Reforms

In: Historical Events

Submitted By blaine
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Pages 3
Religious Sources of Reform
A. Second Great Awakening--religious revivals among Protestants.

1. Unlike Puritans, who emphasized election, Arminian theology stated that salvation was a matter of individual choice. Individuals needed to repent, confess sins, and accept God's gift of salvation.
2. Focus on the Second Coming of Christ. Need for reform of society to hasten the new Kingdom of God.

3. Biggest impact among women. Evangelical mission to save others gave women more status, purpose.

4. Frontier revivals featured emotional appeals while providing social meetings for settlers

B. New religious groups formed as instruments of reform

1. Utopian societies created in reaction to urban growth and industrialization. Emphasis on community and withdrawal from society
2. Shakers--socially radical. Abolished families, practiced celibacy and full equality between sexes.

3. Mormons--Organized by Joseph Smith in 1830 as a cooperative theocracy with himself as the Prophet. Because of persecution, Smith and his followers moved from New York to Ohio to Missouri to Illinois, where he was murdered by opponents. Succeeded by Brigham Young, who led migration to Utah.

II. Non-Religious Utopian Communities
A. New Harmony, Illinois. 1825. Socialist center founded by Robert Owen to be self-sufficient and existing without currency. Failed after several years.
B. Brook Farm Experiment. Transcendentalist in orientation, rejecting society's standards and Enlightenment thought, emphasizing individualism and the mysteries of nature. Famous contributors: Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, Melville.

III. Other Areas of Early Social Reform
A. Temperance--religious basis in violation of the Sabbath. Movement moved from moderation to abstinence to prohibition in its goals. Led by women but supported by factory owners who had massive absenteeism on Mondays.
B.…...

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