Free Essay

Reporting

In: Business and Management

Submitted By noskiamus
Words 3609
Pages 15
Executive Summary:

A Business Report is an objective and presentation of information in order to achieve some purpose. It is a basic management tool used in decision making. Report may be classified in different ways. Like on the basis of formalities, On the basis of function, On the basis of frequency of issue etc. The basic objective of the report is to know the salient features of writing report & how the formal reports are important in Business Communication.

Business report has no single correct answer but several solutions, each with their own costs and benefits to an organization. Report may be targeted to readers inside or outside the organization. In formal reports we have three parts. Two is Preliminary parts & Report body & the other one is Supplementary parts. With introduction parts the reader can get the assignment main topic & also helps the reader’s follows & understands information. It is an important parts of a formal business report. Supplementary parts view the readers where he found the details of the topic. In formal report readers have the clear facts views. Accuracy of facts, precision, Brevity, Clarity etc are the characteristics of business report.

Often reports are structured in a way that reflects the information finding process and the writing up of the findings that is, summary of the contents, introduction or background, methods, results, discussion, conclusion and/or recommendations. The inclusion of recommendations is one reason why reports are a common form of writing in industry, as the informed recommendations are useful for decision making. Business reports are also written for employees, to keep them abreast of a company's goals and achievements. Introduction:

2.1 Origin of the assignment:

We are the student of BBA of Bangladesh University of Business & Technology. Every semester we have 4 courses. The competition of every course required to have an assignment. This assignment is partial requirement of the course BUS-202, namely Business Communication.

2.2 Objective of the assignment:

• The basic objective of the assignment is to know the salient features of writing report & how the formal reports are important in Business Communication. • To write the report in formal way.

• To know about the formal report.
• Provide recommendation for future action.
• Show concise and clear communication skills.
• Demonstrate your analytical, reasoning, and evaluation skills in identifying and weighing-up possible solution and outcomes.

2.3 Limitation of the Assignment:

• Having difficult to find books from internet.
• Less time to work with the assignment.
• Many e-books pages are blocked by the e-books authority. • Difficult to find the latest books from the internet. • Lack of our vocabulary.
• It was very difficult to found a formal letter.

Methodology:

It is a basic research of the assignment on “A Formal Business Letter”. The source of information is secondary founded through internet research and different kind of books including our text book. After gathering information we analyze that it is vital for us to ensure an appropriate level of formality, sensitivity, fairness, and objectivity.

Description & Analysis:

4.1 Business Report:

Business reports are a type of assignment in which you analyze a situation (either a real situation or a case study) and apply business theories to produce a range of suggestion for improvement.

The true value of the research may be assessed through a report since the written report may be the "only tangible product of hundreds of hours of work. Rightly or wrongly, the quality and worth of that work are judged by the quality of the written report - its clarity, organization and content".

A Business Report is an objective and presentation of information in order to achieve some purpose. It is a basic management tool used in decision making.

C.A. Brown offers a very simple definition-“A reports a communication from someone who has some information to someone who wants to use that information.”

According to Raymond V.A. Lesikar -“A business report is an orderly objective communication of factual information that serves some business purpose.”

Remember that with business report, typically, there is no single correct answer but several solutions, each with their own costs and benefits to an organization. It is these costs and benefits which you need to identify and weigh-up in your report.

So we can say that a business report in an organized statement which describes natural statement & independed or definite inquiry for the purpose of the interest person.

4.2 Types of reports:

There is no single way to classify reports. We can classify business reports in various ways. They are given bellow:-

• On the basis of legal formalities report can be –

1. Formal
2. Informal

Formal Reports: A Formal report is one which is prepared in a prescribed from and is presented according to an established procedure to a prescribed authority. Formal report can be statutory or non-statutory. A report prepared and presented according to the form and procedure laid down by law is called statutory report. Formal report which are not required under any law but which are prepared to help the management in farming policies or taking other important decisions are called non-statutory report.

Informal Report: An informal report is usually in the form of a person to person communication. It may range from a short, almost fragmentary statement of facts on a single page, to a more developed presentation taking several pages. An informal report is usually submitted in form of a letter of memorandum. Informal reports do not adhere to the formal rules of the organization. They are prepared usually in formally or in memorandums of letters forms.

• On the basis of function ,a report may be :

1. Informative &
2. Interpretative

If a report merely presents facts pertinent to an issue or a situation it is informative reports. On the other hand, if it analyses the facts, draws conclusions and makes recommendation, it may be described as analytical, or interpretative, or investigative. If a report presents productions figures in a particular period, it is informative. But if it goes into the causes of lower production in that period, it becomes analytical, interpretative or investigative.

• On the basis of the frequency of issue a report may be-

1. Routine reports
2. Special reports
Routine reports: Routine reports are prepared and presented at regular prescribed intervals in the usually routine of business. They may be submitted annually, semi-annually, quarterly, monthly, weekly or even daily. Generally such reports contain a mere statement of facts, in detail or in summarized form, without an opinion or recommendation.

Example: Branch Managers of banks submit periodic reports to the Head office on the quantum of business transacted during a particular period.

Special reports: Special reports are related to single occasion or situation. A report on the desirability of opening a new branch or on the unrest among staff in a particular branch is special report. Special reports deal with non-recurrent problems.

• On the basis of the subject matter report may be:

1. Problem-determining report
2. Fact-finding report
3. Performance report
4. Technical report etc.

In a problem-determining report, we try to determine the causes underlying a problem or to ascertain whether or not the problem actually exists. In a technical report, we present data on specialized subject, with or without comments.

• On the basis of the number of persons entrusted report may be :

1. Report by Individuals
2. Report by Committees

Report by Individuals: Reports submitted by the Branch Manager, Personnel Manager, marketing Manager, the Company Secretary etc. are reports by individuals. These reports are naturally related to the work in their own departments.

Report by Committees: Sometimes reports are needed on subjects that concern more than one department, or they are so important that it is thought advisable to associate more than one person with them. In such cases, committees or subcommittees are formed to prepare reports. These reports are formal in style and impersonal in tone and are prepared after a careful and cautious deliberation of the members.

4.3 Parts of business report:

A formal business report is prepared and presented for an organization for its own use. They may be statutory and no statutory. A formal reports manuscript formal and impersonal tone conveys an impression of professionalism. A formal report can be either short or long. It is informational or analytical, direct or indirect. It may be targeted to readers inside or outside the organizations.

There are three basic division of formed report-

A) Preliminary parts: Use a cover only for long reports. Use a sturdy, plain, light card bound with good page fasteners, with the cover or the open page should remain flat center. The preliminary part identifies and explains the subject and contains of report.

Preliminary parts are –

• Title Fly
• Title Page
• Letters of Authorization & Letters of Acceptance
• Letter of Transmittal
• Table of Contents
• List of illustrations
• Executive summary

Title Fly :
It is plain sheet of paper with the little of the report on it.

Title Page:
The title page gives the title or heading of the report, the person to whom it is submitted, the submission and the name of the writer(s).

Letters of Authorization & Letters of Acceptance: If you received written authorization you may want to include. It usually has direct request plan. Letters of acceptance acknowledges the assignment. It follows good-news plan confirming tine and money restriction and others pertinent detail. This letter is rarely included in report.

Letter of Transmittal: A letters of presentation is slightly different from a letter of transmittal. In addition to giving the information contained in the letter of transmittal, it usually states the purpose and scope of the report, refers to the writer’s source of information, and highlights special features.

Table of Contents: Include no heading in the table of contents not listed as heading in the report. In the case of long reports, it is desirable to give the table of contents in the beginning. In addition to giving an overall view of the report, the table of contents facilitates locating particular topics in the report.

List of Illustrations: For simplicity sake some reports prefer to include all usual aid as illustration or exhibits put the list of figures and table or separate page. If the report contains many illustrations, the list of illustration is given immediately after the table of contents. This list gives the number, title and page reference of each illustration.

Exicutive Summary:
A synopsis is a brief overview of report’s most important. It is also called abstract. Executive summery is a fully developed mini version of the report and is comprehensive.

B) Report Body:
The body is the posses of a report. Here the facts are presented and interpreted the conclusion and recommendations are started. The body of reports includes the following part-

• Introduction
• Description
• Finding analysis
• Recommendations & Conclusions.

Introduction:
Introduction is the first part of the body of the report. It has a number of functions and covers a wide variety of topics and helps the reader’s follows and understands information.

It contains-

i. Statement of the resource problem. ii. Scope of the study. iii. Objective of the study iv. Methodology of study
v. Limitation of the study

Description: This is the main part of the report. It systematically presents the various aspects of the issue under heading and sub-heading. It contains the facts found by the writer along with his comments. It may be include chart, graph, statistical table and even excerpts from other published report.

Recommendations & Conclusions:
You summarize the main idea of your report highlighting yours conclusion or recommendation and list any course of action.

C) Supplementary Parts:
They contain material related to the report. But not included in the text because they were lengthy or not directly relevant.

Supplementary parts are –

• Bibliography
• Appendices
• Index
• Signature

Bibliography: A bibliography is a list of source materials or a particular subject. In a formal report it shows what books and other library materials were consulted. If the report is based on extensive research, the works con-salted by the writer are given in the bibliography. The bibliography may also include works recommended for further study.

Appendices:
Statistical data, chart and diagrams that are not incorporated in the main body of the report in order to keep the main line of argument unentangled are put at the form of appendices.

It contains-

i. Statistics or measurement ii. Maps iii. Complex formulas iv. Long quotations
v. Photographs vi. Related correspondence

Index: An index is an alphabetical list or names, places, and subjects mentioned in the report, among with the page on which they occur. They are rarely included in unpublished reports. In case of lengthy reports, an index of the contents oft the report may be included.

Signature: A report must be dated and signed by the person who has submitted it. In case of a report prepared by a committee or a sub-committee, if it is very important, all the members may sign it. If the report is not unanimous, it may be signed only be the assenting members.

4.4 Characteristics of a good Business:

The market research is normally outsourced to third party agencies by organization and in turn they create a professional report to the organizations. These reports are preferably provided to senior officials who are the critical decision makers of the organization. Hence these report need to be exclusively efficient and well formatted and the matter should be limpid, analytical and directive.

The actual facts must be depicted clearly and it is desirable that the data and results are furnished and is unambiguous to understand. The reports must be essentially capable to compare related information in the repot so that conclusions can be derived potentially and easily. It is necessary for report to contain following details to be called a good report.

1. Precision: In good report, the writer is very clear about the exact purpose of writing it. His investigation, analysis and recommendations are directed by this central purpose. Precision gives a kind of unity to report and coherence to the report and makes it a valuable document.

2. Accuracy of Facts: The scientific accuracy of fact is very essential to a good report. Since report invariably lead to decision-making, inaccurate facts may lead to disastrous decisions. Accuracy of facts is very essential principal of writing a good report.

3. Relevance: The facts presented in a report should be not only accurate but also relevant. While it is essential that every fact included in a report has a bearing on the central purpose it is equally essential to see that nothing relevant has escaped inclusion. Irrelevant facts make a report confusing, exclusion of relevant facts renders it incomplete and likely to mislead.

4. Reader-orientation: A good report is always reader-orientated. While drafting a report, it is necessary to keep in mind the person who is going to read it. A report meant for the layman will be different from another meant for technical experts.

5. Objectivity of recommendation: If the recommendations are made at the end of a report, they must be impartial and objective. They should come as logical conclusion to investigation and analysis. They must not reveal any self-interest on the part of the writer.

6. Simple and easy language: A good report should be written in a simple, unambiguous language. It is a kind of scientific document of practical utility; hence it should be free from various forms of poetic embellishment like figures of speech.

7. Brevity: A report should be brief. It is difficult to define brevity in absolute terms. Non can brevity be laid down as a rule. All that can be said is that a good report is as brief as possible. Brevity should not be achieved at the cost of clarity.

8. Clarity: A good report is absolutely clear. Clarity depends on proper arrangement of facts. The report writer must proceed systematically. He should make his purpose clear, define his sources, state his findings and finally make necessary recommendations. He should divide his report into short paragraphs giving them heading, and insert other suitable signpost to achieve greater clarity.

9. Grammatical accuracy: The grammatical accuracy of language though listed at number 9 in characteristics of a good report is of fundamental importance. It is one of the basic requisites of a good report as of any other piece of composition.

10. Complete and Compact Document:
Report is a complete and compact written document giving updated information about a specific problem.

11. Systematic Presentation of Facts: Report is a systematic presentation of facts, figures, conclusions and recommendations. Report writers closely study the problem under investigation and prepare a report after analyzing all relevant information regarding the problem. Report is supported by facts and evidence. There is no scope for imagination in a report which is basically a factual document.

12. Prepared in Writing: Reports are usually in writing. Writing reports are useful for reference purpose. It serves as complete, compact and self-explanatory document over a long period. Oral reporting is possible in the case of secret and confidential matters. 13. Provides Information and Guidance:

Report is a valuable document which gives information and guidance to the management while framing future policies. It facilitates planning and decision making. Reports are also useful for solving problems faced by a business enterprise.

14. Self-explanatory Document:
Report is a comprehensive document and covers all aspects of the subject matter of study. It is a self-explanatory and complete document by itself.

15. Acts as a Tool of Internal Communication: Report is an effective tool of communication between top executives and subordinate staff working in an organization. It provides feedback to employees and to executives for decision making. Reports are generally submitted to higher authorities. It is an example of upward communication. Similarly, reports are also sent by company executives to the lower levels of management. This is treated as downward communication. In addition, reports are also sent to shareholders and others connected with the company. It may be pointed out that report writing / preparation acts as a backbone of any system of communication. 16. Acts as Permanent Record:

A report serves as a permanent record relating to certain business matter. It is useful for future reference and guidance.

17. Time Consuming and Costly Activity:
Report writing is a time consuming, lengthy and costly activity as it involves collection of facts, drawing conclusion and making recommendations.

4.5 Importance purpose of report:

Business reports are written to communicate. Sometimes they are written as a means to attract investors to your organization. Business reports are also written for employees, to keep them abreast of a company's goals and achievements. Whichever audience the report is written for, the purpose is to communicate specific information about your business

Many business reports are written to illustrate a specific problem within the company. These types of reports present a problem along with solutions to help correct the problems. This type of report is often directed at employees. An example problem that a business report may address for employees would be a situation in which the company may be looking to downsize. This affects employees. The business report might state the standing of the business and why it may be forced to downsize. The report may also enlist the help of employees to find ways to avoid the downsize.

• The basic purpose of the assignment is to know the salient features of writing report & how the formal reports are important in Business Communication. • Provide recommendation for future action.

• To require the essential Information for decision from the collecting information. • Take important decision from the collecting information. • Express the neutral figure of any important matter.

• Show concise and clear communication skills.
• To increase direction & controlling.
• To prepare the future agenda.
• To compare the getting result with established budget. • To supply the information to the government offices. • To help express the accurate planning.
• To explaining the important and complex matter.
• To increase the movement of administration.
Bibliography:

• Pal, Rajendra and korlahalli, J.S. (2000) Essentials of Business Communication, 10th Edition, Page WC-1 to 12 • Carey, John A. (2002) Business Communication. • Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication. • http://kalyan-city.blogspot.com/2010/11/what-is-report-meaning-features-or.html • http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb630404.aspx • http://unilearning.uow.edu.au/report/index.html

Conclusion:

Reports communicate information which has been compiled as a result of research and analysis of data and of issues. Reports can cover a wide range of topics, but usually focus on transmitting information with a clear purpose, to a specific audience. Good reports are documents that are accurate, objective and complete. They should also be well-written, clearly structured and expressed in a way that holds the reader's attention and meets their expectations. A business report can be important when setting up marketing strategies. Before entering a new market or targeting consumers, a company may write a business report that an advertising agency can use to help devise a marketing strategy. There may also be a separate report written to help obtain financing for a media push. While some smaller companies may not find themselves writing a great deal of business reports, larger companies use business reports throughout the year. A business report can be the best way a company has to communicate vital financial and background information to others. Many larger companies that write business reports throughout the year to employees and for board members hire a staff who do nothing but keep abreast of company changes and write current business reports.[pic] -----------------------

Parts of Reports

Preliminary parts

Report body

Supplementary Parts…...

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