Free Essay

Notes for Skeletal System

In: Science

Submitted By brittleann1924
Words 2157
Pages 9
Intro to the Skeletal System. Chap 6:

Bones are composed of several different tissues working together * osseous tissue * cartilage * dense connective tissue * epithelium * adipose tissue * nervouse tissue
All of the bones and the cartilages,

Functions: * supports soft tissues and provides attachment points for tendons of skeletal muscles * protects the most important internal organs * assists in movement by acting as levers for skeletal muscles * osseous tissue stores and releases minerals, particularly calcium and phosphorus * red marrow within bones produces blood cells * yellow marrow within bones stores triglycerides, a source of potential energy reserve
Classification:
-longbones -- greater length than width
- short bones -- nearly equal in l & w
- flat bones -- thin
- irregular bones -- complex shapes
- sesamoid bones -- shaped like a sesame seed
Long bone anatomy: * -Regions of a long bone * Diaphysis (Shaft) * Medullay cavity (inside shaft) * 2 Epiphyses (proximal and distal) * 2 Metaphyses (join diaphysis and epiphysis with epiphyseal plate, or line once growth stops) * -Surface tissues * Endosteum * Periosteum * Articular cartilage *

Osseous Tissue * -Extra cellular matrix of connective tissue * Water * Collagen fibers- gives property of flexibility and tensile strength * Crystallized mineral salts of hydroxyapatities – gives property of hardness * -Four principal type of cells * Osteogenic- undifferentiated, give rise to osteoblasts (not as important) * Osteoblasts- * Osteocytes- * Osteoclasts- Bone destroying

Types of Osseous Tissue * -compact bone * forms external layer of all bones and comprises most of the diaphysis of long bones * -spongy bone * forms interior of short, flat, irregular, and sesamoid bones, most of epiphysis of long
Compact bone structure * -osteons form repeating structural units aligned in same direction, with few spaces * central canal with blood and lymph vessels and nerves***need to know * concentric lamellae of extracellular matrix***need to know * -Perforating canals penetrate transverse through osteons from periosteum***need to know
Spongy bone structure * -Has more space than compact. Trabeculae- Holes like a sponge ** need to know * Red marrow is made in spongy bone
Blood and Nerve Supply to Bones * -Highly vascular with blood vessels passing into bones from periosteal artery * Nutrient foramen- leads to perforating canal through periosteum * Nutrient artery and vein- diaphysis and parts of metaphysis * Metaphyseal artery and vein * Epiphyseal artery and vein * -Sensory nerves accompany blood vessels

Type of Bone Formation * -Ossification * Initial formation of bones before birth * Growth of bones until adult size reached * Remodeling and repair of bones * -Intramembranous ossification * Bone develops directly within sheet-like mesenchyme layers * Flat bones of skull, mandible, and clavicle * -Endochondral ossification * Most bones in body form within hyaline cartilage develops mesenchyme

** Must know ** primary and secondary ossification. How do you grow and where. General.
Factors influencing bone growth and remodeling * -growth and maintenance of bones depends on adequate nutrition ( Energy, Calcium, Many Vitamins) * -Hormones * Growth hormone and IGF’s stimulate bone growth * Thyroid hormone and insulin also promote bone growth * Sex steroids (estrogen and testosterone) stimulate bone growth in gender specific patterns * Epiphyseal plate closure results from higher levels of estrogens.
Chapter 7 Axial Skeleton Intro * musculoskeletal system * -Bones of skeleton * 206 in adult * More in infants and children as some fuse later * -Skeletal muscles * -Joints
Bone surface markings * In addition to names, bones have unique structural features that serve as anatomical landmarks, and also have various functional roles * -Two major types of surface markings * depressions and openings- usually allow passage of blood vessels and nerves or help form joints. * Processes- projections that either help form joints or serve as attachment points for ligaments and tendons. * P 186

Skull
Anatomy
* Contains 22 bones in two categories * 8 cranial bones * 14 facial bones * Immovable joints are called sutures * Foramina and fissures form openings for blood vessels and nerves
Functions
* Protects the brain and special sensory organs * Forms the framework for the face * Provides attachment of membranes and muscles * Protects and supports entrances of the digestive and respiratory tract *** need to know!!!**
Cranial bones: frontal bone * forms the frontal and the anterior cranial floor, helps form the orbits, and houses the frontal sinuses * major landmarks * supraorbital margin (eyebrows) * supraorbital foramen * frontal sinuses
Cranial bones: Parietal bones * largest of cranial bones
Cranial Bone: Temporal Bones * -most complicated * -form the inferior, lateral sides of the skull and cranial floor * -major landmarks * zygomatic process * mandibular fossa * external auditory meatus * mastoid process * styloid process * -Petrous portion forms floor * Internal auditory meatus * Carotid foramen * Jugular foramen
Cranial bones: sphenoid bone * lies in the middle of the base of the skull and articulates with all other cranial bones * major landmarks * sella turcia- sticks up in skull(IMPORANT. Helps protect pituitary gland p.190) with hypophyseal fossa
Cranial bones: ethmoid bone * Nasal concha * Remember how to identify it. (bones inside of nose)
Facial Bones: Nasal Bone * forms bridge of nose * tiny bones
Facial Bones: Maxilae bones * forms upper jaw bone and hard palate
Facial Bones: Zygomatic bones * form the cheeks and part of the orbits * major landmark * forms part of the zygomatic arch with zygomatic process of temporal bone (Small bone above lower jaw line)
Facial Bones: Lacrimal bone * contributes to the orbits; smallest facial bone * Lacrimal fossa (tear duct) * Inside of the eye
Facial Bones with no major landmarks * palatine bones * form the posterior part of the hard palate, and part of the nasal cavity and orbits * septum of nose
Facial bones: mandible bone * freely movable of lower jawbone * Landmarks * Body * Ramus (Plural= rami) curved projection * Condylar process** * Coronoid process** * Mandibular notch **
Unique skull features- orbits * holds eyeball and related structures * formed by three cranial and four facial bones
Unique skull features- Paranasal sinuses * cavities lined by mucous membranes * found in frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid and maxillary bones * functions: * Lighten the skull * Increase the surface area
Unique skull features: sutures * immovable joints * where skull comes together
Unique skull features: Fontanels * gap between the cranial bones when a baby is born
Hyoid Bone * unique because it does not articulate with any other bone * supports the tongue and provides attachment for some tongue and provides attachment for some tongue muscles and for some muscles of the pharynx and neck * major landmarks * body * lesser horns
Vertebra Column * Series of vertebrae that surround and project the spinal cord, support the head, and serve as a point of attachment for the ribs, pelvic girdle, and back muscles. * 7 cervical vertebrae (C 1-7) * 12 thoracic vertebrae (T 1-12) * 5 lumbar vertebrae (L 1-5) * Sacrum * Coccyx
Vertebral Column * 4 normal curves increase strength, absorb shock, help maintain balance, and protect against vertebral fracture * fibrocartilage intervertebral discs occur between bodies of adjacent vertebrae, allowing movement and absorbing shock
Typical Vertebral Structures * Body – weight bearing portion * Vertebral Arch- surrounds spinal cord * Processes * 1 spinous process * 2 transverse processes * 2 superior articular processes * 2 inferior articular processes * Foramen * Vetebral foramen * Intervertebral foramen (between two vertebrae)
Cervical Vertebrae * Transverse process has a transverse foramen through which the vertebral arteries pass to supply blood to the brain * Atlas (C1) * Articulates with occipital condyles of the skull with modifications for movement (no head “yes”) * Lacks a body and spinous process * Axis (C2) * Has the dens** which projects superiorly to act as a pivot for the roation of the atlas ( shake head “no”)
Thoracic Vertebrae * Articulate with ribs * Bodies have demifacets for articulation * Transverse processes have facets for articulation
Lumbar Vertebrae * Short, Thick processes * Largest and strongest vertebrae
Sacrum and Coccyx * Sacrum * formed by the fusion of the five sacral vertebrae * articulates laterally with the two hip bones * Coccyx * Formed by the fusion of four coccygeal vertebrae * Differences between male and female (mens points more anteriorly)
Thoracic Cage * 12 pair of ribs
Sternum
* Three regions * Manubrium (Square piece at very top) * Body * Xiphoid process (almost triangular where ribs come together) * Major landmarks * Sternal angle * Suprasternal notch * Clavicular notches
Rib Classification * True Ribs ( 1st seven pairs) * Articulate directly with sternum by hyaline costal cartilage * False Ribs (remaining 5 pairs) * Do not attach directly, or at all, with sternum * Cartilages of the 8th,9th,and 10th pairs connect to each other and coastal cartilage of the 7th pair * Floating ribs- 11th and 12th pairs have no anterior articulation, only posteriorly to thoracic vertebrae.
Rib
* Structure * Head * Neck * Body * Intercostal spaces- between ribs * Costal cartilage- anterior
Appendicular skeleton * appendicular skeleton is composed of the upper and lower limbs, and the girdles that attach to the limbs
Pectoral Girdle * composed of clavicle and scapula * articulates with sternum anteriorly * does not articulate with vertebrae or each other posteriorly; instead stabilized by group of large muscles.
Pectoral Girdle: Clavicle * Slender S- shaped collar bone * Articulates medially with the manubrium of the sternum * Articulates with the acromion of the scapula * Major Landmark * Sternal end * Acromial end****
Pectoral Girdle: Scapula * Major site of muscle attachments, and connects to upper limb to the axial skeleton * Major landmarks * Spine * Acromion * Glenoid process * Coracoid Process
Upper Limb * Consists of the following regions (number of individual bones) * Arm (1) * Forearm (2) * Wrist (8) * Palm of hand (5) * Fingers (14)
Upper Limb: Humerus * Longest and largest bone in upper limb * Articulates proximally with glenoid cavity * Articulates distally with radius and ulna at elbow joint * Major landmarks * Proximal End * Head * Neck * Tubercle (Greater and Lesser – one is larger than other) * Deltoid Tuberosity- rough patch muscle attaches to * Distal End * Radial Fossa * Coronoid Fossa * Trochlea * Capitulum * Olecranon Fossa (back of arm) * Medial and lateral Epicondyle (protrusion on side of arm near elbow)
Be sure to figure out which bone your looking at if arm left or right remember anatomical position hands at side with thumbs out. (Medial- Closest to midline)
Upper Limb: Ulna and Radius
Radius is always on thumb side (Lateral) ulna is always medial * articulate proximally at elbow with Humerus * articulat distally with three of the carpals * connected by interosseous membrane * Major Landmark * Ulna: * Olecranon (big back of arm near elbow) * Coronoid process * Styloid Process (distal end of wrist) * Radius: * Proximal end: head (looks like head of nail) * Neck * Radial tuberosity- Roughened end * Styloid Process
Upper Limb: Carpals, Metacarpals, and Phalanges * Carpus includes 8 carpal bones * Concave space formed by several carpals and fibrous flexor retinaculum forms carpal tunnel * Surrounds tendons of finger muscles and medial nerve * -Metacarpals * Pinky finger always is numbered 5, thumb is 1 * Proximal phalanx, Distal phalanx
Pelvic Girdle * Composed of two coxal bones (Hip bones) formed by fusion of three bones * Ilium * Ischium * Pubis * Form Pelvis * Supports the vertebral column * Protects the lower abdominal and pelvic cavity * Remember Pubic symphysis, sacroiliac joint, acetabulum, obturator foramen
Pelvic Girdle: Coxal Bone * Acetabulum * Formed by all 3 bones; articulates with femur head * Obtuator Foramen * Formed by ischium and pubis
Pelvic Girdle: Ilium * Largest and major site of muscle attachment * Landmarks: * Iliac Crest * Greater sciatic notch * Spines (2 anterior, 2 posterior, 2 superior and 2 inferior) **
Pelvic Girdle: Ischium * Inferior, posterior part of hip bone * Landmarks: * Body * Ramus * Ischial spine * Lesser Sciatic notch * Ischial tuberosity (part we sit on) * Obturator Foramen (posterior half)
Pelvic Girdle: Pubis * Anterior, inferior part of hip bone * Pubic Arch- formed by right and left pubis bones at pubic symphasis
False and True Pelves * Pelvic brim is oval ridge that runs from sacral promonotory, to the arcuate lines, to the superior region of the pubic symphsis * False Pelvis * Superior to pelvic brim
Females have more of a true pelvis
Male and Female Pelves * Male * Larger * Heavier * Narrower * Female * Wide * Shallow * More space in true pelvis * Accommodate pregnancy and childbirth Lower Limb * Consists of the following regions (number of individual bones) * Thigh (1) * Kneecap (1) * Leg (2)
Lower Limb: Femur * Longest and heaviest bone in body * Major Landmarks * Body (Shaft) * Head * Neck * Greater Trochanter (beside of the head) * Trochanters are only specific to femur * Lesser Trochanter * Medial and lateral condyles * Medial and lateral epicondyles

Lower Limb: Tibia and Fibula * Tibia is medial, Fibula is lateral * Tibia is much larger than Fibula * Fibula does no weight bearing * Landmarks: * Tibia (shin bone): * Medial condyle * Lateral condyle * Tibial tuberosity (need to know tendon that attaches there) * Medial malleolus * Fibular notch * Fibula: * Head * Lateral Malleolus
Lower Limb: Tarsals, Metatarsals, and Phalanges * Tarsus includes 7 Tarsal Bones * Talus- most superior and only one that articulates with tibia and fibula * Calcaneus- largest and strongest; heal bone * Metatarsals * Five intermediate foot bones * Phalanges * Three bones per toe, except two in big toe

Joints Intro * An articulation, or joint, is the area where two or more bones meet. * Classified as structural and functional
Structural Classification of joints * Based on the anatomical characteristics * Presence or absence of a synovial cavity * Type of connective tissue binding the bones together * Three structural types * Cartilaginous * Synovial * Fibrous
Fibrous joints * Dense connective tissue that holds them together, no movement
Cartilaginous joints * Have cartilage in them, does not always have synovial fluid, limited movement
Synovial joints * Most movable joints, and most complex * Articular hyaline cartilage lines them * Synovial fluid * Ligaments and tendons * Bursae and tendon sheaths
Articular Capsule * Two layers enclose the synovial cavity like a sleeve, capsul
Synovial joint cavity * Fluid capsule
Accessory structures: Ligaments and articular menisci * Absorbs shock
Bursae and tendon sheaths * Bursae: Connective tissue sac lined by synovial membrane and filled with synovial fluid * Cushion * Tendon Sheaths:…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Skeletal System

...Skeletal Systems Assignment 1 Task 1 (AC 1.1 - Understand the general function of the skeletal system) 1. Describe how the skeleton provides support in the body 2. Describe how the skeleton provides protection in the body 3. Describe how the skeleton allows movement in the body 4. Describe the function of the skeleton in blood production 5. Describe the function of the skeleton in mineral storage 6. Describe the function of the skeleton in energy storage Task 2 (AC 1.2 Describe the organisation of the skeleton and categorise the bones of the axial and appendicular systems: AC 2.2 Categorise the different types of bone e.g. long, short, flat, sesamoid and irregular) 1. Complete the labels on the following diagram, identifying the bones and sections highlighted [pic] 2. Give the general function of the axial skeleton. Name 4 bones of this part of the skeleton and state why they belong to this category 3. Give the general function of the appendicular skeleton. Name 4 bones of this part of the skeleton and state why they belong to this category 4. Describe the general structure and function of long bones. Name 2 bones which fall into this category and state the features that place it in this category 5. Describe the general structure and function of short bones. Name 2 bones which fall into this category and state the features that place it in this category 6...

Words: 714 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Management Control Systems Notes

...Management Control System Notes Ch. 1 – The Nature of MCS Simons Levers of Control Belief systems: empower individuals and encourage them to search for new opportunities. They communicate core values and inspire all participants to commit to the organization’s purpose. COMMITMENT Boundary systems: establish the rules of the game and identify actions and pitfalls that employees must avoid. PUNISHMENT Diagnostic controls systems: allow managers to ensure that important goals are being achieved efficiently and effectively. They eliminate the manager’s burden of constant monitoring. However, they can create pressures that can lead to control failures. Interactive control systems: enable top‐level managers to focus on strategic uncertainties, to learn about threats and opportunities as competitive conditions change, and to respond proactively. * Management control systems are set in place to help a company achieve their organizational strategy and goals. * Work of management: planning, directing and motivating, and controlling. * An organization consists of a group of people who work together to achieve certain common goals. * The CEO or senior management decides on the overall strategies that will enable the organization to meet its goals. * The management control process is the process by which managers at all levels ensure that the people they supervise implement the organization’s strategies. * System: a prescribed and usually repetitious way......

Words: 2969 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Skeletal System

...1. What are the 4 basic functions does the skeleton provide? • It provides movement to our body, • The skeleton provides the protection to the internal organ • It provides movement to the body • It produces red blood cells. 2. What are the 2 types of bone tissue, where is each found and explain the differences between them? • Compact tissues Compact bone is denser than spongy bone. Compact bone is smooth and homogenous whereas spongy bone is composed of small needle like or flat pieces of bone called trabeculae and has much open space. And forms the protective exterior portion of all bones. • Spongy tissues Spongy tissues are very soft and it protects the bone/fatty marrow. And compact bone serves as a protector of the thing within it. 3. State the 4 types of bone. Describe each one, outline its function , and give an example of each? • Long bones Longs bones are strong, curved and wide. They found in legs, arms and include the femur, humerus, tibia and e.t.c. These bones work as levers and it helps to move our body parts. • Short bones Short bones are short, spongy and cube-shaped. These bones are covered with compact tissue and are found in the wrist, hands, knees, feet and ankles. More than half of the bones in the hands and feet are short bones. • Flat bones These bones are thin, flat and broad and have layers of compact tissue and a spongy layer in between them. The ribs, skull, sternum, pectoral......

Words: 429 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Skeletal System

...The Skeletal System  Parts of the skeletal system  Bones (skeleton)  Joints  Cartilages  Ligaments Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Functions of Bones  Support of the body  Protection of soft organs  Movement due to attached skeletal muscles  Storage of minerals and fats  Blood cell formation Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Two basic types of bone tissue  Compact bone  Homogeneous  Spongy bone  Small needle-like pieces of bone  Many open spaces Figure 5.2b Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape Figure 5.1 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Classification of Bones  Long bones  Typically longer than wide  Have a shaft with heads at both ends  Contain mostly compact bone  Examples: Femur, humerus Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gross Anatomy of a Long Bone  Diaphysis  Shaft  Composed of compact bone  Epiphysis  Ends of the bone  Composed mostly of spongy bone Figure 5.2a Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Structures of a Long Bone  Periosteum  Outside covering of the diaphysis  Fibrous connective tissue membrane  Sharpey’s fibers  Secure periosteum to underlying bone  Arteries ......

Words: 2861 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Notes for Management Information System

...Management Information System 2 Marks UNIT 1 MIS Introduction 1. Data: Raw facts such as an employee’s name and number of hours worked in a week, inventory part numbers or sales orders. Information: A collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the value of the facts themselves. Data Information Salesperson: J. Jones Sales Territory: Western Region. Current Sales: $147,000 Units = 147 Salesperson: J. Jones Sales Territory: Western Region. Current Sales: $147,000 Units = 147 Data Processing Data Processing $35,000 12 Units $12,000 J. Jones Western Region $100,000 100 Units 35 Units $35,000 12 Units $12,000 J. Jones Western Region $100,000 100 Units 35 Units 2. Management information systems: Def 1: Information system at the management level of an organization that serves the functions of planning, controlling, and decision making by providing routine summary and exception reports. Def 2: MIS provide information in the form of pre-specified reports and displays to support business decision making. Examples: sales analysis, production performance and cost trend reporting systems. Objectives: * Routine information for routine decisions * Operational efficiency * Use transaction data as main input * Databases integrate MIS in different functional areas. 3. Describe three levels of information in managerial level Management Support Systems provide information and......

Words: 4587 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Notes on the Respiratory System

...RESPIRATORY SYSTEM RESPIRATION * Pulmonary ventilation * Moving air into + out of the lungs * External respiration- DOES NOT MEAN EXPIRATION OR EXHALATION * Gas exchange between the lungs + the blood (the aveoli and the blood) * Gas Transport * O2 + CO2 between the lungs + tissues * Internal respiration- internally! DOES NOT MEAN INHALATION OR INSPIRATION * Gas exchange between systemic blood vessels + tissues * (Additional functions: Smell, Speech) CONDUCTING VS. RESPIRATORY ZONES * Conducting: Passages for air to flow through (everything except those structures that involve gas exchange, no exchange across the wall, just moves air in and out) * Cleanse, humidify and warm the air as it moves through these passages * Respiratory: Gas exchange function NASAL CAVITY * High blood supply * Warms air * Mucous membran * Moistens air * Immunity (mucus, lysozyme, antibodies) * Pseudostratified ciliated epithelium (it moves things, like dirty mucous and mucous traps things so that you can either swallow it or blow it out of your nose) * Moves contaminated mucus toward throat * Hair * Filter air * Olfactory receptors * Smell * Contributes to speech sounds PHARYNX * Funnel-shaped tube that connects to the: * Nasal cavity and mouth superiorly * Larynx and esophagus inferiorly * Food and/or air passageway * Divided into 3......

Words: 2543 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Information System Ethics Notes

...Chapter 11 Ethical and Social Issues 11.1. Understanding Ethical and Social Issues related to Systems * Ethics: principles of right and wrong that individuals use to make choices to guide their behaviour. IS creates opportunities for intense social change, threatening existing distributions of power, money, rights and obligations. * Internet and digital firm techs make it easier to assemble, integrate and distribute info, unleashing new concerns about appropriate use of customer info, protection of personal privacy and protection of intellectual property * Other issues: establishing accountability, setting standards to safeguard system quality, and preserving values and institutions * 5 moral dimensions of the info age * Info rights and obligations individuals/firms possess in respect to themselves * Privacy – Claim of individuals to be left alone, free from surveillance/interference from other individuals, organizations, or the state; claim to be able to control info about yourself * Privacy in public spaces * Data storage & exchange * Laws & expectations in US Vs. EU & Australia * Protecting traditional intellectual property rights in digital society * Who is held accountable and liable for harm done to info and property rights * System quality: standards of data and system quality to protect individual rights * Quality of life: preservation of values in an info and knowledge based society * 4 technological trends of...

Words: 983 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Bones of the Skeletal System

...The skeletal system is considered the “framework” of the body. Individual bones and groups of bones provide structural support and placement for attachment of soft tissues and muscles. The skeletal system is an essential component of life; without them, the individual could not perform basic tasks or functions, could not walk, and could not exist in the form that it does today. The skeletal system offers protection for the body’s internal organs, produces blood cells, and acts as a storage container for calcium. Furthermore, delicate tissues and organs are often surrounded by skeletal structures for protection. The skeletal system is typically divided into the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton runs along the median axis of the body and includes the skull, hyoid, auditory ossicles, 24 ribs, sternum and the vertebral column. The skull is comprised of 8 cranial bones, and 14 facial bones. The cranial bones are flat and consist of the frontal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid, 2 parietal bones and 2 temporal bones. These are connected by immovable, fibrous joints called sutures. The facial bones include the vomer, the mandible and two of each of the following: maxillary, palatine, nasal, inferior nasal conchae, zygomatic and lacrimal bones. The vertebral column is composed of irregular bones called vertebrae, which are connected by cartilaginous joints known as intervertebral disks. There are seven cervical or neck vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae,......

Words: 592 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Management Information Systems Ch. 2 Notes

...Management Information Systems Chapter 2 COMPONENTS OF A BUSINESS * A business is a formal organization whose aim is to produce products or provide services for a profit – that is, to sell products at a price greater than the costs of production. * ORGANIZING A BUSINESS: BASIC BUSINESS FUNCTIONS * The decision of what to produce is called a strategic choice because it determines your likely customers, the kind of employees you will need, the production methods and facilities needed, the marketing themes, and many other choices. * The five basic entities in a business with which it must deal are: suppliers, customers, employees, invoices/payments, and, of course, products and services. * BUSINESS PROCESSES * The actual steps and tasks that describe how work is organized in a business are called business processes. * A logically related set of activities that define how specific business tasks are performed. * Also refer to the unique ways in which work, information, and knowledge are coordinated in a specific organization. Manufacturing & Production | * Assembling the product * Checking for quality * Producing bills of materials | Sales & Marketing | * Identifying customers * Making customers aware of the product * Selling the product | Finance & Accounting | * Paying creditors * Creating financial statements *......

Words: 3642 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

The Skeletal System

...The Skeletal System The Skeletal System is a very important part of your body and without it you would be a huge blob of skin and organs and tissues. It would actually be pretty gross. Without your bones you wouldn’t be able to walk, or write, or talk, or anything else. When you are born, you have about 300 bones made of mostly cartilage. Cartilage is a soft "mushy" substance that acts as a pad. As you reach adulthood the cartilage turns to bone, and some of your baby bones join together to form larger bones. By adulthood the average human being will have 206 bones in their body. The bones in your body do more than just stand you up and keep you looking good. God made the skeletal system, the network of bones inside of you, to do lots of other important things. Besides keeping you from flopping around like an octopus on the ground, let’s see what else your bones can do. The skeletal system has a few functions. One of the functions, and probably the most obvious is support. Your bones are well designed for bearing the weight of the body, cartilage provides firm but flexible support for structures such as the ears and nose, and ligaments hold the bones together. The second function is protection. Bone, as we all know, is hard, so it protects the organs it surrounds. The skull protects the brain, the ribcage protects several organs such as the heart and lungs. Our vertebral column protects our spinal cord. Our spinal cord is actually just as delicate as our brain, but in......

Words: 1186 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

System Analysis Notes

...Analysis is used to get a clear idea of what the existing system does. This is corresponds to dossier criterion A. Many students make the mistake of writing about the solution at this stage of their dossiers. With projects of any size, the analysis stage of gathering data is essential because you can gain clear insight into data input, processing and output without thinking about the computer system that may eventually be used. Data collection This process is sometimes referred to (or sometimes taken to include) fact finding. The classic fact-finding methods are: * Conduct interviews * Carry out questionnaires * Study existing documents * Search the literature for other solutions to the same problem. * Observe people working with the existing system Each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages which can be summarised as follows: Method | Advantages and disadvantages | interviews | Detailed data, can change questions during process (not like questionnaire). Time-consuming, problems classifying/quantifying data | questionnaires | Can reach a lot of people, quickly (comp to interview/observation); Numerical analysis possible. Questions may be mis-interpreted; people may not respond at all or may do only some questions. | document search | The data required for the system can be identified accurately. Documents may be lacking, out-of-date etc (interview could discover this) | literature search | Can find......

Words: 3159 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Skeletal System

...ANATOMY: Skeletal System is comprised of 206 individual bones in an adult human. The bones of Skeletal System are divided into two type i.e. * Axial Skeleton * Appendicular Skeleton   Axial skeleton of the body contains 80 bones in the following regions. * Skull: Except for Mandible (lower jaw) it has 22 bones fused together. * Hyoid: It is the only bone not forming a joint with any other bone. It lies inferior to the Mandible. * Auditory Ossicles: Malleus, Incus and Stapes (bones of middle ear) are altogether known as Auditory Ossicles. These are smallest bones found inside the cavity of Temporal Bone * Ribs: There 12 pair of ribs together with sternum forming Ribcage. * Sternum: It is a thin knife shape bone situated along anterior side of Thoracic Region. * Vertebral Column: It is comprised of 26 vertebrae and are named by regions Cervical (7 bones), Thoracic (12 bones), Lumbar (5 bones), Sacrum (5 bones) and Coccyx (4 bones).   Appendicular skeleton is comprised of 126 bones in the following regions. * Upper limbs contains bones of the upper arm. * Lower Limbs contains bones like Tibia and Fibula of Lower Leg and bones of feet. * Pelvic Girdle is formed of right and left Hip Bones * Pectoral Girdle consists of Left and Right Clavicles and Left and Right Scapulae.   Occupying the 30% to 40% of body mass is comprised of non-living bone matrix and small bone cells. These bones cells allow following functions. *......

Words: 947 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Anatomy & Physiology Lymphatic System Notes!

...Chapter.20 Lymphatic System & lymphoid organs and tissues Lymphatic System: returns fluids that have leaked from the blood vascular system back into the blood 3 Parts: Network of lymphatic vessels Lymph = fluid contained in those vessels Lymph nodes - cleanse the lymph as it passes through them Lymphatic vessels form a one way system in which lymph fluid flows only towards the heart. when fluid pressure is greater then the pressure n the lymphatic capillary it will be drained toward the heart. order questions? how does it flow from the lymphatic capillaries to the heart? or opposite way around. The cistern chill collects lymph from the 2 larger lumbar trunks that drain the lower limbs & form the intestinal trunk that drains the digestive organs. Lymphoid Organs & Tissues: provide the structural basis of the immune system -House phagocytic cells & lymphocytes which play roles in the body defines mechanisms & resistance to disease. Ex- Spleen Lymphatic Capillaries: Weave btwn the tissue cells and blood capillaries in the loose CT of the body these vessels to be EXTREMELY permeable due to mini-valves. Lymphatic Trunks: drain large areas of the body, named for the regions which they drain lymph Lymphatic Ducts: R Lymphatic Duct -drains lymph from R upper limb & right side of head and thorax 2) Thoracic Duct much larger b/c receives lymph from the rest of the body Lymph Transport: Lymphatic vessels are low-pressure......

Words: 1755 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Digestion System Notes

...1 Learning objectives By the end of this chapter, students should be able to:  Describe the mechanism of feeding  State and explain four stages of food processing including hormonal control.  Differentiate the variation in vertebrate digestive system. 2 Main feeding mechanisms  Suspension feeders  Substrate feeders  Fluid feeders  Bulk feeders Main feeding mechanisms  Suspension feeder/ filter feeders Sieve small food particles from water  E.g : whales, clams and flamingos 4 Main feeding mechanisms  Substrate feeders Animals that live in/on their food source Eat their way through the food  E.g : earthworms and termites 5 Main feeding mechanisms  Fluid feeders Suck nutrient-rich fluid from a living host  E.g : mosquito, aphids 6 Main feeding mechanisms  Bulk feeders Eat relatively large pieces of food (swallow altogether) Spend a long time to digest their food  E.g : snake 7 8 Mouth Esophagus Stomach Large intestine Rectum Anus Tongue Glands in mouth that make saliva Pancreas Liver Gallbladder 9  The mammalian digestive system consists of an alimentary canal and accessory glands that secrete digestive juices through ducts  Mammalian accessory glands are the salivary glands, the pancreas, the liver, and the gallbladder 10 Stages of Food Processing  Ingestion is the act of eating  Digestion is the process of breaking food down into molecules small enough to......

Words: 2868 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

The Skeletal System

...The skeletal system is made up of bones, associated cartilages, and joints of the human body. Together they form the human skeleton. The human skeleton is divided into two parts: the appendicular skeleton which consists of shoulders, arms/hands, pelvis legs/feet and the axial skeleton which consists of the skull, vertebrae, and rib cage. There are six functions the skeletal system preforms. The first function is support for the softer tissues and provides points of attachment for most skeletal muscles. The second function is mechanical protection for many internal organs, decreasing the risk of injury. For example: the cranial bones protect the brain. The third function is assisting in movement. When the muscles attached to the bone contract, they move the bone. The fourth function is storing several minerals and when needed the bone releases the minerals into the blood. Major minerals, like calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and sulfur, are found in our body in amounts larger than 5 grams. Trace minerals, like chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc, are found in our body in amounts less than 5 grams. (Embar, 2005) The fifth function is the production of red and white blood cells and platelets. The sixth function is the storage of adipose cells which are an important source of chemical energy. While there are many skeletal diseases people develop at various times in life some require frequent doctor’s......

Words: 515 - Pages: 3