Speciation

In: Science

Submitted By michellegra
Words 848
Pages 4
* Speciation * Michelle D. Grant * BIO/240
06/21/2015
Instructor Name
Dr. Xavier Villarreal * Speciation
This paper will summarize three methods that could produce a new species to include Allopatric Speciation, Sympatric Speciation, and Polyploidy. It will provide specific examples of such to aid the understanding of this concept. It has been stated that humans have evolved from apes which would indicate a change in species had to have occurred at some point. It has also been stated that the finches that Charles Darwin found in the Galapagos Island were actually 14 different species. These concepts will give reasons that this may have happened.
What do the terms Species and Speciation Mean?
The term species is defined as, “a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding. The species is the principal natural taxonomic unit, ranking below a genus and denoted by a Latin binomial, e.g., Homo sapiens,” ("Google.com", n.d.). Speciation is “the formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution,” ("Google.com", n.d.). What is Allopatric speciation? Berkeley advises that Allopatric speciation, “is just a fancy name for speciation by geographic isolation... In this mode of speciation, something extrinsic to the organisms prevents two or more groups from mating with each other regularly, eventually causing that lineage to speciate. Isolation might occur because of great distance or a physical barrier, such as a desert or river,” ("Evolution 101 Allopatric Speciation: The Great Divide", n.d.). This basically means that an organism can be split away from its normal family by things such as water bodies or great icebergs. Once leaving the organisms normal family, it must adapt to this new area thereby gaining the possibility of changing it's traits. Once these traits change and…...

Similar Documents

The Fossil Record and Theories of Evolution

...differenttimes they represented. Smith named this correlation of rock fossil data as theprinciple of faunal succession. The occurrence of faunal succession was one ofthe primary arguments of Darwin who used fossil evidence as supporting thetheory of evolution. Various modern approaches to the theory of evolution havebeen recently developed. Mayr claims that the theory of Punctuation forinstance has two basic points that 1. most or all evolutionary change occurs during speciationevents, and 2. most species usually enter a phase of total stasis afterthe end of the speciation process (which involves formation of new species). Speciation thus involves transformation of species ingeological time (Erwin and Anstey, 1995). Formation of new species is explainedeither by phyletic gradualism or a gradual steady transformation of species byphyletic evolution highlighting the deficiency of the fossil records, or bysympatric saltational speciation that highlighted punctuational equilibria andbranching of species rather than transformation as lineages as the real explanationfor evolution (Mayr and Provine, 1998). Biologists like Gould and Eldredge havealso supported punctuation theories. Richard Dawkins on the other hand stresseson the principle of gene multiplication where genes as replicators seems to bethe focal point of defining evolution (Sterelny, 2001). In quite an important paper Volkenstein (1987) suggeststhat there can be no contradiction between punctuated equilibrium and......

Words: 1706 - Pages: 7

Unit 2 Lab

...Name: Patricia Sellers Date: November 22, 2013 Instructor’s Name: Trena Woolridge Assignment: SCIE211 Phase 2 Lab Report Title: Speciation Instructions: You will need to write a 1-page lab report using the scientific method to answer the following question: • What would happen if a species within a population were suddenly split into 2 groups by an earthquake that creates a physical barrier like a canyon? When your lab report is complete, post it in Submitted Assignment files. Part I: Use the animated time progression of speciation to help you write up your lab report. Part II: Write a 1-page lab report using the following scientific method sections: • Purpose • What would happen if a species within a population were to suddenly split in two groups by an earthquake that creates a physical barrier like a canyon? • Introduction • Reproduction is a natural and normal thing in our day to day lives. Animals and humans reproduce offspring, all year round. Separation is usually the furthest thing from our minds. But, mother natural can always turn anyone’s world upside down. For Example, What if a really bad earthquake hit, and caused the ground to split and drift far away from one another? Many species would be isolated from their families and environments. • Hypothesis/Predicted Outcome • A species is defined as a group of organisms that are able to interbreed to produce fertile and viable offspring under natural conditions. (Audesirk,......

Words: 450 - Pages: 2

Diversification Rate

...with about 35% of vascular plant species being recent polyploids (“neopolyploids,” having formed since their genus arose), representing 15% of speciation events in flowering plants and 31% in ferns. It remains unknown, however, whether the abundance of polyploids is a consequence of higher diversification rates following polyploidy or of frequent polyploid formation. We estimated diversification rates of neopolyploids relative to their diploid congeners. We compiled a data set of angiosperm (n = 49) and seed-free vascular plant (SFVP, including ferns and lycophytes; n = 14) generic-level groups in which ploidy levels could be estimated from cytological and phylogenetic data (4). Over 500 ploidy shifts were inferred with a probabilistic model of chromosome number evolution that accounts for aneuploid and polyploid transitions but not diversification rate differences (5). This allowed us to label all descendants of a polyploidization event as neopolyploids, even when lacking chromosome data. heteroploid speciation, the difference in speciation rates between diploids and polyploids was no longer significant (P > 0.1). Nevertheless, the diversification rates of polyploids remained significantly lower than that of diploids (P < 10−6; fig. S2) because of the higher extinction rate of neopolyploids. The average frequency of heteroploid speciation was 31.7% for all plants, 29.7% for angiosperms, and 38.7% for SFVPs, exceeding previous estimates that ignored extinction rate......

Words: 8948 - Pages: 36

Social Thinking and Infuences

...flow between two populations ceases, the potential for _____ exists. Speciation Bird guides once listed the myrtle warbler and Audubon's warbler as distinct species that lived side by side in parts of their ranges. However, recent books show them as eastern and western forms of a single species, the yellow-rumped warbler. Apparently, the myrtle warbler and Audubon's warbler _____. A) Successfully interbreed and produce fertile offspring successfully interbreed and produce fertile offspring Imagine that part of a population of South American finches is blown by a storm onto an island far offshore and manages to survive and reproduce there for a period of 10,000 years. After that period, a climate change results in lower sea levels and the reconnection of the island with the mainland. Members of the formerly isolated island finch population can now interact freely with members of the original mainland population. Which of the following observations would, by itself, lead you to conclude unequivocally that the island finch population had evolved into a distinct species, according to the biological species concept? A) Individuals from the different populations sometimes mate with each other, but all of the resulting eggs are sterile. Which of the following conditions is necessary for speciation to occur? D) Reproductive isolation At which point in the adaptation of a population is it clear that speciation has occurred? B) Gene pool changes establish reproductive......

Words: 3591 - Pages: 15

Speciation

...Instructions: You will need to write a 1-page lab report using the scientific method to answer the following question: • What would happen if a species within a population were suddenly split into 2 groups by an earthquake that creates a physical barrier like a canyon? When your lab report is complete, post it in Submitted Assignment files. Part I: Use the animated time progression of speciation to help you write up your lab report. Part II: Write a 1-page lab report using the following scientific method sections: • Purpose o State the purpose of the lab. • Introduction o This is an investigation of what is currently known about the question being asked. Use background information from credible references to write a short summary about concepts in the lab. List and cite references in APA style. • Hypothesis/Predicted Outcome o A hypothesis is an educated guess. Based on what you have learned and written about in the Introduction, state what you expect to be the results of the lab procedures. • Methods o Summarize the procedures that you used in the lab. The Methods section should also state clearly how data (numbers) were collected during the lab; this will be reported in the Results/Outcome section. • Results/Outcome o Provide here any results or data that were generated while doing the lab procedure. • Discussion/Analysis o In this section, state clearly whether you obtained the expected results, and if the outcome was as expected. o Note: You......

Words: 262 - Pages: 2

Speciation

...Instructions: You will need to write a 1-page lab report using the scientific method to answer the following question: • What would happen if a species within a population were suddenly split into 2 groups by an earthquake that creates a physical barrier like a canyon? When your lab report is complete, post it in Submitted Assignment files. Part I: Use the animated time progression of speciation to help you write up your lab report. Part II: Write a 1-page lab report using the following scientific method sections: • Purpose o State the purpose of the lab. • Introduction o This is an investigation of what is currently known about the question being asked. Use background information from credible references to write a short summary about concepts in the lab. List and cite references in APA style. • Hypothesis/Predicted Outcome o A hypothesis is an educated guess. Based on what you have learned and written about in the Introduction, state what you expect to be the results of the lab procedures. • Methods o Summarize the procedures that you used in the lab. The Methods section should also state clearly how data (numbers) were collected during the lab; this will be reported in the Results/Outcome section. • Results/Outcome o Provide here any results or data that were generated while doing the lab procedure. • Discussion/Analysis o In this section, state clearly whether you obtained the expected results, and if the outcome was as expected. o Note: You......

Words: 262 - Pages: 2

Punctuated Equilibrium

...Punctuated equilibrium, as proposed by Gould and Eldredge in 1972, is a model of species evolution to counter the explanation of evolutionary change through phyletic gradualism, or the slow accumulation of novel adaptations over evolutionary time, culminating in the appearance of new species (speciation). Gould and Eldredge argue that evidence of gradualism would require fossil evidence of intermediary stages in a species’ evolution, with different specimen of an evolving species exhibiting ancestral traits and an increasing number of derived traits leading towards the present form. Paleontologists, however, had long noted that the fossil record was marked by long periods of stasis (on a geological scale) with the sudden appearance of new species, though these gaps were interpreted as simply missing information (Gould and Eldredge 1993). While fossil preservation is notoriously problematic (Wood et al. 1992), Gould and Eldredge (1972, 1993) proposed that the gaps in the record arise not from artifacts of preservation, but from an alternate mechanism of evolution by which small populations become isolated from parent stocks and rapidly accumulate novel adaptations leading to speciation. Thus, parent stocks remain in the geological record parallel with newly adapted species. Successfully adapted species would thereafter remain in the fossil record as well. Thus, most species in the fossil record appear in a state of equilibrium across geological time (i.e. not exhibiting......

Words: 600 - Pages: 3

Evolution

...*Q: What is Evolution? - Descent from modification * Macro Evolution (Large Scale Evolution) * Common Ancestor - descent of different species over many generations * OVER LARGER TIMESCALE (ex. Speciation) * Micro Evolution (Small Scale Evolution) * Changes in gene (allele) frequency in population from one generation to the next * May be over shorter time period (generations) * BOTH OF THESE IMPLY: * 1. Common Ancestry * 2. Changes through time *Natural selection occurs when 3 conditions are met; results in evolution * 1. There is variation in a trait * (Ex. Beetle color) * 2. The trait is heritable * (Ex. Brown beetles tends to have brown babies) * 3. There is differential reproductive success, and not all individuals reproduce to their full potential * (Ex. Green beetles are selected against by natural and Brown beetles are selected for- so they reproduce more) *Adaption: A trait that increases the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce compared with individuals without the trait Adaption in an evolutionary context: An inherited trait that makes an organism more fit in its abiotic and biotic environment, and that has arisen as a result of the direct action of natural selection for its primary function. Ex. Mimicry of the non-toxic king snake to evade predators Natural selection leads to Adaptions * Adjustments or changes In behavior,......

Words: 4620 - Pages: 19

Blahblah

...Caribbean Anolis Lizards. In: Adaptive Speciation, eds. Dieckmann U, Doebeli M, Metz JAJ & Tautz D, pp. 322–344. Cambridge University Press 2004. c International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis Please cite as: J.B. Losos and R.S. Thorpe. Introduction. Pp. 322-324 in Adaptive Speciation, reference above 16 Evolutionary Diversification of Caribbean Anolis Lizards 16.1 Introduction Jonathan B. Losos and Roger S. Thorpe The diversification of the lizard genus Anolis on Caribbean islands surely represents one of the best-studied cases of adaptive radiation in evolutionary biology. Over the course of the past four decades, researchers have studied almost every aspect of anole evolutionary ecology. These include systematics; community, physiological, and behavioral ecology; functional morphology; ethology; and demography. Studies have been conducted in the laboratory and in the field, and have included basic natural history, geographic and temporal comparisons of populations, and a wide variety of experimental approaches to the study of phenotypic plasticity, ethology, ecology, and evolution [recent reviews include Losos (1994) and Roughgarden (1995)]. The result is an unusually broad and detailed understanding of the factors that promote and sustain evolutionary diversification and species coexistence. Speciation and adaptation in anoles Two conclusions from the current body of work are obvious. First, the genus Anolis has experienced extensive speciation. With more than 400......

Words: 1289 - Pages: 6

Speciation Lab Report

...Phase 2 Lab Report TITLE: Speciation • Purpose o The purpose of this lab is to evaluate what would happen if a species within a population were suddenly split into 2 groups by an earthquake that would create a physical barrier. • Introduction o If a population is divided indefinitely by a barrier, the members of the population are unable to breed amongst a group as a whole changing the speciation. Over time the abiotic and biotic conditions may become different on either side of which the earthquake occurred (M.U.S.E.). • Hypothesis/Predicted Outcome o I would expect if the biotic and abiotic conditions changed it would cause the species to change and the species to either die off or forced to adapt. As we know, what a species is forced to adapt this is what we call evolution and I would see this happening. • Methods o The initial separation would consist of some species from the mainland reaching the isolated Island, then after that the isolated population would begin to diverge because of the genetic drift and natural selection, then after that overtime divergence may eventually become sufficient to cause reproduction isolation. (M.U.S.E). • Results/Outcome o As a result, Natural selection will cause different selective and adaptive pressures to occur between the two divided populations and they will continue to evolve. Over time this will result in speciation which is the creation of......

Words: 336 - Pages: 2

Sci 230 Slingshot Academy - Snaptutorial.Com

...may your species have evolved? • Describe the mechanism of speciation, in general, and apply the mechanism to the species you researched. • Include evidence that supports your speciation hypothesis. • What role does natural selection play with this species? What role does it play with evolution in general? Does that apply to this species? • Includedetailed speaker’s notes on each slide. Formatyour slides, in-text citations, and references consistent with APA guidelines. You must give credit to the source of your information, including diagrams and pictures. Use at least two outside references, in addition to your text, and list all references in APA format and cite within APA guidelines. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SCI 230 Week 7 Assignment Evolution Presentation For more classes visit www.snaptutorial.com Resource: “The Origin of Species” section in Ch. 14 of Campbell Essential Biology With Physiology Choose a species to research. Create a 7- to 10-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation about your chosen species. Include the following in your presentation: • How may your species have evolved? • Describe the mechanism of speciation, in general, and apply the mechanism to the species you researched. • Include evidence that supports your speciation hypothesis. • What role does natural selection play......

Words: 1412 - Pages: 6

Speciation

...Speciation Speciation is known to take place in two general ways. Species are known to change over time into something that is so extremely different they are considered a completely different species. In other words, a species can change so drastically that it splits into two separate groups that no longer share a similar gene pool. In each case of speciation, reproductive isolation occurs. Even for a single definition of species, there are many ways for speciation to occur. Under the biological species concept, speciation is the evolution of one or more reproductive isolating mechanisms. Under the cohesion species concept, speciation is the evolution of isolation or otherwise distinct reproductive communities and/or the evolution of novel and shared adaptations that create lineage cohesion due to natural selection. Populations can be recognized as distinct species if they are reproductively isolated from each other, if they have distinct morphological characteristics, or if they form independent branches on a phylogenetic tree. The evolution of novel adaptations occurs through ordinary natural selection: the population consequence of lineage cohesion is just a by-product that sometimes occurs. The evolution of isolating mechanisms is not so straightforward: by definition, an isolating mechanism reduces or eliminates the ability to reproduce -- seemingly goes against natural selection. Isolation is not a phenotype of an individual, but emerges as an interaction among......

Words: 609 - Pages: 3

Answerkey.Doc

...BIO 112 – Spring 2016 Chapter 27 study guide Key Terms Speciation | Phylogeny/phylogenetic tree | Species | Subspecies | Genetic isolation | Allopatry | Genetic divergence | Allopatric speciation | Biological species concept | Dispersal | Reproductive isolation | Vicariance | Prezygotic isolation | Biogeography | Postzygotic isolation | Colonization | Temporal isolation | Sympatry | Habitat isolation | Sympatric speciation | Behavioral isolation | Disruptive selection | Gametic barrier | Niche | Mechanical isolation | Polyploidy | Hybrid viability | Polyploid speciation | Hybrid sterility | Autopolyploid | Morphospecies concept | Allopolyploid | Morphology | Whole genome duplication | Polymorphic species | Secondary contact | Cryptic species | Fusion | Phylogenetic species concept | Reinforcement | Monophyletic group | Hybridization | Clade | Hybrid zone | Lineage | Ring species | Synapomorphy | Hybrid speciation | Common ancestor/common ancestry | | Outline * Speciation occurs when a single ancestral group splits into two or more species * Results from genetic isolation and genetic divergence * How are species defined and identified * Biological species concept * Reproductive isolation * Prezygotic * Temporal * Habitat * Behavioral * Gametic barrier * Mechanical * Postzygotic * Hybrid viability ...

Words: 529 - Pages: 3

Speciation

...Speciation Melinda Jones Bio/240 Anna Maria Sloan March 8, 2016 Speciation Charles Darwin’s thoughts on species and how they evolve into organisms that have different characteristics are complicated. Not all naturalists are satisfied with his definitions of species and speciation but they all have a general idea of what he meant. Species can be broken down into four categories; typological, nominalist, evolutionary and biological species. Speciation, according to Darwin, “is this process of multiplication, occurring when one population splits into two reproductively isolated populations” (Charles Darwin and Evolution, 2009, para. 4). Darwin’s idea was that, through both gradual evolution and isolation, species will eventually turn into two distinct species. There are three examples of speciation that can further explain the process of speciation. Those examples are; allopatric speciation, sympatric speciation and Polyploidy. Allopatric speciation Allopatric speciation is defined as species “originating in or occupying different geographical area” (Dictionary.com, 2013, para. 1). This example goes on to explain how, although it may be the same species, if living in different areas of the world they may exhibit different characteristics to help them adapt and survive in their environment. The one species will turn into two very different species due to a physical...

Words: 820 - Pages: 4

Ersc

...What classification dominates the population of organisms on Earth today? A) arthropods B) mammals C) plants D) nematodes 5. Greater species diversity is observed near the low latitudes compared to regions closer to the poles. The term for this is: A) poleward genetic drift B) latitudinal species gradient C) equatorial speciation D) increased solar irradiance 6. There have been about how many species on Earth since the Cambrian period? A) 7 trillion B) 30 billion C) 900,000 D) 300 million 7. The most common permanent gas in our atmosphere is: A) water vapor B) carbon dioxide C) nitrogen D) oxygen 8. Air increases in density with an increase in elevation. A) True B) False 9. The correct order for Linnaean classification, ranking from highest to lowest, is: A) kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species B) class, kingdom, order, family, phylum, genus, species C) family, order, genus, phylum, kingdom, class, species D) kingdom, order, phylum, family, class, genus, species 10. A biological population of whitetail deer becomes divided by emigration. This is an example of: A) top-loading migration B) sympatric speciation C) allopatric speciation D) genetic drift 11. About how many species have been identified on Earth? A) 54 million B) 700 billion C) 1.8 million D) 750,000 f~.3 oj .::r 12. The change in air pressure from ground level to the top of the CN Tower is greater than the change in air pressure . from one side of the Brock campus to another. A)......

Words: 1842 - Pages: 8