Need for Achievement Motivation

In: Other Topics

Submitted By aysha1992
Words 522
Pages 3
David McClelland’s Theory of Achievement Motivation
David McClelland (believes that the need for achievement is a distinct human motive that can be distinguished from other needs. One characteristic of achievement motivated people is that they see to be more concerned with personal achievement than with the rewards of success. He believes that they do not reject rewards but the rewards are not essential as the accomplishment itself.
Both McClelland and Atkinson’s achievement and motivation theory was based on a personality characteristic that manifested as a dispositional need to improve and perform well according to a certain standard of excellence In order to assess people’s need for achievement, they used a projective instrument called the Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT) that elicits unconscious processes. In this instrument, people are asked to write a story describing the thoughts, emotions and behaviors of a person in an ambiguous picture or drawing (for example, a child sitting in front of a violin). The stories are then coded for achievement-related content including indicators of competition, accomplishments, and commitment to achieve. This technique, labeled the Picture Story Exercise (PSE), was used in numerous studies that tested the relations of nAch with various indicators of performance.
McClelland, David C. "The American Psychologist." July 1985.
Reviews research that demonstrates the importance of motivation, incentive value, and probability of success, independently measured, for predicting achievement performance and the frequency with which affiliation acts are performed. Both theory and research lead to the following conclusions: (1) motive strength, particularly in relation to the strength of other motives in the person, is the more important determinant of operant act frequency; (2) incentive value is the more important…...

Similar Documents

Achievement Motivation Theory Analysis

...Achievement Motivation Theory Analysis University of Phoenix PHY/320 Elizabeth Riegner December 19, 2012 Achievement Motivation Theory Analysis Every manager has a theory on how to motivate employees to perform his or her job. One of the oldest motivational methods is the Carrot and Stick method, which is a combination of rewards and punishments to bring about a desired behavior. Although this method of motivation can still be found in one form or the other in many organizations today, managers are learning new methods of motivating employees. This paper will analyze two different job positions the author has held, and how the theory of achievement motivation would and would not be applicable to those job positions. The author will also analyze the need to develop and create new theoretical models of motivation in today's changing work environment. Theory of Achievement Motivation Atkinson's Achievement Motivation Theory suggests that some individuals have a greater need for achievement and success than other individuals. Those individuals that have a high need to achieve and be successful will take on more difficult tasks than those individuals that are not highly motivated to succeed. The following two workplace scenarios will show how the theory of achievement can affect employees. Workplace Scenario One One workplace scenario that works well with the achievement motivation theory is the Wal-Mart organization. Employees of Wal-Mart are paid by the hour;......

Words: 1023 - Pages: 5

Motivation Is a Combination of Needs That Influence Behavior and Action

...competent manager need to have the clear understanding what motivates their subordinates to achieve effective performance as from efficiency of their work the success of the organization depends. Consequently, the task of manager consists in as much as possible effectively to use personnel opportunities. In independence on the manager decision the effect from it can be received only in case if this decision would successfully be embodied in the employees’ affairs. And it can occur only in case if workers are interested in results of the work. For this reason, it is necessary to motivate the person, to induce to action. “Motivation is a combination of needs that influence behavior and action” (Kressler, 2003). In case if an employee is to successfully complete a task in any organization, he or she requires motivation, performance capacity and development potential in order to activate skills, experiences, talents and creative energies, and reach company goals. The main purpose of this assignment is the consideration and analysis of motivation theories (content & process theories), on which based the modern management within organization, for effective human resource management. Thus it is necessary to examine these theories in terms of its strength and weaknesses and also practical relevance in understanding what and how to motivate employee for organization. In order to gain the basic knowledge about the theories of motivation the Maslow’s theory of need will......

Words: 2602 - Pages: 11


...Motivation Introduction This essay is about defining Motivation and how it affects employees. Also an explanation of the main the types are to be given. A research on popular Theorist was done to support the definition and types. The researcher recognized what impact motivation has on the workplace and seek to discuss the importance. Theory Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an individual to act towards a desired goal and elicits controls and sustains certain goal directed behaviors. It can be considered a driving force, a psychological one that compels or reinforces an action towards a desired goal. In other words, a person may have certain needs or wants, and this causes them to do certain things (behavior), which satisfy those needs (satisfaction). Motivation theories can be classified broadly into two different perspectives: Content and Process theories. Content Theories deal with “what” motivates people and it is concerned with individual needs and goals. Process Theories deal with the “process” of motivation and is concerned with “how” motivation occurs.(Ozgurzan, 2013). For this paper the researcher would focus Content Theories. Developing out from the Cognitive Evaluation Theory (CET- Deci 1975) it was stated motivation can be divided into two types: extrinsic (external) motivation and intrinsic (internal) motivation . Extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are two opposing ways to motivate people. Extrinsic motivation deals with......

Words: 1276 - Pages: 6


...Motivation Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. Motivation is what causes us to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge. It involves the biological, emotional, social and cognitive forces that activate behavior. In everyday usage, the term motivation is frequently used to describe why a person does something. Psychologists have proposed a number of different theories of motivation, including drive theory, instinct theory and humanistic theory. There are three major components to motivation: activation, persistence and intensity. Activation involves the decision to initiate a behavior, such as enrolling in a psychology class. Persistence is the continued effort toward a goal even though obstacles may exist, such as taking more psychology courses in order to earn a degree although it requires a significant investment of time, energy and resources. Finally, intensity can be seen in the concentration and vigor that goes into pursuing a goal. Different types of motivation are frequently described as being either extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic motivations are those that arise from outside of the individual and often involve rewards such as trophies, money, social recognition or praise. Intrinsic motivations are those that arise from within the individual, such as doing a complicated cross-word puzzle purely for the personal gratification of solving a......

Words: 518 - Pages: 3


...…………………………………………………………………….……... 4 3.1 Types of Motivation …………………………………………………………. 4 3.2 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory …………………………………………... 5 3.3 Herzberg’s Motivational Theory …………………………………………….. 7 3.4 McClelland’s Need Theory ………………………………………………….. 8 3.0 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………….. 9 4.0 References …………………………………………………………………………. 10 1.0 Introduction In the past decades, there has been a very high growth of employment in every sector and industry. Employees, workers and staff usually carry out their specified task on regular basis to meet certain goals and targets the company is aiming at. They are known to be an essential part of the organization as they play a key role in determining the organization objectives. As the employees play an important part in the company, the employers, supervisors and administrators must ensure that the employees are productive and efficient when it comes to fulfilling their duties. The question that arises from this topic is how to make these employees productive and effective towards carrying out their daily tasks and why is it that important? The answer is Motivation and this will be the topic of this assignment. 2.0 Definition Motivation is the state of willingness which mainly acts as a driving force for an individual to put better and exert higher effort levels towards a specific objective or goal which will eventually lead to the satisfaction of personal needs and demands. It is a......

Words: 1873 - Pages: 8


...Motivation in the Workplace According to Stephen P. Robins and Timothy A. Judge (2009), motivation may be defined as "the processes that account for an individual's intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal". Hence, motivation is an important factor in every individual's life because no matter the source, motivation leads to positive lifestyle and it will increase employee's efficiency and effectiveness within the workplace. Moreover, it should be clearly understood that the task of every manger in the workplace should be mainly to motivate their internal customers who are the staff, as managers need to get things done through them in order to deliver high quality to external customers. However, although it seems like a very easy term which may be applied by just increasing employee's benefits, it has been clearly noted that not every employee is motivated by the same factors. Hence, in spite of enormous research, the concept of motivation is yet not well comprehended and is sadly practiced as managers fail or simple do not bother to understand the "human nature itself". An understanding of the human nature should be a prerequisite that should be followed by every manager. Researchers have shown that well motivated employees are more likely to be productive and creative. Hence, it contributes to the reduction of turnover in the workplace which may be defined as "the voluntary and involuntary......

Words: 3081 - Pages: 13

Achievement Motivation Theory

... Achievement Motivation Theory Stephanie Murphy Psych 320 03/23/14 Dr. James Moon Achievement Motivation Theory According to the Oxford dictionary (2014), motivation is defined as: “The reason or reasons one has for acting or behaving in a particular way”. There are many ways to view motivation: cognitive, social, physiological etc. Motivation is the number one driving force that individuals use to achieve goals and accomplishments. Motivational theory has experienced and evolved over the past few decades from one grand theory to more variable mini theories. At one time, only one theory was accepted; the drive theory. Currently the field is run by a gamut of beliefs and mini theories used to come up with the how’s and why’s of human motivation. Achievement Motivation Theory: John Atkinson’s theory is based off the belief that human beings and the motive to achieve comes from a fear of failure and is the driving force behind human motivation and success. In the workplace environment, there are many situations in which this theory is applicable; there are certain situations in which this theory would not apply or work for the individual involved. In the workplace culture, motivation is typically linked to productivity. If there is no motivation then there will be reduced or no productivity. Are the factors intrinsic or extrinsic? I believe for this particular theory, the driving forces that make this theory plausible are more intrinsic in nature; however, it can be extrinsic...

Words: 1123 - Pages: 5


...Motivation is a theoretical construct, used to explain behavior. It is the scientific word used to represent the reasons for our actions, our desires, our needs, etc. Motives are hypothetical constructs, used to explain why people do what they do. A motive is what prompts a person to act in a certain way or at least develop an inclination for specific behavior.[1] For example, when someone eats food to satisfy the need of hunger, or when a student does his/her work in school because they want a good grade. Both show a similar connection between what we do and why we do it. According to Maehr and Meyer, "Motivation is a word that is part of the popular culture as few other psychological concepts are".[2] Wikipedia readers will have a motive (or motives) for reading an article, even if such motives are complex and difficult to pinpoint. At the other end of the range of complexity, hunger is frequently the motive for seeking out and consuming food.Types of theories and models[edit] Motivation theories can be classified on a number of basis. Natural vs. Rational based on whether the underlying theory of human Cognition is based on natural forces (drives, needs, desires) or some kind of rationality (instrumentality, meaningfulness, self-identity). Content vs. Process based on whether the focus is on the content ("what") motivates vs process ("how") motivation takes place. Monist and pluralistic motivational theories[edit] A class of theories about why people do things seeks...

Words: 8883 - Pages: 36

Explain the Specific Factors That Contribute to Achievement Motivation and Critically Evaluate Its Affect on Performance and on Following an Active and Healthy Lifestyle.

...that contribute to achievement motivation and critically evaluate its affect on performance and on following an active and healthy lifestyle. Achievement motivation links personality with the degree of competitiveness shown by an individual, and has several factors that contribute towards it for example the probability of success, incentive value of success, personality and attribution. According to Atkins and McCelland there research concluded, that motivation is predicted through a combination of personality and situational factors. Firstly a situation comprises the probability of success this is to the extent to which success is likely, for example more likely that success will be achieved if task is easy, so performers with TAS behaviours would be more inclined to do the task, where as a TAF performer if the task is too difficult is more likely not to do the task as behaviour is likely. Another situational factor, which contributes to achievement motivation, is the incentive value of success, this is experienced by the individual after success has been achieved, for example the hard the task the higher the incentive value to succeed. Personality according to Atkns and McCelland, is also contributes towards achievement motivation., they stated that there are 2 personality types NACH or NAF, which performers develop in these situations. They believe taking into account the situational factors, a personality will either be High NACH which is the high need to......

Words: 481 - Pages: 2


...Topic 3: Motivation Motivation plays a significant role in today’s work environment, as motivated employees are more productive employees. However, the ways in which we motivate the employees have to be improved over time, as employees are more demanding about their concerns and their needs than in previous times. ‘Motivational strategies are probably affected the most employee concerns and values’ (Greiner 1986, p. 82). Motivation is able to affect outputs of your business concerns in both quality and quantity. For example, if your business is in manufacturing, it is heavily reliant on the production staff to make sure the good is being produced with quality and in quantity and on the right time. However, if the employees lack the motivation needed to do this task, they will not produce the amounts of goods demanded, therefore being costly towards the business. In the essay below, we will be discussing whether the needs theories of motivation compare to the contemporary management practice. McClelland anticipated that a person's needs are attained over time as a result of life situations (Wood et al. p. 146). Majority of the experiences three different sectors of needs, which can be classified as the need for achievement, the need for affiliation or the need for power. The strengths about McClelland’s acquired needs theory is that it gives us a clear and easy to understand picture for an organization and managers to know how to classify their employees therefore......

Words: 1698 - Pages: 7


...head into work to take on the multitude of potential stressors that attempt to prevent you from succeeding. This is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs at its best, developing motivation and the potential to achieve your goals and your fullest potential. Using the hierarchy, an individual will be able to understand psychological needs, face daily challenges, achieve higher promotion potential, and maintain a positive and rewarding personal relationship. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is referred to in a pyramid. The base, and the largest part of the pyramid, is the first level of the 5 needs. The base of the pyramid is the physiological needs of a person. Food, water, rest, warmth, oxygen, etcetera are the primary needs that need to be met before a person can advance to safety needs. The second level of the pyramid, safety needs, are not just defined as personal safety. This level is comprised of needs such as job security, security of family, of health, of personal possessions, of self, and even of money. An individual that is continuously worried about the security of these aforementioned items cannot successfully meet the requirements to move on to belongingness and love needs. At this third level of the pyramid we delve into what I consider the greatest rewards that you can attain, love, friendship, and lasting relations. While accomplishing the needs of the belongingness and love you will find yourself facing a lot of emotions. You will discover sexual intimacy, lasting......

Words: 313 - Pages: 2

Achievement Motivation

...Achievement Motivation Kathryn Harwick Saint Leo University Psych of Motivation and Emotion PSY-432-DL01 Professor Litman July 20, 2015 Abstract Those who have high levels of achievement motivation desire success and will do anything to achieve the overpowering sensation of external rewards. Research has been completed throughout the years in order to determine what causes human motivation and what effects it can have on the human body. Throughout these studies, confirmation has indicated that challenging tasks and activities increase effort and provide individuals the encouragement to excel and develop. David McClelland’s achievement motivation theory has proven that this form of motivation is indeed key to determining the influence on academic performance, as well as being an important psychological indicator for one’s success and failure in life. Achievement Motivation How each of us develop the will and desire to succeed in certain tasks and activities, or how we concern ourselves with the possibility of failure are both issues surrounding practical and theoretical significance. Motivation is generally defined as the driving force behind all of our actions. It refers to the dynamics of our behavior, while influencing our needs and desires. There are different types of motivation that range from intrinsic, extrinsic, psychological, and achievement motivation. Achievement motivation is one’s need to succeed while attaining their ambitions and......

Words: 2375 - Pages: 10

Achievement Motivation

...There are dogs in my street Hiding behind the shadows of our sins ready to devour the next poor soul they have in sight shattering its humanity into a thousand pieces of regret and sorrow that will never be whole again “You took that side of the street knowing the consequences, You were asking for it, You revealed too much skin.. Don’t you know dogs can smell fresh meat? Don’t you know there are hungry dogs in your street?” There are ravenous dogs in our streets waiting for the first sign of meat Weakness hits them like cold water in the morning reverberating their bodies shaking their bones coming alive as they pounce on the girl whose fragile beating heart echoes through the night as she walks past the dark corners of her town Little girls are warned of these rascals little girls spend their lives avoiding these scoundrels their toe curling screams frozen in their throat ready to be freed at the first sight of movement in the shadows But slim to none are told what to do when the terror hits them “Just scream until someone hears you” they cover her mouth with theirs They tear at her pink flesh with force that breaks cement as their shred her clothing reducing her to her feeble nakedness Ripping her cross from her sacred chest and pluck the promise ring from her little finger promising that if she be a good girl she’ll enjoy it “don’t cry” they say “Stop being such a bitch and take it” As those words pierce through her being wrenching her soul ...

Words: 798 - Pages: 4


...Abstract This study aims to advance our understanding of motivation at work and examines its effects on intrapraneurship and competitive performance in the high tech companies by reinterpreting the existing literature regarding motivation and conducting an empirical study to see the relationship. 1. Motivation in the Workplace 1.1. Work Motivation 1.2.1. Its Definition and Importance Motivation, in its broadest sense, is the force that drives behaviour. It is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get desired course of action, push the right button to attain desired goals. Motivation is the reason for people to do a specific behaviour or make a decision. Each decision or choice has its own set of determinants, only employee motivation in the work context and its impacts will be elaborated in this paper. Motivation is always a goal-oriented process. It is a crucial factor in the accomplishment of company goals; by work motivation, employees are induced and energized towards company goals through a specific way. As Craig Pinder stated in his book “Work motivation in organizational behaviour” in 1998, work motivation is a set of energetic forces that originate both within as well as beyond an individual’s being, to initiate work-related behaviour and to determine its form, direction, intensity, and duration. Motivation at work is a crucial determinant of work performance. In general, productivity depends on 3 things:......

Words: 9202 - Pages: 37


... Motivation: The Forgotten Tool Motivation: The Forgotten Tool By Consuelo Moran EDCI 6304 Learning & Cognition (Fall 2007) School of Education University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College Literature Review Motivation. The importance of motivation is widely known, however, the high drop-out rates in our school and low test scores at our schools suggest that maybe we have all forgotten just how important motivation is. “High motivation and engagement in learning have consistently been linked to reduced dropout rates and increased levels of student success” (Halwah, 2006, p.1). Literature has shown that “student's motivation for learning is generally regarded as one of the most critical determinants, if not the premier determinant, of the success and quality of any learning outcome” (Halwah, 2006, p.3). Therefore, motivation as well as the relationship between motivation and academic achievement need to be studied as well. This study will discuss motivation in details through my personal experience with motivation and the significance it plays in learning. This research offers an insight to the age-old question of how we should get our school children to learn and keep them from dropping out of school. Many children, especially adolescence, often believe that they know everything and they have no need to learn something new. Lack or motivation is derived from this exact sentiment which impedes the learning process. “If there really is no need to acquire......

Words: 3199 - Pages: 13