Power Distance

In: Miscellaneous

Submitted By er6es
Words 2655
Pages 11
[pic]

MANAGING PEOPLE

CROSS-CULTURAL CHALLENGES IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

Word Count: 2170

Cross-cultural Challenges in International Business

Management has been one of the key elements of companies in most cases. A major responsibility of managers at all levels is to encourage organization members to perform to the best of their abilities in ways that help the organization achieve its goals (George & Jones 2002). In order to do so, managers need to first have an understanding of their subordinates. The better managers perceive subordinates, the more they are capable to motivate them. In addition, it is the same situation for manager and customer relations. A manager cannot satisfy his customer unless he has a very good sense of perception. Globalization is a very popular term recently. In a way, this term represents the shortening of distances and disappearance of borders (Friedman 2007). Borders within Europe, at the present, are almost forgotten. As the regulations on FDI were loosened in China with her accession to World Trade Organisation (WTO) in 2001, the three continents America, Europe and Asia are much closer to each other than they have ever been. Multinational corporations (MNC) have spread all over the world. Collaboration with many companies independent of national borders became a must for MNCs to survive.

Collaboration with companies all around the world cannot be managed without a multicultural workforce and cultural differences in it. Having a multicultural workforce has some advantages such as deeper knowledge of different product markets, culturally sensitive customer service, 24-hour work rotations (Brett et al. 2006), and promotion of creativity. On the other hand, the disadvantages of multicultural workforce cannot be ignored and managers are confronted with cross-cultural challenges making it hard to…...

Similar Documents

Distance Learning

...Communicating for Distance Education Part 1: Write a message of 100 to 200 words either to your family, friends, or classmates. Hello Everyone, I was just writing to let you know that I was recently in a car accident. Although the car was pretty banged up, everyone involved made it out without any injuries. I am personally a bit shaken up by the entire ordeal and my heart rate is finally returning to its normal pace. This has been an enlightening situation that could have been worse. As I heard the sound of a car horn within the blink of an eye my entire life could have been altered forever. I am grateful to be able to write to let you all know that I’m doing fine so don’t worry too much. Don’t be surprised if I call asking for a ride or a bus ticket. See you soon! Write a formal letter of 100 to 200 words to the insurance company. Use salutations and sign-offs where appropriate. Insurance Company 555 Happy Way Houston, TX 83245 To Whom It may Concern: This letter has been written to notify you of recent automobile accident that I was involved in. The accident did not cause any bodily harm to any persons involved. However, the vehicle insured by your firm was damaged substantially. I would like to arrange a meeting to discuss repairs and any increases in my premium payments. I understand that your firm has very strict policies in regards to collisions and I want to ensure that I am not in violation of any. I hope to continue to rely on your......

Words: 650 - Pages: 3

Distance Still Matters

...org TOOL KIT Companies routinely exaggerate the attractiveness of foreign markets, and that can lead to expensive mistakes. Here’s a more rational approach to evaluating global opportunities. Distance Still Matters The Hard Reality of Global Expansion by Pankaj Ghemawat • Included with this full-text Harvard Business Review article: 1 Article Summary The Idea in Brief—the core idea The Idea in Practice—putting the idea to work 2 Distance Still Matters: The Hard Reality of Global Expansion 12 Further Reading A list of related materials, with annotations to guide further exploration of the article’s ideas and applications Reprint R0108K TOOL KIT Distance Still Matters The Hard Reality of Global Expansion The Idea in Brief Why did U.S. media giant Star TV lose $500 million trying to deliver TV programming to Asia? Like many companies, it was so dazzled by the foreign market’s immensity that it ignored the difficulties of pioneering new territories. For example, it assumed—wrongly—that Asian viewers wanted English-language programming. How to avoid this fate—and select the right targets for your firm’s global expansion? Look beyond a country’s sales potential (as expressed by national wealth or propensity to consume)—and analyze the probable impact of distance. But don’t focus only on distance’s geographical dimension. Consider three other dimensions as well: cultural factors (religion, race, social norms, language); administrative factors......

Words: 6336 - Pages: 26

The Distance to Andromeda

...The Distance to Andromeda by Gregorio C. Brillantes The Boy Ben, thirteen years old, sits there and wide-eyed before the screen of the theater, in the town of Tarlac, his heart thumps in awe and excitement, and his hands are balled into unconscious fists, as the spaceship burns its blue-flamed journey through the night of the universe that is forever silent with a high metallic hum. Enclosed in time within the rocket, the ship itself surrounded by timelessness, which is in turn framed by the boundaries of the cinema screen, the last men and women and children of Earth watch the asteroids, the stream of cosmic dust, the barren planets drift past the portholes like luminous flowers at once beautiful and monstrous, floating in the ocean of space. The traveler search the night for another world of air and greenness, remembering the end of the Earth, the Final War, the flickering radioactive fires upon the lifeless continents. Beyond the dead seas of Mars, and beyond the ice-bound tomb of Neptune, past the orbit of Pluto and out into the black immeasurable depths, the rocket flashes onward, through years of space and time: a moving speck among the twinkling stars, propelled by the flame of its engine and a certain destiny. A sun looms up from the blackness, more golden and more gentle than the star they have always known; and as a globe of shining water and green-shadowed land appears through the viewports; they break out into jubilant cries and dazed whispers of thanks to God.......

Words: 1193 - Pages: 5

The Influence of the Culture Dimension ‘Power Distance’ on Product Choice: a Cross Cultural Exploration of Effects of Country of Origin on the Choice of Branded Products

...The Influence of the Culture dimension ‘Power Distance’ on product choice: A Cross Cultural Exploration of Effects of Country of Origin on the Choice of Branded Products by Adriana Cordeiro Socha A Thesis presented to The University of Guelph In partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Marketing and Consumer Studies Guelph, Ontario, Canada © Adriana Cordeiro Socha, September, 2012 ABSTRACT THE INFLUENCE OF THE CULTURE DIMENSION ‘POWER DISTANCE’ ON PRODUCT CHOICE: A CROSS CULTURAL EXPLORATION OF EFFECTS OF CULTURAL TRAITS ON THE CHOICE OF BRANDED FOREIGN PRODUCTS Adriana Cordeiro Socha University of Guelph, 2012 Advisor Dr. Brent McKenzie Committee Dr. Vinay Kanetkar Dr. Sara Mann This thesis investigates how cultural traits, such as the cultural dimension of Power Distance, influence preference for foreign made branded products. Cultural background influences several aspects of human behaviour, including the behaviours of consumers. In marketing, individual cultural differences affect consumers’ choice as well as their response to advertising message and brand associations. One example, impact on consumer choice, is related to the country of origin (COO) of the product. The effect of COO has been extensively explored in the literature. However, cultural frameworks like those of Hofstede (2001) have seldom been considered as a factor explaining the variability of consumers’ preference (or avoidance) for products originating in......

Words: 32017 - Pages: 129

Power Distance

...(societal) cultures through four dimensions: Power distance, Individualism, Masculinity vs. Femininity and Uncertainty Avoidance. Power Distance is a crucial dimension of national culture that influences leadership and subcultures in organizations and will therefore be discussed in more detail here. Power Distance Index (PDI) scores inform us about dependence relationships in a country. In small power distance countries there is limited dependence of subordinates on bosses, and a preference for consultation, that is interdependence between boss and subordinate. The emotional distance between them is relatively small: subordinates will quite readily approach and contradict their bosses. In large power distance countries there is considerable dependence of subordinates on bosses. Subordinates respond by either preferring such dependence (in the form of an autocratic or paternalistic boss), or rejecting it entirely, which in psychology is known as counter dependence: that is dependence, but with a negative sign. Large power distance countries thus show a pattern of polarization between dependence and counter dependence. In these cases, the emotional distance between subordinates and their bosses is large; subordinates are unlikely to approach and contradict their bosses directly. Power Distance can therefore be defined as “the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally”......

Words: 551 - Pages: 3

Power Distance in Romania

...Power Distance in Romania Romania is among the 10% of the most power distant countries, more precisely it scores 90, which is the 7th position regarding the most power distance societies in the world as for instance Latin American countries and countries of South-eastern Asia and Eastern Europe. This is underlined by the fact that the country is extremely centralized: 2/3 of all foreign investments go into the capital city Bucharest where also 80% of all financial potential is concentrated. There are a lot of backgrounds to the high PDI in Romania. The main reason is that the Romanian culture with its emphasis on authority figures, subjugation to the Communist Party elite has bred a legacy of high power distance in the populace and in Romanian managers and workers. Big PDI means that Romania has a big power separation between the rich and poor which are also known as high power distance between people. Basically if you are born into a family with power you will have a high possibility to keep that power but if you’re born into a family who is poor, it is really hard to move up and you will continue to be poor. Even if nowadays we can observe a decreasing trend in the power distance of Romania, I think it’s still very high. Current situation leads to the numerous negative consequences. For example, the majority of salary-earning workers have open-ended working days or injurious conditions of work. The huge discrepancy between the less and the more powerful people......

Words: 462 - Pages: 2

Distance Learning

...Distance learning is pretty much learning from a distance in a sense. Although it is more flexible than normal school it requires you to be on the computer all the time. Most of the students and faculty are all spread out over the world from different states. You complete all of your coursework online and communicate with your teachers and advisors also via internet through asynchronous communication. You will receive feedback from your teachers about your class work through an electronic forum. This forum will link private communication to you and your teachers as well as serve as a public communication for you and your class members. Everything is at your own pace but keep track of the due dates to maintain your attendance. Attendance is two days a week which means you must post a discussion response or complete other daily work at least two days of the week. Along with your daily coursework your participation grade will be responding to the discussion question posts made by your class members. This is called a threaded discussion because everyone in the class will respond to someone else’s posts. Your can also keep track of the work you complete by checking it off as you go. Talk- A message intended for your instructor concerning feedback you received on an assignment Inbox- A message responding to a classmate’s bio Tag- A message replying to a discussion question or discussion thread More- A message about a classmate’s hobby or outside interest Help- A message......

Words: 255 - Pages: 2

Distance Learning

...Distance learning is a great way to get a degree and still stay in the comfort of your own home as well as deal with other life activities as they may occur. With distance learning it is easy to work into your hectic schedule because there is no set time that you have to be online and all you need is a basic knowledge of the internet. University of Phoenix offers online courses for a number of degree programs, using the internet or the web to complete each given task by each instructor you are assigned to. The online courses has three main categories that you must keep up with and submit each week, one being discussion questions, and other being assignments and finally participation. There are also four electronic forums for these online courses: main, chat room, course material, and individual. Each allows you to give and receive feedback. To get counted as an active student & get points for your participation grade you have to post in the threaded discussion twice a day three days out of a work week. There will also be weekly assignments to complete and post on the electronic forum for your teacher to review and grade. For the convenience of students University of Phoenix uses asynchronous communication making it where each student does not need to be present or online at the same time to participate. This makes it beyond flexible for each student to respond when their time allows them to....

Words: 250 - Pages: 1

Distance Learning

...DISTANCE LEARNING & OVERSEAS BLENDED COHORTS 12/3/2014 TT poojitha Contents Abstract 2 Introduction 3 Case Study 6 Market Analysis and Strategy 8 Findings 10 Conclusion 11 References 12 Abstract This paper identifies and discusses real-world strategic issues in making distance learning a “Win-Win-Win” for the primary customer(s), the general public, and the engineers. The Strata Manufacturing Company and KLASS program is used as a case study. Concepts and issues are discussed generically to promote transfer of key concepts and lessons learned to other distance learning programs. Key areas discussed are strategic vision, strategies for “how to- get-there,” customer focus, market analysis, and findings of companies. Introduction What strategic management needs to be employed and what has to be considered by a company to enhance the skills of employee through distance learning? The strategic management approach for this paper includes the strategies for attaining the organization vision through formulating what is referred to as strategic vision. These concepts are discussed in general and for an efficient aerospace engineer distance learning program. The distance learning program chosen is KLASS (Knowledge and Learning in Advanced Supply Systems) which supports the learning of individuals and organizations in the automotive and aerospace industries. The distance learning and its market opportunities are addressed, as this is one of the major......

Words: 3755 - Pages: 16

Distance Learning

...Distance learning is completely different from campus learning. You are learning from a distance by being online. That changes everything you know about learning. Sure you are doing almost everything on a computer. But it’s the same as campus learning, because you still have a schedule to keep. The discussions are threaded. Just like any other group discussion forum, there is the person that starts to thread and the people who respond to that thread. It’s part of an electronic forum. The electronic forum is people get to the threaded discussions to either respond to other peoples responses or to respond to the original poster’s question. Now the good thing about distance learning is its asynchronous communication. With asynchronous communication there is a deadline for things, just like everything, but you don’t respond in person. You do it either by email or through the discussion forum. There is also feedback, which not only helps to the person taking the class, but also fellow classmates and the instructor in case there is confusion somewhere along the way. But you have to remember that this is part of the internet, meaning you have to have an active internet connection to use this. And you are graded on your participation. So do have to participate on discussions. There is: Main: You reply to a discussion question or discussion thread in the Main forum. Chat room: You respond to a classmate’s bio in the chat room. You also use this for messages about a......

Words: 283 - Pages: 2

Distance Perception

...* * * * Distance Perception and Throwing Bean-Bags * Does Verbal Training Improve Perception Estimates and Actions * Emily Satel * Texas Tech University * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Abstract * Our research examined the relationship between verbal estimates of depth perception and active tasks involving depth perception by studying 20 participants in two conditions: the feedback condition and the no feedback condition. Participants in each condition completed tasks related to depth perception then underwent training involving making verbal estimations of distances before finally completing the task again. The only difference between the two groups was that those in the feedback condition were given feedback about the accuracy of their judgments during training and those in the no feedback condition were not. Our results suggest that verbal estimate training helps participants who receive feedback complete their active tasks more accurately. This suggests that training can help improve peoples abilities to make verbal estimates about distance and thus complete tasks related to depth perception with greater ease and more accuracy. * * * * * * * * * * Introduction * Our ability to accurately judge distances and perceive depths is an important skill in everyday tasks like driving. Unfortunately this......

Words: 3232 - Pages: 13

Power Distance in South Korea

...Context Page Introduction 1 Power Distance 1 Power Distance in South Korea 2 Comparison with UK and China 2 Conclusion 2 Reference 3 Introduction “South Korea is located on a peninsula of Asia. The location is on the northeastern side of the continent. It’s equally known for its green, hilly countryside dotted with cherry trees and centuries-old Buddhist temples, plus its coastal fishing villages, tropical islands and high-tech cities such as Seoul, the capital” (Yun, 2015). “Geert Hofstede defines culture as “the collective programming of the mind distinguishing the members of one group or category of people from others”. The six dimensions of national culture are based on extensive research done by Professor Geert Hofstede, Gert Jan Hofstede, Michael Minkov and their research teams” (Hofstede, n.d.). The model of national culture consists of six dimensions: Power Distance Index (PDI), Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV), Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS), Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI), Long Term Orientation versus Short Term Normative Orientation (LTO) and Indulgence versus Restraint (IND). Power Distance The definition can be stated: “the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations accept that power is distributed unequally” (Hofstede, 1980, p.149). More specifically, it is the expectance and acceptance of unequal distribution of powers amongst the people in institutions (family, school, work) within a......

Words: 769 - Pages: 4

Power Distance

...Hefstode Power distance: High degree of power distance accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification. In low power distance, people strive to equalise the distribution of power and demand justification for inequalities of power. PD | Characteristics | Tips | High PD | * Centralized companies. * Strong hierarchies. * Large gaps in compensation, authority, and respect. | * Acknowledge a leader's power. * Be aware that you may need to go to the top for answers | Low PD | * Flatter organizations. * Supervisors and employees are considered almost as equals. | * Use teamwork. * Involve as many people as possible in decision making. | 1. Masculinity and femininty: This refers to how many a society sticks with, and values, traditional male and female roles. High MAS scores are found in countries where men are expected to be "tough," to be the provider, and to be assertive. If women work outside the home, they tend to have separate professions from men. In a low MAS society, the roles are simply blurred. You see women and men working together equally across many professions. Men are allowed to be sensitive, and women can work hard for professional success. Japan is highly masculine with a score of 95, whereas Sweden has the lowest measured value (5) if you were to open an office in Japan, you might have greater success if you appointed a male employee to lead the team and had a strong male......

Words: 1042 - Pages: 5

Ethics in Distance Education

...Running Head: ETHICS IN DISTANCE EDUCATION Ethics in Distance Education Anna Amen Strayer University   Ethics in Distance Education In today’s world, technology has had a major impact in allowing students to attend college courses over the internet. Distance Education, or Distance learning, is a form of education where the professor and student are separated by distance. This has become a very popular way of learning for students to either start or continue their education. With the use of computers, students are able to communicate over the internet with their professor over discussion boards, video conferencing, and chat rooms. Students have gained a huge interest in distance education since they are able to use these forms of communication through a computer instead of attending a traditional classroom. Distance education is mainly preferred by students because it is flexible, convenient and the variety and availability of classes offered. Students are able to attend classes online on their own time allowing them to work around school and family obligations. It also allows them to attend classes anywhere they are located as to having to be on campus to take classes. The classes that are not available on campus are available online along with many other classes a student can participate in. By having these types of advantages, it is no wonder how distance education is becoming increasingly popular among students and people who want to go back to......

Words: 1794 - Pages: 8

Distance Learning

...Week 2 Assignment: Communicating for Distance Education Part 1: Consider this scenario: You were in a minor car accident. No one was hurt, but you are nonetheless a little rattled. How would you communicate your situation to family, friends, and classmates? What would be different if you had to communicate the situation to the insurance company? Write a message of 100 to 200 words either to your family, friends, or classmates. OMG! Joe I just got into a minor car accident. I don’t know what to do! I’m freaking out. I have never been in a car accident before, EVER! It was about 7:45am this morning and you know traffic is always crazy around that time. I knew I should of left earlier but let me tell you what happen, I was on my way to work on 101 and when I was merging onto highway 17 the car that was driving behind me was driving so fast that he rear ended my car. The back bumper is pretty scratched up. Now my car is ugly and you know how I am about my car  I pulled over with the person and we exchange information. I also called the cops so they can come write an accident report so I can send it into my car insurance. I am pretty shaken up. I hope I get this car situation resolve soon. I’m not hurt or anything thank god! Write a formal letter of 100 to 200 words to the insurance company. Use salutations and sign-offs where appropriate. To, Jane Doe AllState Car Insurance 2670 S White Rd Ste 125 San Jose, CA, 95148 Dear Ms. Jane Doe, This letter...

Words: 507 - Pages: 3