies in most Central and Eastern European countries created considerable opportunities for the markets, resources, supplies, and manufacturing. There was a large increase in cross-border trade and foreign direct investments. Almost simultaneously, the materialization of the digital revolution brought a reduction in...

Words: 452 - Pages: 2

The Fall of the Berlin Wall

...Erick Fimbo Jan Gane English 1050-028 November 15, 2013 The Fall of the Berlin Wall For twenty-eight years, the Berlin Wall separated friends, families, and a nation. Between 1961 and 1989, the Wall was one of the most striking and distinctive features of Berlin. The Berlin Wall was a border security installation built by the German Democratic Republic (GDR) on August 12, 1961. The Wall was to protect the GDR from aggressive acts by the west. In reality, the Wall functioned as a barrier to stem the huge migration of skilled laborers to West Berlin and the entire Western Germany. During the standing of this Wall, the people from East and West Berlin had no interaction with each other, and this brought pains and poverties in both sides of country because they depend on each other’s activities in order to survive. On the night of November 9, 1989, the Berlin Wall, the most potent symbol of the Cold War division of Europe, eventually came down, and the fall of this wall was the peak point of the revolutionary changes within the country of Germany and those were involved. According to Ted Kelly article, “Politics, People and the Berlin Crisis: June-August, 1961”. After World War II in 1945, the Allies, who won the war, divided the country of Germany into four sections, each under the control of an ally. The countries who made up the Ally control were the United States, Great Britain, France, and Russia. The United States, British, and French sectors combined to form a......

Words: 2232 - Pages: 9

The Impact of the Fall of the Berlin Wall on East Berliners

...II, and an almost neo-colonization after the fall of the Wall by West Germany. After the Wall came down, Germany embarked “on a nationbuilding process, integrating two radically different and inherently unequal geographical entities into one political, economic, and cultural system”. This was prompted by the new government’s sole focus on making a bid for Berlin to host the 2000 Summer Olympic Games. The city started to change physically as construction began in areas like Potsdamer Platz. East Berliners felt they could not influence the process at hand and must simply adapt to the current environment created by the new political decisions. Unemployment and competition in the open market increased for everyone, creating feelings of insecurity and inferiority for the unemployed and from some of the employed that feared losing their jobs. As those in East Berlin were unaccustomed to a free market economy, some people fell into depression and long-term instability. Now operating as a single and united Berlin, there was the need to eliminate the duplication of city services such as police, fire, and postal, as reunification rendered the separate systems redundant. These actions were duplicated in Berlin’s cultural sphere. During the Cold War Eastern and Western parts of the city competed for international recognition of their cultural facilities, as it was a direct representation and showcase of the success of each respective economy. When the Wall fell, there was an......

Words: 1148 - Pages: 5

With the Collapse of the Berlin Wall, Germany Became Reunified After over Forty Years of Physical and Ideological Division. Discuss.

...With the collapse of the Berlin Wall, Germany became reunified after over forty years of physical and ideological division. Discuss the costs and benefits of German unification Despite the fact that there are few remnants left of the Berlin Wall and nowadays, it is widely seen as a popular tourist attraction, it is still very much present in the mind-set of the Germans as a bitter reminder of when the families, friends and the entire nation were divided in 1961. After the Second World War, Germany was split into four occupation zones with the Soviet Union taking control of East Germany and France, the United Kingdom and United States taking control of parts in West Germany. Similarly, Berlin was split into 4 sectors despite the fact that it was located deep in the Soviet zone. It soon became apparent that there were extreme political divisions between the Soviet Union and the other three occupying powers; whilst West Germany was developed into a capitalist democracy with financial help from the Marshall Plan, East Germany became a communist, socialist republic. In East Germany, also known as the German Democratic Republic, the indoctrination of Marxism-Leninism was introduced as a compulsory part of school curricula and the media became completely controlled by the state’s communist government in order "to direct the thinking of the people into correct political lines.” The East German population were becoming increasingly repressed under these economical and political...

Words: 3127 - Pages: 13

Pros and Cons of Nafta After 20 Years

...Pros and Cons of Nafta After 20 Years Oscar Eduardo Parra Díaz 23/10/2014 INTRODUCTION: Through this document, we will review how NAFTA have been improving the economy of the countries involved after 20 years. We are going to see how well it has been for them and how it has been affecting positively and negatively the commerce between the countries and others. Mexico is maybe the country with more dependence to this treaty because of the imports and exports that every day are involved between Mexico, USA and Canada. This dependence is more to the commerce with the USA and that could be considered as a problem to Mexico. DEVELOPMENT As said before, Mexico’s economy is based on the commerce that involves imports and exports with the United States. To Mexico, this represents 80% of commercial activity even knowing that they have 10 more treaties with other nations. Obviously this is not good for them because depending on how well is the economy of United States behaving is how well are going to be the incomes to Mexico because of the sells to them. This treaty have been improving and helping the growing of the 3 nations involved. As a matter of fact just a few years ago Mexico was considered to the United States their principal commercial partner just before China started to grow as fast as they did. That’s an important thing to consider and Mexico need to realize that their opportunity to do business with USA is everyday much more difficult because of competitors. In......

Words: 921 - Pages: 4

The Berlin Wall

...| The Berlin Wall | [Type the document subtitle] | | Alina Nazar | 12/4/2014 | | The fall of the Berlin Wall has triggered much controversy and plays a major part in the shaping of the modern political ideology and beliefs. The specific date of the descent of the Berlin encasement wall was the 10th of November, 1989. The wall took 3 hours to fall and between 125-206 people died trying to cross the wall. There were many tourists participating who could hire axes to hit the wall and contribute to the atmosphere. The fall of the Berlin Wall occurred when the people of East Berlin had had enough. The fall of the Berlin Wall also marked the end of the Cold War and the beginning of a new life for the Germans. Border crossing points all along the wall were opened to anyone who wanted to cross on 9 November 1989 which ended the conclusion of an international press conference in East Berlin when greater freedom of travel was announced for people of the German Democratic Republic. The fall of the Berlin Wall was a key movement in the history of Europe as it was the symbol of the end of the Cold War. The European Union and NATO were able to expand in pace when Europe was no longer divided into East and West. The power in the world changed when the Cold War ended. A truce between the nuclear threats of two superpowers the USA and the Soviet Union was created as soon as the Berlin Wall fell also preventing both superpowers from dominating the world. Europe was no......

Words: 579 - Pages: 3

The Berlin Wall

...Abstract This paper examines the reasons for the construction of The Berlin Wall, and the inner and outer factors that resulted in the destruction of The Berlin Wall. This paper will furthermore assess the consequences for the East Germans when The Berlin Wall was destroyed. Through looking at many sources and carefully selecting the most important ones, it revealed an interesting part of European history. By examining various factors such as the inner and outer factors regarding the destruction of The Berlin Wall, the paper revealed how much the people suffered during the Soviet Union’s rule in Eastern Europe. In the search for some reliable sources, the study stumbled upon an article in a Danish newspaper, who had a special issue in 2009. The article revealed many interesting stories both found by the journalist and by interweaving regular East Germans. The result of this paper is a thorough exposition of the “how’s” and “why’s” that surround the subject of The Berlin Wall. Indholdsfortegnelse Indledning 1 Redegørelse for Berlinmurens opførsel 2 Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands 2 Arbejder- og bondestaten 2 Grebet strammer i DDR 3 Arbejderopstanden 1953 4 Indhentning og overhaling 5 Muren bygges 5 Analyse af Berlinmurens fald 6 Indre faktorer 6 Ydre faktorer 8 Stemningen i DDR 10 Vurdering af konsekvenserne af Berlinmurens fald 10 Et nyt verdensbillede 10 Den Første fase 11 Den Anden fase 11 Den Tredje......

Words: 5321 - Pages: 22

The Berlin Wall

...delivered their Berlin ultimatum, demanding that the western allies should withdraw their troops from West Berlin and that West Berlin should become a "Free City" within six months. On 1959-02-17, the threat of settling a separate peace treaty between the USSR the GDR followed. The meeting between US President Kennedy and the Prime Minister of the USSR, Khrushchev, on 1961-06-03/04 in Vienna ended without any noticeable results. Generally, measures of the government of the GDR were expected with the aim of preventing people from leaving the GDR. At an international press conference on June 15, 1961, Walter Ulbricht (the leader of the east German communist party, SED, and President of the Privy Council) answered to the question of a journalist: "I understand your question as follows: there are people in West Germany who want us to mobilize the construction workers of the GDR to build a wall. I am not aware of any such plans... No one has the intention of constructing a wall." Construction of the Wall Early in the morning of Sunday, August 13, 1961, the GDR began under the leadership of Erich Honecker to block off East Berlin and the GDR from West Berlin by means of barbed wire and antitank obstacles. Streets were torn up, and barricades of paving stones were erected. Tanks gathered at crucial places. The subway and local railway services between East and West Berlin were interrupted. Inhabitants of East Berlin and the GDR were no longer allowed to enter West Berlin,......

Words: 1003 - Pages: 5

Berlin Wall

...Once the proud capital of Germany Berlin was divided by a barrier that was patrolled day and night by armed soldiers and guard dogs. On August 13, 1961 shortly after midnight police and soldiers in the Communist controlled Berlin moved quickly to set up barriers. Berliners woke to find their city divided into east and west sectors. A communist nation led by the Soviet Union was in control of East Berlin. While West Berlin was controlled by a democratic nation led by the United States (Epler, 1992). The Berlin Wall known as Berliner Mauer in German (Rosenberg, 2016). It was a symbol of the Cold War. Trying to cross the Wall meant risking one’s life. One side of the Wall people were free to do all the normal things. While the other side of the wall people’s freedom was being taken away. Imagine that your best friend lives a mile away. You have been pals since first grade. You do everything together: school, soccer games, sleepovers. One day, men come and put up a barbed-wire fence between your house and your buddy’s house. Later, they replace it with a very long, very tall concrete wall. Each slab weighs 6,000 pounds, and many of them are topped with sharp wire. When they finish, you stare at the giant wall that has split your home town in two. On your side the wall is ugly but not too scary. On the other side, rattling tanks, soldiers with machine guns and growling dogs keep people from trying to cross the barrier. The wall stands 12 feet high. Your friend...

Words: 6813 - Pages: 28

Berlin Wall in Germany

...Global Trade. This report depicts the sequences of Berlin Wall. The Berlin Wall, erected November 13, 1961, served to separate communist East Germany from Western influences. Intended to "protect" East Germans, the wall actually was erected to prevent them from leaving the country. The Wall finally came down August 13, 1989, reuniting families and symbolizing the end of the cold war was near. The initial plans for Allied occupation of Germany were prepared in 1944 in London by the European Advisory Commission. In this agreement, Germany would be divided into four occupational zones governed by Great Britain, the United States, France, and the Soviet Union. The city of Berlin, which would be in the Soviet occupational zone, would be divided among the four powers as well. By the time of the blockade, there was a major contrast between the East and West Berlin. West Berlin was a thriving democratic, capitalist city, while East Berlin was in drab poverty. Trying to escape the forced collectivization of goods and agriculture, numerous shortages, and a police state, many fled to West Berlin. To maintain the stability of the communist regime, the East German leaders felt that these floods of people had to be stopped. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1. Introduction…………………………………………………………..….3 1.1 Summary of the Berlin Wall…………………………………….……..3 1.2......

Words: 1554 - Pages: 7

Berlin Wall

...7. Berlin Wall What made people fight for change and press the German/German wall to fall down in 1989? How did it effect the lives of West and East Germans? Are East Germans more free now? How would you explain the reasons for the phenomen of "Ostalgia" (people longing back to the former DDR) that is nowadays living in Eastern Germany? Why did I choose this topic? I think it is very interesting that after twenty years there are still so many problems with East Germany. Why there still is a higher unemployment rate in East Germany than in West Germany, and why people want to go back to the time of the Berlin wall (ostalgia). The fall of the Berlin wall influent the lives of the West and East Germans both on different ways where the East Germans got freedom what they never had before and West Germans got influence of new people of a new culture. But how can effect this still after 20 years? Why is there still such a difference between East and West, did not the western people though to easily that the East Germans will assimilate easy, did the East Germans got the time and the chance to build up a new life in reunited Germany? All those problems I think is very interesting, how people think and act. Proposition: They should never built a new Berlin wall, nobody will end happy than. You can understand on some way that people want to go back in time, because of the good things: education, health care. But the people forget that there was also the Stasi. East......

Words: 561 - Pages: 3

Berlin Wall W

...To what extent was the fall of the Berlin Wall a result rather than a cause of the end of the Cold war? The dismantling of the Berlin Wall in Nov 1989 was one of the most symbolic acts of the Cold War. It was a symbol of the changes that had swept through Europe in 1989 and of the end of the divisions that had marked the essential character of the CW: the ideological split between capitalism and communism. In 1989, the DDR was 4o years old and the East German leadership was prepared to celerbraite its anniversary. At what should have been an event to consolidate the country, the tide was turning against the regime. Gorbachevs reforms had important consequences for the existence of E germany as a separate country. The DDR was a product of Cold War tensions, which had prevented the unification of Germany after WW2. Without these tensions there seemed little reason for Germany to remain divided. Honecker recognized that the DDR could still have a reason to exist if it remained socialist and therefore different from W Germany. Honecker was not in favour of any reform, but the E german population could not be isolated from events in the rest of euope. Large numbers of East Germans had fled from the counrty via Hungary during the summer of 1989, but even more serious for the government were those who were staying put. Gorbys reforms of communism in the Usr had encouraged many E Germanys to push for change. Political groups were formed with huge crowds of demonstrators......

Words: 2105 - Pages: 9