Policy Issues Paper

In: Other Topics

Submitted By dlrb
Words 1099
Pages 5
Policy issues paper
Brandon Quisano
September, 05, 2014
Oscar Diaz

Policy issues paper
In this paper, I hope to analyze and figure out what causes individuals to commit crimes and the many theories in criminology. Social process theory is one such assumption and argues that interaction and interacting with other individuals certain criminal behaviors are learned. There are four types of social process theories including: social learning theory, social control theory, social labeling theory, and dramaturgical perspective. The developmental process and background of social process theories will be discussed in this paper. Also the important parts of this theory to criminology and the pro’s and con’s that are a part of the theory.
Social learning theory is when consequences are observed of others and thinking about copying a behavior is called social learning theory. To put in a nut shell, this thoery explains that human beings are educated by observing others. Identifying certain patterns in behavior of the criminal kind and the values that went along with them theorists such as Edwin Sutherland, Robert Burgess, and Ronald L. Akers developed in the 1930’sLearning theory. Other well known theorists Albert Bandura also helped in this theory and developed Recipricol determinism that emphasizes how a person’s behavior, enviroment and their personal qualities all intertwined with each other. (“Learning-Theories.com”,2012).
Developed by Bandura are these steps number one Attention in order for an individual to lear5n and observation with strong attention of a behavior must be achieved in order to learn. Number two retention remembering what they observed and putting it into action. Third, Reproduction: in order for a person to reproduce the behavior the observed, they must have the capability to organize their responses. This can be accomplished with…...

Similar Documents

Policy Paper

...------------------------------------------------- Policy Paper, spring 2012 ------------------------------------------------- Is a Greek exit from the European Union inevitable? 0909512 Table of Contents Pg. List of Illustrations 3 Executive Summary 4 1.0 Introduction 5 2.0 The Economic Cost and Benefit for State Membership of the EMU 5 2.1 Benefits of EMU Membership & Mechanisms 5 2.2 Costs of EMU Membership 7 3.0 Contextual Factors: The Profusion of Dept 10 3.1 The Eurozone Crisis 10 3.3 Greece- The Forefront of the Euro Area Crisis 13 4.0 Alternate Policies and the Effective Consequences 15 4.1 Predicament 15 4.2 Abetting Dependent on Austerity 16 4.3 Creditor-Led Default 17 4.4 Debtor-led Default and Greek Haircuts 19 4.5 Greek Exit 20 5.0 Recommendation 21 Appendices: Appendix 1: Preferential liberalization References List of Illustrations Pg. Illustration 1: The cost of EMU- Diminishing Domestic Flexibility to Asymmetric Macro Shocks 7 Illustration 2: Cost and benefit of Monetary Unions 9 Illustration 3: Evolution of Nominal Unit Labor Costs in the Eurozone Pre to the US Credit Crunch 9 Illustration 4: Current Account Balances in Percentage GDP 10 Illustration 5: Core Bank Exposure to the Weaker Eurozone Member States 12 Illustration 5: Holders of Greek Government Bonds and Dept......

Words: 6430 - Pages: 26

Health Policy Issues

...Health Policy Issues Mellissia Barrett HCA497 Dr. Gloria Wilson November 12, 2012 Health Policy Issues Health care has been around since ancient times. And through the years the health care field has made many changes, splitting into different sects just as mental health, primary care, and specialty care. The cost of health care has changed and so has how we access that health care. Physicians once made house calls and now they are housed in office buildings or hospitals. Goods were once traded for fee for service providers and now people have insurance of every shape and size. Quality was a priority once, but has that held up through the years? Numerous policies have helped to shape the health care system from what it once was, to what it has become today; the following explores the viewpoints and roles of different policy makers and stakeholders on the aspects of access, cost and quality of care. As a stakeholder, what role does a Managed Care Organizations (MCO) play when it comes to access of care? Managed care organizations are a collaboration or network of hospitals, specialists, in primary care physicians. MCO’s discourage running unnecessary diagnostic testing and treatments, use primary care Physicians to control referrals to specialists, and use case management especially for high cost conditions to encourage less expensive treatments (Turnock, 2012). The purpose of a managed care organization is to achieve cost control by implementing......

Words: 2157 - Pages: 9

Policy Issues

...Policy Issue Analysis: The Affordable Care Act and Nursing April 7, 2013 Policy Issue Analysis: The Affordable Care Act and Nursing Problem Identification Healthcare costs are soaring in the United States today. More people than ever before are uninsured or underinsured. In 2006-07, there were 46 million people uninsured (Gulley, Rasch, & Chan, 2011), and 9 million children also did not have health insurance (Coddington & Sands, 2008). A change in how healthcare is managed and financed is greatly needed to avoid worsening of this situation. Background The cost of healthcare and the number of uninsured individuals has become a critical issue today. Healthcare spending in the U. S. has grown faster than the economy, by about two to three percent per year since the end of World War II (Brown, 2009, p. 1). If nothing changes, Medicare will cost as much as the sum of all federal income taxes in about 75 years (Brown, 2009, p. 2). Healthcare premiums have become so unaffordable, that many families do without. The lack of insurance has a direct effect on poor health outcomes, increasing morbidity and mortality, which also contributes to increased healthcare costs (Coddington & Sands, 2008, p. 1). The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), also known as Obamacare, was signed into law on March 23, 2010, and the Supreme Court made a final decision to uphold the law on June 28, 2012 (U. S. Department of Health and Human Services). ......

Words: 1341 - Pages: 6

Cybersecurity Policy Issues

...role in our lives has grown to an everyday necessity. We rely on the Internet to communicate within the scope of our employment and social lives, to conduct our banking and bill paying, we even use it to track our personal property. There is hardly one area of our lives that we can not conduct over the Internet. While the Internet is a convenience that has made our lives easier, it has also opened the door in our lives to a vulnerability that is rapidly being exploited by cyber criminals. Cyber crimes are growing at an exponential rate in the United States and we, the consumers/end users are unaware of the liabilities a simple click on the wrong button can cause. This paper will address the current cybersecurity policy issues for the protection of the Internet infrastructure and recommend new policies that will address the liability for malicious traffic traversing the Internet from the End Users. INTRODUCTION From the year 2000 to 2010, the users’ on the Internet has escalated to approximately five times its original users. The Internet provides a variety of services in which its users transmits large amounts of proprietary and personal data. The increase in Internet users and the vital data transmitted has enticed criminals to use the internet to obtain vital information. This is done through the use of malicious traffic. Malicious traffic can be defined as Internet traffic used to compromise a system and/or to conceivably impair the privacy of consumers......

Words: 1930 - Pages: 8

Ethical Issues in Health Policies

...Ethical issues with Obesity Prevention Policies in the United States In the United States, growing concern about obesity and unhealthy eating has lead to promote policy efforts to promote healthier eating. The federal government, as well as state and local governments, have proposed and implemented variety of policies to increase consumption of healthy food and reduce overconsumption of unhealthy food. Some examples of such policies are- bans on trans-fat in restaurants, nutritional requirements for fast food meals marketed as children’s meals, proposed taxes on sugary drinks , proposal by New York City to limit sales of sugary drinks, policies limiting the density of fast food restraint and many more. The obesity prevention policies have many ethical arguments for and against them. The two core ethical concerns are-ethical concern with individual autonomy, and ethical concern with equality. There is disagreements too that which dimension, equality or autonomy have priority and also that is it justifiable for government policies to diminish equality or autonomy along one dimension in order to increase it on other dimension. Ethical concern with equality of obesity prevention policy- The obesity prevention policy is concerned about fair distribution of multiple things like health, income, financial spending on healthy food, geographic access to healthy food and many more. But it is seen that none of these are equitably distributed in U.S.A. There are inequalities which...

Words: 709 - Pages: 3

Rico Policy Issues

... RICO Policy Issues RICO Policy Issues Organized crime was a high priority issue in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The United States Government took several different approaches in dealing with organized crime one of which was the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act. This Act has a significant impact on federal government’s ability to combat organized crime. A closer look at the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act will give some insight on who was affected by the act, what issues the act presents and my recommendations on modifying the act. The Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, or RICO, was passed in 1970 to combat organized crime such as the mafia. Understanding how organizations such as the mafia operate will give some insight in what exactly the RICO Act accomplishes. Typical criminal organizations such as the mafia are designed in a way that members within the organization commit criminal acts at the direction of a boss, in the case of the mafia, The Godfather. Prior to RICO the Godfather was unable to be prosecuted for the criminal acts his members committed. In these cases the Godfather is able to continue his enterprise of criminal activity and reap the rewards of his clandestine operation. The RICO act essentially closes this loophole and allows for guilt by association style of prosecution (Grell, 2014). All that is required to indict an individual with a RICO charge is that they commit two predicate offences within......

Words: 1232 - Pages: 5

Public Policy Issue

...Public Policy Issues POL/443 January 6, 2015 Professor Matthew Szlapak Public Policy Issues Public Policy Issue Paper The United States has always been powered by economics. It has been the driving force behind what is accomplished, and who accomplishes those tasks since the founding of America. While money cannot control everything it can determine how the working class operates. The middle class is ever disappearing due to corporate entities running politics, and the notion that a two-party system can benefit everyone. While everyone in America has a vote as to who represents them those representatives are controlled more and more by special interest groups and how much power and money those interests groups control. Two issues that fit right now are the amnesty for illegal immigrants and a higher minimum wage. Both of these issues tie political parties, economic community and special interest groups into the subject. Amnesty for illegal immigrants certainly reaches deep into the heart of public policy because it has to address specific criteria in order to grant access to law abiding illegals. This by itself is rather ironic given illegal immigrants broke the law to enter the United States. Determining who is granted such status is not an easy choice given all of America has an opinion. Some say no amnesty should be granted and the illegals should be deported, requiring them to follow the same guidelines legal immigrants had to abide by. Giving a......

Words: 1141 - Pages: 5

Policy Paper

...Policy Paper Public policy is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs. The foundation of public policy is composed of national constitutional laws and regulations. Further substrates include both judicial interpretations and regulations which are generally authorized by legislation. Strong public policy should solve problems efficiently and effectively, serve justice, support governmental institutions and policies, and encourage active citizenship. Some of the major issues that are trying to be addressed in today’s public policy concerns are the Tax policies empowering community solutions through the non-profit organizations. Budget and spending is a concern and addressing the communities’ needs. The Economy by strengthening communities through hob creations and economic development, Public-Private collaborations for the public good, Promoting civic engagement, and Public accountability and ensuring public trust. Knowing the importance of education in today’s society I would have to say that the K-12 Federal Policy Issue of No child left behind act is very important. Who are the stakeholders and affected constituencies? A stakeholder is any person who will be directly affected by the outcome of a decision-making process. It is a term that is commonly used when talking about public policy decision-making or dispute resolution,...

Words: 1705 - Pages: 7

School Law and Policy Issues

... Karissa Ramirez School Law and Policy Issues Professor Criscione Table of Contents Introduction Student free speech Teacher free expression Freedom of Expression Rights: The Tinker Standard The Fraser standard The Hazelwood standard Faculty free speech Conclusion Introduction Free speech in public schools is important because it allows students and teachers to speak their minds on school grounds, wear jewelry or buttons, wear t-shirts with messages or color their hair a certain way. However, with the protection of the First Amendment that is guaranteed by the United States Constitution, it is sometimes not enough for students and teachers since there are limits to their speech or expression. It is evident that there are issues that have impacted free speech in public schools such as student and teacher free expression, freedom of expression under the First Amendment including the Tinker, Frazer and Hazelwood standard, and faculty free speech; in dealing with these cases it has helped shape future decisions of public school officials. Student Free Speech Student free speech rights have advanced since the twentieth century because previously students had no First Amendment rights. On the other hand, sometimes student’s rights are reduced or eliminated in certain situations. The Supreme Court has also maintained that the First Amendment rights of minors can be restrained in regards to school safety. School officials are also allowed to prevent, “student expression that......

Words: 1856 - Pages: 8

Policy Issues

...Policy Issues Taylor Strong CJS/231 September 14, 2015 Jacqueline Waltman Policy Issues “Drug Control in Central Asia” by Hilton (2002) from the film “Bitter Harvest: The War on Drugs Meets the War on Terror,” more than a few and circumstances issues turn out to be clear. The people in the film of five Central Asian nations on the Old Silk Road—Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan” are not prepared to fight the drugs war, a war revealed by the narrator the U.S. and other richer countries have failed to win. The U.S. additionally has influenced the idea of tying Muslims and Islamists to the drug trade (2002). This had led to even additional divisions in society and improper policies engaged in in particular Uzbekistan (Marat, 2006, p. 94). After all, it has ostracized a lot of Muslims, planted drugs on people it deemed “separatists” and perpetuated several of the policies and practices the Soviet Union employed in regions of ethnic (p. 94, 95; Hilton, 2002, “U.S. State”). This simply deepens the divide between persons who seek a independent vibrant country and those that fail to believe it can happen (Marat, 2006, p. 94, 95). The disparities of socioeconomic, the abuses of human rights and the lack of government legitimacy after all, speak tomes. The failure of the government moreover, to address their grievances, to meet their political, social, religious and economic demands also signals problems with corruption. It substantiates the......

Words: 1177 - Pages: 5

Policy Issues and Cultural Diversity

...Policy Issues and Cultural Diversity Student’s Name University Policy Issues and Cultural Diversity A research gap is an aspect of research or a research question that has not been answered sufficiently in a study (Alvesson & Sandberg, 2013). A research gap arises when the researcher in his study has not adequately solved the research problem, as per the research methodology (Alvesson & Sandberg, 2013). In this paper, therefore, I further evaluate the research on intercultural maturity.To gain insights on how the researcher addressed the research problem, and ultimately discover areas I will suggest for further study on cultural diversity. Cultural diversity is influenced by a myriad of factors (Tierney, 2007).The factors affecting cultural diversity forms the first research gap; a study may be conducted with an aim of analyzing how these individual factors affect cultural diversity. These factors are both external and internal. Again from, the research on intercultural maturity, I feel that the study did not sufficiently indicate how the educational practices; models promote intercultural competence and effectiveness. This knowledge gap second suggests gap for further research on culture diversity. Also, the research on intercultural maturity has no sufficiently indicated how achievement of intercultural maturity promotes human development and positive interactions. This gap is an area that suggests......

Words: 310 - Pages: 2

Policy Issues and Cultural Diversity

...Policy Issues and Cultural Diversity Student’s Name Institution Policy Issues and Cultural Diversity Culture in lay man’s language means people’s way of life (King & Baxter, 2005). Culture encompasses experiences that people share, the shared values and their general view of the world (Barker, 2004).Cultural diversity, on the other hand, means the existence of a variety of cultures in the world today. The aspect of cultural diversity encompasses respect that different cultures accord to each other (Barker, 2004). Culture difference, therefore, needs to be guided because the rights of all, particularly those of the underserved must be assured (Guirdham, 2009). The Cultural policy comes in to play this role of guaranteeing protection, equality, and social justice. In this paper, my subject of analysis is cultural policy and cultural diversity; I have also enumerated the need for cultural policy (Guirdham, 2009). The Cultural policy refers to the rules or only regulations that guide and govern all activities that correlate with culture and arts (Guirdham, 2009). It is an area in public policy formulation that promotes cultural diversity, fosters cultural processes. While introducing legal frameworks and building of institutions that are committed to the promotion of overall accessibility of culture and cultural diversity (Barker, 2004). Examples of state promoted cultural policies are; sponsoring of arts and culture exhibitions by the......

Words: 631 - Pages: 3

Issues Paper

...for a relief on taxation in funding these prisons. The criminal justice system has searched for years for ideas to limit incarceration. Some alternative programs have withstood the test of time, some continue to build a name for themselves, and others have just come onto the scene. This paper will focus on three alternative programs to placing adults in prisons. These programs include military services, intensive supervision programs (ISP’s), and Restorative Justice programs. Each provides some type of benefit to criminals, corrections department, and society. Alternatives to Incarceration Our country seems to have gone in various directions trying to find a successful justice system to work in punishing crimes. We went from a rehabilitation system, to no tolerance policies in the 1980’s. Overcrowded prisons forced officials to let prisoners out early in the 90’s. Taxpayers wanted something done with crime in their communities, but didn’t know which way to turn. A faulty criminal justice system has been blamed in such that it had, “Inadequate or ineffective rehabilitation programs, lack of drug treatment, insufficient funding for resettlement after prison, and other . . . policies. . . .”, (Sherman & Strang, 2007, p. 12). Crimes continue to be a major concern within American society, yet our only response to crime is imprisonment. In a response to making citizens safe, we imprison literally thousands of people, often for low-level offenses. “Of the more......

Words: 1413 - Pages: 6

Policy Paper

...Policy Paper: Family Benefits I. Introduction The policies that will be explored are policies that are aimed at family issues that affect men and women. These policies have a explicit goal of affecting the constraints on family decisions. This policy will include who will work and how much, whether to form or dissolve a family, and how many children to have. The policy will cover family leave, both paid and unpaid, no-fault divorce form, subsidizing or employer-provided childcare or health care, regulation of the minimum wage law, and welfare programs. (Jacobson) The question to be explored with this policy is should both men and women have a more family wok environment that would include paid and unpaid family leave and either a child care program at work or be subsidized for daycare? Another question is what should the regulations to increase the minimum wage law? The last question is how to regulate welfare programs and government run programs to subsidize income? This will take you through today’s regulations for these policies and past regulations for the policies and regulations stated. II. Analysis of the Problem Many low-income workers lack connections to receive information about work support, the employer has the potential to become the means by which eligible individuals gain information about benefits available to them. Many low-income workers will stay at work because they have to pay the bills. There is assistance for daycare that they may not......

Words: 1044 - Pages: 5

Policy Paper

...Policy Paper The representative I chose is Barack Obama and his view on federal spending as a means of promoting economic growth. As the 44th president of the United States, he has a major influence on the National issues and polices. I personally feel that spending money as a way to gain more is potentially the best way for economic growth as long as you know what you are doing, and with the people and resources Obama has I feel he can make it work. Obama also agrees with my reasoning as he also agrees that federal spending is important for promoting economic growth. In the United States we are currently in the process of trying to recover from a recession, so the government is careful in its spending, but the question remains how the government should spend their money and on what. During this time most people are naturally against government spending due to the fact they feel the government should save its money, but wheat most people don’t realize is that a lot of times spending money in the right places can actually simulate money growth. As president Obama understands that in order to get us out of this economic slump he must use some of our money to help the economy grow. As a voter, I voted for president Obama because of his view on the issues and his ideas for change. For the most part Obama’s ideas and records match with my beliefs and I can definitely agree with them. The specific bill is worded exactly how is sounds where the government spends money on......

Words: 448 - Pages: 2