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Morocco & Algeria

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Comparison between Morocco and Algeria

Morocco and Algeria are neighborhood countries and share almost 1500 Kilometers of frontiers, and both of them are limited be the Mediterranean Sea in the north. Algeria is the second powerful country in Africa after South Africa while Morocco is the fifth one after the Egypt and Nigeria. In addition to Arabs, Sahraouis and Berbers represent the two main populations in the two countries. Moreover, both of them have Arabic as official language and French as second and administrative one since their independences from France colonization. Another similarity between Algeria and Morocco is their identical climates that differ as we move along both countries, extreme temperatures in the south, and moderate weather in the north. Despite these numerous similarities, Morocco and Algeria differ in three major domains: Their area, their resources, and their political systems and actions over the history of country.
The first big dissimilarity between Algeria and Morocco is their areas. In fact, Algeria counts four times the area of Morocco. Algeria extends in more than two millions kilometers square and it is the second big country in Africa after the Sudan and the eleventh worldwide whereas Morocco has only seventh hundred thousand kilometers square whereof two-hundred fifty in Western Sahara which makes Morocco in the eight rank of superficies in Africa and the fifth-seventh in the world. Morocco claims a big part of Algeria that extends from Figuig (belong to Morocco) until Tindouf passing by Abadla and Ben Abbas just after the independence of Algeria in 1962 from France conquest. In effect, during this period, France took parts from many countries that were under its control and gives them to Algeria since it thoughts that Algeria will be always a French colony.
In addition to its large area, Algeria and Morocco diverge also in their resources of production. Algeria is considered the second powerful country in Africa after South Africa by almost 135 billion US dollars of gross national product in the year compared to Morocco that is the fifth powerful country by almost 57 billion dollars of gross national product. Algeria is very rich of fossil energies such as petrol and natural gas that represent sixty percent of Algeria’s economy. In the other hand, Morocco has very limited fossil energies like phosphate that is the first source of revenue of Moroccan economy also; Morocco is considered the first producer and exporter of Cannabis in the world. Aside natural resources, the agriculture in Algeria corresponds to twenty-three percent of the income of the country, however; the Moroccan economy depends also on two other factors that are the revenues of Moroccans living in foreign countries which is the second largest income and agriculture that represent over seventieth percent from the income of Morocco.
The final difference between the two countries is their political systems and actions over the history. After the independence of Algeria in 1962, Ben Bella was proclaimed the first of the new republic of Algeria. Ben Bella was the leader of the national liberation front, a guerilla that resisted to the French conquest. Besides, Morocco has always been a heredity monarchy that passes from father to son. For the future king to be crown, all tribes of Morocco should proclaim him as such. Morocco and Algeria have had a great relationship in the past until the independence of Algeria. In fact, Algeria has promised Morocco to give it back its part of land that France has taken it illegally from Morocco. After the foursquare refusal of Algeria, Morocco has declared the war against Algeria in 1963 (right after Algeria’s independence) attempting to claim Tindouf and Bechar parts. During this war, Algeria didn’t have modern army as Morocco did, it was constituted of a simple guerilla presided by Ben Bella, which pushed them to call assistance from Cuba that send its army to help them. The Sand war as it is called took approximately two weeks of rude battles before stopping under the pressure of The Arab League and The Organization of African Unity. This war has serious consequences on their relationship. Recently, Morocco has behaved in a peaceful way through its neighborhood by inviting it to open their borders again since they were closed in 1994 after Morocco claimed visas from Algerian passengers except that Algeria has rejected this demand.
In conclusion, Morocco and Algeria are both of them parts of the great Maghreb that includes also Mauritania, Tunisia and Libya. Morocco and Algeria have resemblances in many domains as culture, language, populations of the two countries, and also the weather. Nonetheless, they differ in other fields such as their areas where Algeria is much bigger than Morocco by almost four times its length. The second dissimilarity between them is their resources of production. While Algeria focuses mainly on fossil energy like petrol and gas which contribute by sixty percent of Algeria’s income; Morocco centers more on phosphate revenues, income of Moroccan living in foreigner countries, and agriculture with seventieth percent of its total revenue. The final distinction between the two brother countries is their political actions and systems. Algeria is a republican country presided by Abdelaziz Bouteflika, and Morocco is an “Alaouite” monarchy with his majesty Mohamed VI as king. Morocco and Algeria took different positions in the last decades that made their relationship get worse and worse.…...

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