Premium Essay

Operating Principles of Turbine Engines

In: Other Topics

Submitted By Greylynn
Words 1065
Pages 5
Operating principles of reciprocating and turbine engines
Robert Zimmerman
Embry Riddle

Operating principles of reciprocating and turbine engines.

Many airplanes are equipped with reciprocating engines. This is due to their reciprocating or back and forth movement of the pistons. Two kinds of these motors are. 1. by cylinder arrangement with respect to the crankshaft—radial, in-line, v-type or opposed, or 2. By the method of cooling—liquid or air-cooled.
The main advantage of a radial engine is the favorable power-to-weight ratio.

V-type engines usually have more horsepower than in-line engines. The horizontally-opposed engine is the most popular engine on smaller aircraft.

Opposed engines always have a even number of cylinders. Most are air cooled and have a high power-to-weight ratio due to a light crankcase.

The main parts of a reciprocating engine include the cylinders, crankcase, and accessory housing. The intake/exhaust valves, spark plugs, and pistons are located in the cylinders. The crankshaft and connecting rods are located in the crankcase. The magnetos are normally located on the engine accessory housing.

Operating Principles

Federal Aviation Administration. (2013, July 1) found the basic principle for reciprocating engines involves the conversion of chemical energy, in the form of fuel, into mechanical energy. This occurs within the cylinders of the engine through a process known as the four-stroke operating cycle. These strokes are called intake, compression, power, and exhaust.

1. The intake stroke begins as the piston starts its downward travel. When this happens, the intake valve opens and the fuel/air mixture is drawn into the cylinder. 2. The compression stroke begins when the intake valve closes and the piston starts moving back to the top of the cylinder. This phase of the cycle is used to…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Steam Engines

...Steam Turbines The invention of the water turbine was so successful that eventually, the idea came about for extracting power from steam. Steam has one great advantage over water-it expands in volume with tremendous velocity. To be the most effective, a steam turbine must run at a very high speed. No wheel made can revolve at any speed approaching the velocity that a steam turbine can. By utilizing the kinetic energy of steam flow, the turbine could achieve a higher efficiency. As a result, the steam turbine has supplanted the reciprocating engine as a prime mover in large electricity-generating plants and is also used as a means of jet propulsion. The action of the steam turbine is based on the thermodynamic principle that when a vapor is allowed to expand, its temperature drops. In turn, its internal energy is decreased. This reduction in internal energy is transformed into mechanical energy in the form of an acceleration of the particles of vapor. The transformation that occurs, provides a large amount of available work energy. The essential parts of all steam turbines consist of nozzles or jets through which the steam can flow and expand. Thus, the temperature drops, and kinetic energy is gained. In addition, there are blades, on which high pressure steam is exerted. Stationary blades shift the steam onto rotating blades, which provide power. Also, turbines are equipped with wheels or drums where the blades are mounted. A shaft for......

Words: 458 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

How Jet Engines Produce Thrust

...How Jet Engines Work and Produce Thrust Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction 3 2.0 Basic Components of a Jet Engine 4 2.2 Compressor 4 2.3 Combustor 5 2.4 Turbine 5 2.5 Exhaust Duct/Nozzle 5 4.0 Creation of Thrust in a Turbojet Engine 7 5.0 Conclusion 9 6.0 References 10 1.0 Introduction According to Hunecke (1997), jet engines, also known as gas turbine engines, are the most widespread and most efficient method used for airplane propulsion currently. The Jet engine uses basic principles and concepts of motion but applying it using a combination of complex mechanical systems to achieve thrust. There are many types of jet engines; however, this paper will concentrate on the Turbojet Engine to explain the workings of the jet engine to achieve thrust and propulsion. 1.1 How the turbojet Engine Works Turbojet Engines apply Newton’s Third Law of Motion that states, “For every motion there is an equal and opposite reaction” (Hünecke, 1997, p. 4). Simply, when a burnt mixture is ejected backwards from an engine, a forward force is generated on the engine and thus on the aircraft. The bigger the backward force the bigger the forward force (reaction force). Thrust is created when the burnt mixture pushed out the back is ejected at higher velocity than that of the air being sucked in. (Hünecke, 1997, p. 4) The engine’s fans suck air in at the front. A compressor, made up of fans with many blades and attached to the shaft, elevates the pressure of the......

Words: 1759 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Kaplan Turbine Runner Design

...85 Hydraulic turbines—basic principles and state-of-theart computational fluid dynamics applications P Drtina* and M Sallaberger Sulzer Hydro AG, Zurich, Switzerland ¨ Abstract: The present paper discusses the basic principles of hydraulic turbines, with special emphasis on the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a tool which is being increasingly applied to gain insight into the complex three-dimensional (3D) phenomena occurring in these types of fluid machinery. The basic fluid mechanics is briefly treated for the three main types of hydraulic turbine: Pelton, Francis and axial turbines. From the vast number of applications where CFD has proven to be an important help to the design engineer, two examples have been chosen for a detailed discussion. The first example gives a comparison of experimental data and 3D Euler and 3D Navier–Stokes results for the flow in a Francis runner. The second example highlights the state-of-the-art of predicting the performance of an entire Francis turbine by means of numerical simulation. Keywords: hydraulic turbines, flow prediction, stage simulation, hill chart, Navier–Stokes and Euler computations NOTATION C, c E g h at h d H H s k K c K u K w n Q R, r T U, u W, w Z a b e f g absolute velocity (m/s) energy per unit mass (m2/s2) gravity (m/s2) atmospheric pressure head (m) vapour pressure head (m) turbine head (m) suction head (m) turbulent kinetic energy (m2/s2) normalized velocity normalized circumferential velocity normalized......

Words: 7639 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

Gas Turbine Lab

...better understanding of how gas turbines operates, and the parameters which influence their efficiency. Theory Apparatus The Gunt ET972 Small Gas Turbine Demonstration Unit is an educational instrument, designed with ergonomics in mind, and is equipped with a number of displays to convey performance information. Propane is used as the fuel. As small size and a range of options are required in an educational setting, efficiency is not a priority and hence suffers as the unit is optimised for practicality rather than power output. Gas turbines are effectively vibration free as there is no reciprocal motion as in a piston engine, have a very high power to weight ratio, and when coupled to an electrical generator, are used to account for unexpected rises in power electricity demand. Schematic diagram on the front side of the Gunt ET972 Small Gas Turbine Demonstration Unit, outlining the main controls and information displays to the user. Table of Results   | | | | | | | Experiment No. | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   | Gas TG °C | 22.8 | 25.3 | 26.8 | 27.6 | 27.7 | | Gas Nozzle Pressure, PD [Barrel] | 0.64 | 0.78 | 0.89 | 0.98 | 1.1 | | Compressor Inlet, T1 [°C] | 32.3 | 33.4 | 32.8 | 33.2 | 34 | | Compressor Inlet, T2 [°C] | 79.2 | 88.4 | 97.7 | 103.2 | 111.1 | | Comb. Chamber Differential Pressure, ΔP [P2-P3] | 0.012 | 0.0136 | 0.0146 | 0.0154 | 0.0166 | | Turbine Inlet, T3 [°C] | 769 | 793 | 808 | 820 | 840 | | Turbine Inlet, P3 [Bar] |......

Words: 601 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Engine

...The Engine The engine is a machine that converts chemical energy of fuel into mechanical energy. The heat from combustion of a fuel produces power which propels the car. Sometimes the engine is even called the power plant of a car.  There are two types of engine 1. Internal combustion engine( combustion of fuel takes place internally) 2.External combustion engine( combustion of fuel takes place externally) In the external combustion engines the power is generated outside the engine cylinder    by burning the fuel and it is transferred to the cylinder by means of some working fluid (steam) to do work.The example for an external combustion engine is a steam engine which was used in the locomotives,this is a double acting engine which means the pressure acts on both sides of the piston alternatively making it to reciprocate  inside the cylinder. In an Internal combustion engine the power is developed inside the engine cylinder by burning the fuel in the cylinder itself.The heat energy produced during the combustion of fuel is converted into mechanical energy by the expansion of gases against the piston due to which it rotates the crankshaft attached to it by means of a connecting rod (connecting rod is used to connect the piston with the crankshaft to convert the reciprocating motion of piston into rotary motion of the crankshaft). Types of internal combustion engine Engines can be classified in many different ways: By the engine cycle used, the layout......

Words: 2563 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Internal Air System Gas Turbine

...un-cooled components in the engine. Operating around 900k at 10,000 rpm, the material used in making the drive cone is operating at edge of its safe working temperature changes at these high temperatures. A 10 K rise in shaft temperature can reduce the life of the shaft. The temperature must therefore be predicted to within 10 K or better to guarantee accurate stress predictions. It the thermal model cannot guarantee the 10 K accuracy required, a much shorter component life would have to be declared or alternative materials must be found. This report contains the different type of the materials which can be used to enhance the performance of the drive cone cavity and in order to do so the criteria is sub-divided into four group as shown in figure 1 Key drivers for the selection of the material Fig 1 (Ref: Trends in aero-engine materials use As shown in Fig 2 the trends in increase of high temperature materials for gas turbine part. Although there are many monolithic ceramics materials show evidence of fundamental properties, but the main issue is relative to their application in aero engines has been their flaw sensitivity and brittle fracture modes. In addition fibre CMCs are very appealing materials due to (i) their high temperature performance as compared with other super alloys and (ii) their higher fracture toughness relate with monolithic ceramics in aero engines, in which......

Words: 2704 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Team Operating Principles

...Team Operating Principles I will respect myself and each member of the team by: • Being direct, honest and open in my communication • Listening carefully and completely too each person’s point of view. • Being on time, prepared and ready to contribute. • Working to achieve positive results in a timely manner. • Sharing and explaining my point of view, as well as providing alternatives when I disagree with a team member’s suggestion. • Acknowledging my feelings and validating the feelings of others. Reference: Ciaburri Associates, Inc., 1991 Model for Group Decision-Making Consensus is achieved when: • I believe I understand my team members’ point(s) of view. • I believe that my team members understand my point of view. • I will support our group’s decision because it was arrived at in an open and fair manner, whether or not it reflects my point of view. Reference: Ciaburri Associates, Inc., 1991 Team Tools In today’s workplace, people are routinely called upon to work in teams. Businesses have discovered that through cooperative efforts, employees contribute more ideas, generate better solutions, and produce a higher quality final product. In addition to enjoying these greater levels of productivity, many employees are grateful for the opportunity to work with other people. Effective teamwork requires that special consideration be given to other people feelings and ideas. The......

Words: 762 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Diesel Engine

...species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. Rudolf Diesel and his invention diesel engine is the object of the paper. The goal of the paper is to analize this invention, talk about Rudolf Diesel and his theory of diesel engine, its advantages and disadvantages, types and working principles. The diesel engines of today are refined and improved versions of Rudolf Diesel's original concept. They are often used in submarines, ships, locomotives, and large trucks and in electric generating plants. Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advancedeconomies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Contents INTRODUCTION 4 1. Rudofl Diesel. Biography 5 2. HISTORY 6 3. How diesel engines work 7 3.1. Early fuel injection systems 7 3.2. Mechanical and electronic injection 8 3.3. Direct injection 8 4. Types 9 4.1. Size Groups. 9 4.2. Basic Types of Diesel Engines 9 4.3. Gas generator 10 4.4. Modern High- and Medium-speed Engines 10 5. Advantages and disadvantages versus spark-ignition engines 11 5.1. Power and fuel economy 11 5.2. Emissions 11 5.3. Noise 12 6. SAFETY 13 6.1. ......

Words: 3762 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Engine Electrical

...“Engine Electrical” Engine electrical – various pieces of equipment are necessary for starting the engine and operating it in a stable manner battery – it serves as a power supply for the electrical parts of the vehicle starting system – system that responsible for the start of the engine charging system – system that generate electricity used in the vehicle and charge the battery ignition system – system to ignite the compressed air-fuel mixture ignition switch – main switch of the ignition Battery: battery – the battery is the primary “Source” of electrical energy of a vehicle. it stores chemicals not electricity. two different types of lead in an acid mixture react to produce electrical pressure. chemicals inside the battery: * lead or sponge lead (negative plate) * lead peroxide (positive plate) * sulfuric acid and water (electrolyte) battery functions: 1. engine off – battery energy is used to operate the lighting system and accessory system 2. engine starting – battery energy is used to operate starter motor and provide current for ignition system during cranking 3. engine running – battery energy can be needed when the electrical load exceed the supply from charging system types of battery: * conventional type * low maintenance battery * high maintenance battery * free maintenance battery * hybrid battery * recombination battery battery service: * cleaning * jump-start * charging * adding......

Words: 1477 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Hcci Engine

...of fuel injection strategies on the performance and Emissions in HCCI engine Name: Institution: Keywords: HCCI engine, Fuel injection strategies, performance, emissions Introduction. Internal combustion (IC) engines have a wide range of application; therefore, reduction of emissions levels is an important design consideration [1]. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is as an attractive alternative that offers various advantages in internal combustion engines including the potential for significant reduction in PM and NOx as well as increased diesel efficiencies [2-4]. The HCCI technique involves the compression of a homogeneous mixture of fuel and air until auto-ignition occurs followed by Combustion that is considerably faster than Spark Ignition (SI) combustion [6]. The HCCI’s engine performance (including brake thermal efficiency, combustion phasing and emissions levels) is commonly predicted using numerical methods. Hairuddin et al [5] discuss the various strategies used in numerical method (such as multi zone and single zone models turbulence model and mixing model) and injection methods of predicting performance among other issues related to the HCCI engine. Various studies have shown that the can improve the thermal efficiency of the engine while simultaneously maintaining low levels of emissions and that HCCI technology can be realized by modifying either CI or SI engines using several fuel combinations [7,8]. In HCCI the fuel/air......

Words: 7518 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

Steam Engine

...Steam engines are external combustion engines,[1] where the working fluid is separate from the combustion products. Non-combustion heat sources such as solar power, nuclear power or geothermal energy may be used. The ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle. In the cycle, water is heated and transforms into steam within a boiler operating at a high pressure. When expanded through pistons or turbines, mechanical work is done. The reduced-pressure steam is then condensed and pumped back into the boiler. In general usage, the term steam engine can refer to either the integrated steam plants (including boilers etc.) such as railway steam locomotives and portable engines, or may refer to the piston or turbine machinery alone, as in the beam engine and stationary steam engine. Specialized devices such as steam hammers and steam pile drivers are dependent on the steam pressure supplied from a separate boiler. Using boiling water to produce mechanical motion goes back over 2000 years, but early devices were not practical. The Spanish inventor Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont obtained the first patent for a steam engine in 1606.[2] In 1698 Thomas Savery patented a steam pump that used steam in direct contact with the water being pumped. Savery's steam pump used condensing steam to create a vacuum and draw water into a chamber, and then applied pressurized steam to further pump the water. Thomas Newcomen's atmospheric engine was the first......

Words: 261 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Wind Turbines

...Wind Turbines: As the demand for energy is constantly increasing, due to an ever increasing congested population, mankind finds itself in a predicament, where do we continue to source the needed power to run our world. The old 20th century industrial age response is no longer applicable to modern day society, whereby; coal, gas and other non renewable limited resources are depleting. The 21st century has been presented with this detrimental world altering issue. Thankfully we now live in what is known as the technological era. This new century brought about with it new ideas and new developments- accordingly it is these developments in thinking and resources that will pave the way for alternate sources of power. New responses to this ever-present issue include hyrdo-electricity, a legitimate and controllable sources of power, solar power; another renewable resource whose presence is ever increasing in today’s developing world. Arguably the most efficient form of renewable and environmentally friendly energy is wind power. The ability to harness the power generated by the winds. The concept of harnessing the power of wind is no new invention, not even relatively new, in fact the idea has been around since 5000B.C whereby it was first utilized by the early Egyptians to propel their boats down the Nile river. Over the centuries, advancements to the concept continued and by 200B.C simple windmills in china were being developed to pump water for irrigation whilst the middle...

Words: 2134 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Turbine Engines

...Turbine Engines The history of turbine engines date back to nearly a century ago when Frank Whittle was the first to register a patent in 1930; six years later Hans von Ohain registered his independent work (Bellis, 2012). Frank Whittle, as an English aviation engineer and pilot, gained private financial support to start designing and manufacturing his first turbojet in January 1930 (Bellis, 2012). His first engine was a single-stage centrifugal compressor attached to a single-stage turbine was tested in 1937 (Bellis, 2012). The jet engine has become very complex engine based on simple concepts; in simplest terms, the jet engine produces thrust for flight by compressing, combustion, and accelerating air out the exhaust faster than when it came in the inlet. Throughout my career, I have maintained, troubleshot, and repaired several different types of turbine engines, all of which are similar because of this theory of operation. When looking at a jet engine, everyone usually sees the fan blades, but before this component, there is the inlet, or intake, which is the structure in front of the fan. For aircraft that cannot fly supersonically, the inlet is a basic housing that directs air straight into the fan; for much faster aircraft, the inlet is longer and contains a slight curve as it leads to the fan. This is because when the aircraft is flying at supersonic speeds, the air entering the jet engine must be slowed to subsonic speeds (“the jet engine,” n.d.). It is...

Words: 1109 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Engine Fundemantel

...FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS TURBINE ENGINES INTRODUCTION The gas turbine is an internal combustion engine that uses air as the working fluid. The engine extracts chemical energy from fuel and converts it to mechanical energy using the gaseous energy of the working fluid (air) to drive the engine and propeller, which, in turn, propel the airplane. THE GAS TURBINE CYCLE The basic principle of the airplane turbine engine is identical to any and all engines that extract energy from chemical fuel. The basic 4 steps for any internal combustion engine are: 1. Intake of air (and possibly fuel). 2. Compression of the air (and possibly fuel). 3. Combustion, where fuel is injected (if it was not drawn in with the intake air) and burned to convert the stored energy. 4. Expansion and exhaust, where the converted energy is put to use. In the case of a piston engine, such as the engine in a car or reciprocating airplane engine, the intake, compression, combustion, and exhaust steps occur in the same place (cylinder head) at different times as the piston goes up and down. In the turbine engine, however, these same four steps occur at the same time but in different places. As a result of this fundamental difference, the turbine has engine sections called: 1. 2. 3. 4. The inlet section The compressor section The combustion section (the combustor) The turbine (and exhaust) section. The turbine section of the gas turbine engine has the task of producing usable output shaft power to drive the......

Words: 4458 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay


...Engine Architecture In the preceding chapter several concepts basic to diesel and spark ignition engine were covered. Building on this background, this chapter introduces the steps involved in designing a new engine to meet the needs of particular customers and markets. The chapter begins with a summary of criteria and customer expectations which must be met in the design of an engine. The criteria include both limitations placed on the design by available technology and production costs, and the regulations which must be met in the chosen markets. The engine operating map is then summarized in terms of torque and horsepower versus engine speed. Determining the required engine displacement, and the relationship between displacement and boost is then covered, and the chapter concludes with a discussion of engine configuration, focusing on determining the optimum bore to stroke ratio. 2.1 Product and Technical Profiles The first step in designing a new engine is to develop a clear understanding of the markets to which the engine will be supplied, and the needs and expectations of customers in each market. The relative importance of various engine attributes will vary from one market to another, and unfortunately this often results in compromises when attempting to develop an engine for more than a single market. Attributes important to the customer fall into the two categories of product performance and operational cost. Product performance includes such......

Words: 775 - Pages: 4