Module: Logistics and International Trade

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By Rwalwasa
Words 1173
Pages 5




Read the paper and evaluate the arguments put forward by Professor Christopher to arrive at a conclusion about what makes up the essential characteristics of effective logistics. What value does his thesis that there are 'three feasible pipeline designs' have for your industry or an industry you know?

In his paper, Professor Christopher, examines a number of arguments in an aim to come up with unique essential characteristics of an effective supply chain. He has discussed matching of pipelines to the market place needs under conditions of demand volatility and price pressure and thus discovers that the scenario of “one size fits all” does not apply to pipe line design, implementation and control.
In his analysis of various researches from other authors, he suggests appropriate supply chain strategies that can be developed upon existing contingent market characteristics to achieve high level of customer responsiveness at a less total cost to the supply chain as a whole. He considers three key dimensions that may lead to a taxonomic approach to selection of the appropriate strategy with in a supply chain as: • Product characteristics • Demand characteristics • Replenishment lead time
He marries together particular combinations of lean/agile operations and develops a taxonomy suitable for matching pipelines to meet market requirements based on demand(Predictable/volatile), Product(standard/special) and lead times( short/long).

Arguments for effective logistics:
Logistics is an important component of supply chain management (Stank et al., 2005). Logistics management may be defined as “that part of Supply Chain Management that…...

Similar Documents

International Trade

...International Trade Simulation The term international trade is defined as the economic interaction among different nations involving the exchange of exports and imports. The main principle of international trade is comparative advantage, which indicates that every country, no matter their level of development, can find something that it can produce cheaper than another country. The purpose of the International Trade Simulation is to show how countries interact with one another when exporting and importing. International trade depends on nations working together, while looking out for their own personal interests. When I began the International Trade Simulation my strategy was to acquire as much wealth as I could for my nation, South America. As the game progressed I began to switch strategies and began to acquire as many different goods as I could for my nation, so that I could offer the people of my nation an array of goods. The global economy at the beginning of my game was horrible and did not proceed to get much better as the game went on. Even though the global economy was bad I was still able to achieve my first goal of acquiring as much wealth as I could. I did this by exporting my goods at top dollar. I found that some countries would buy what I was exporting no matter what price I would ask for even though the global economy was poor, especially when I was exporting crude oil. This made sense to me because most countries depend of crude oil for......

Words: 560 - Pages: 3

International Trade

...The Heckscher-Ohlin theory explains why countries trade goods and services with each other. One condition for trade between two countries is that the countries differ with respect to the availability of the factors of production. They differ if one country, for example, has many machines (capital) but few workers, while another country has a lot of workers but few machines. According to the Heckscher-Ohlin theory, a country specializes in the production of goods that it is particularly suited to produce. Countries in which capital is abundant and workers are few, therefore, specialize in production of goods that, in particular, require capital. Specialization in production and trade between countries generates, according to this theory, a higher standard-of-living for the countries involved. New notes The Heckscher Ohlin model Introduction The Heckscher Ohlin model Predicts that different factor endowments between countries is a key issue in the international trade flows but others such a WW Leontief, who in 1954 tried o test the theory empirically, found that this model failed to explain United States trading patterns. Read more: The Heckscher Ohlin assumption The Heckscher Ohlin theory explains why countries trade good and services to each other. To apply this theory countries have to respect conditions; one of those is that the countries obviously differ with respect to the......

Words: 2387 - Pages: 10

Trade Barriers to International Trade

...WHAT IS GLOBAL/INTERNATIONAL TRADE? Global trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories. In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product (GDP). While international trade has been present throughout much of history (see Silk Road, Amber Road), it’s economic, social, and political importance has been on the rise in recent centuries. Industrialization, advanced transportation, globalization, multinational corporations, and outsourcing are all having a major impact on the international trade system. Increasing international trade is crucial to the continuance of globalization. Without international trade, nations would be limited to the goods and services produced within their own borders. International trade is, in principle, not different from domestic trade as the motivation and the behavior of parties involved in a trade do not change fundamentally regardless of whether trade is across a border or not. The main difference is that international trade is typically more costly than domestic trade. The reason is that a border typically imposes additional costs such as tariffs, time costs due to border delays and costs associated with country differences such as language, the legal system or culture. Another difference between domestic and international trade is that factors of production such as capital and labor are typically more mobile within a country than across......

Words: 7774 - Pages: 32

International Logistic

...products match the changing markets trends and needs and to guarantee the delivery of sample products within 14–21 days of order. ZK produce toys for the home market but also work with a number of international toy manufacturers and retailers in Europe, the USA, Canada, Australia and Japan. They currently undertake contract manufacture work for six companies based internationally as well as supplying 100 buyers in China and throughout South East Asia, Japan and Australia from their own portfolio. Over the past 10 years they have steadily increased their international partnerships and have built a reputation for quality products, adaptability, flexibility, excellent customer service and delivery reliability. Currently they manage a 95% availability on stock items. The company is very aware of the highly volatile and competitive market they operate in and have had experience in dealing with several new product launches in the USA, Canada and Europe which have demanded high production volumes and strict delivery schedules. The production facilities are well run, modern, meet ISO9000 standards and have an excellent safety record. ZK currently employ two specialist dedicated international logistics organisations to deal with their international deliveries and to help them meet their customer service and fulfillment targets. On a more local level they run a fleet of delivery lorries to supply adjacent provinces and to move materials between......

Words: 1259 - Pages: 6

International Trade Logistics Ldo1

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE LOGISTICS & DOCUMENTATION ASSIGNMENT- Logistics details of Light Diesel Oil HS Code - 27101940 (Individual Assignment) Introduction Light diesel oil (LDO), a class of diesel whose density relatively light. It falls under class C category fuel having flash point above 66 degree Celsius. LDO is widely used in automobile and engines with an rpm less than 750, tractor and the diesel engine for high speed diesel engine fuel ships, mines, power generation, drilling and other equipment. LDO, is a blend of components from the distillation process of diesel. LDO is also referred to as distillate fuel or marked oil since it is marked with a coloring substance. A number of properties must meet standard requirements for a fuel to be classified as LDO. List of properties mentioned below: • The water content of LDO must not exceed 0.25 percent of volume. The viscosity of LDO at 40 degrees Celsius must be a minimum of 2.5 centistrokes and a maximum of 15.7 centistrokes. LDO is required to have a Sulphur content of less than 1.8 percent by weight. Sediment levels must be below 0.1 percent by weight. Ash content must be less than 0.02 percent by weight. LDO must contain less than 1.5 percent carbon residue. The cetane number of LDO is 45. This measure of combustion quality can be up to 100 but most premium diesels are around 60. A higher cetane number means the fuel is of higher quality. The pour point is the lowest temperature that the fuel will flow. This......

Words: 2380 - Pages: 10

International Trade

...Module Code: EO314 Module Title: ISSUES IN INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS Module Convenor: Stephen Smith ID: 03004367 Topic: INTERNATIONAL TRADE This project will attempt to research and gain an understating of whether there is linkage between trade liberalisation and poverty in (SSA) sub Saharan Africa. The project will contain a balance of key analytical approaches and empirical evidence on trade liberalisation and economic growth. In the world of economics and politics, trade and poverty is one of the major issues which has been debated over last decade. On the international stage, there is a growing concern among super powers, African leaders, and other observers that the independence and credibility of the state continues to be endangered due to the negative balance of trade, heavy dependence on international aid and the high levels of indebtedness in Sub Saharan Africa. The debt relief has come to be viewed not only as a basic condition for arresting Africa’s socio-economic decline but also for stimulating and sustaining development. Consequently, debt has had an adverse impact on the majority of the population, poverty, unemployment and socio-economic, inequalities has increased, physical infrastructures has deteriorated, political and civil conflicts have worsened and corruption has become more persistent. The concern with how to tackle the debt crisis has led to a number of developments, however the main one is for the G-8 countries to have......

Words: 3689 - Pages: 15

International Trade

...cities within a country is called a trade. Through the trading process people of the respective countries or states gain a greater choice of products or services that otherwise would not be available to them. For example let’s take a look at United States and Finland. Although United States has vast forests, they can lack a certain quality that is in demand for the country, in this case the wood- based products from Finland might be of a certain quality that fills a gap in the U.S. marketplace (2008, John J. Wild). In order to fulfill the need U.S. would either purchase, sell, or exchange goods to fulfill there demand. In the olden days trade was done in a form of barter system. This is where commodities were exchanged rather then currency. Commodities that were being exchanged had equal values and were equally desirable to both parties ( In the modern world, money is used for exchange and the barter system is extinct. The concept of trade is centered on the simple activity of the exchange of goods and services. In relation to trade and world output, we must remember that world output almost always will influence the amount of international trade. If the world economic output decides to take a slump then it will cause the level of international trade to slow down. On the flip side if output increases then it will generate a larger amount of International trade (Associated Content, 2009). However, the primary reason why Trade and World Out put are closely......

Words: 960 - Pages: 4

International Trade

...a. Section 47 b. Section 88 c. Section 74 d. Section 40 Risks arising out of foreign law due to________________. a. Lack of knowledge about foreign market b. Expensive and complex litigation c Both ‘a’ & ‘b’ d. None of the above Import LC is also known as ______________________. a. Letter of Debt b. Bills of exchange c. Open account d. Letter of credit How much digits are there in IEC number? a. 8 b. 10 c. 12 d. 15 What is the full form of RFID? a. Rural Fund Information Development b. Request For International Development c. Radio Frequency Identification System d. Radio Frequency Internal System The Export Inspection Council is a _____________________. a. Support the export corporation b. Responsible for the enforcement of QC c. Administrative control of the ministry of Commerce & industry d. Provides consultancy to export organization 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1 IIBM Institute Of Business Management Examination Paper: Export and Import Management 7. The World Trade Organization was formed in_________________. a. 1994 b. 1995 c. 1996 d. 1997 Government policies are related to__________________________. a. Income tax b. Sales tax c. Both ‘a’ & ‘b’ d. None of the above Clearing and forwarding agents are an important link between_______________. a. The exporter and various other agencies b. The importer and various other agencies c. Import and export of goods d. All of the above 8. 9. 10. Which Regional issues are important to commercial success? a.......

Words: 3217 - Pages: 13

International Trade

...SATAKUNNAN AMMATTIKORKEAKOULU SATAKUNTA UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES Anna Tulinen FACING THE CHALLENGES IN EXPORTING TO RUSSIA SCHOOL OF BUSINESS RAUMA Degree Programme in International Business and Marketing Logistics 2007 TIIVISTELMÄ VENÄJÄN VIENNIN HAASTEIDEN KOHTAAMINEN Tulinen, Anna Satakunnan ammattikorkeakoulu International Business and Marketing Logistics Liiketalouden Rauman yksikkö Tammikuu 2007 Tanhua, Daniela Sivumäärä: 85 Avainsanat: kansainvälinen kauppa, vienti, Venäjä Opinnäytetyön aiheena on Venäjän viennin ongelmien tutkiminen. Työ pitää sisällään teoreettisen osuuden, jonka pohjalta empiirinen tutkimus on tehty. Tarkoituksena oli selvittää minkälaisia ongelmia pienet ja keskisuuret suomalaiset yritykset kohtaavat viedessään tuotteitaan Venäjälle. Venäjän WTO-jäsenyysneuvottelut ovat loppuvaiheessaan ja työn tarkoituksena on myös eritellä niitä etuja, joita tuo jäsenyys saattaa tuoda mukanaan Venäjän kauppaa käyville yrityksille. Teoreettinen osuus kuvailee kansainvälistä kauppaa ja vientiä. Osassa, joka käsittelee kansainvälistä kauppaa, kuvaillaan lyhyesti kansainvälistä markkinointi ympäristöä sekä luetellaan kansainvälisen kaupan esteet ja ne syyt, joiden mukaan valtiot pyrkivät estämään kansainvälistä kauppaa. Kappaleen loppu keskittyy käsittelemään logistiikan tärkeyttä ja ongelmia kansainvälisessä kaupassa. Viennin osuudessa käsitellään viennin peruskäsitteitä sekä kansainvälisen kaupan dokumentaatiota ja tullin roolia. Viitekehys......

Words: 25512 - Pages: 103

International Trade

...ADMINISTRATION DU COMMERCE INTERNATIONAL François Soulet de Brugière 16 avenue de la Clairière 59650 Villeneuve d’Ascq Tél mobile : +33 (0)6.0779.0699 e-mail : I. Le monde et sa diversité 21 I - A : Les perceptions du monde 21 I-A-1 / La perception de l’espace 21 I-A-2 / La perception du temps 22 I-A-3 / La perception de l'argent 23 I-A-4 / La perception du rapport à l'autre 23 I-A-5 / Les espaces économiques mondiaux, 23 I - B : Territoire national, territoire douanier et territoire fiscal 41 I-B-1 / La France : 83 territoires et possessions à ce jour : 41 I-B-2 / Le territoire fiscal communautaire 41 I-B-3 / Les principaux opérateurs du commerce extérieur 43 II. Etre présents sur les marchés étrangers 43 II - A : Les différentes formes de distribution 43 II-A-1 / Les trois formes de distribution 43 II-A-2 / Le transfert de savoir-faire 43 II-A-3 / 7 Critères capitaux de sélection d’un fournisseur 44 II-A-4 / Les possibilités de représentation commerciale à l'étranger 44 II-A-5 / L’entreprise conjointe (Joint Venture – JV) 44 II-A-6 / Les zones franches (Free Trade Zone) 45 II-A-7 / Le dispositif français d'aide à l'export en matière commerciale 45 II-A-8 / Les entreprises françaises et l’export 52 II-A-9 / Une esquisse de droit international : l’arbitrage international. 53 II-A-10 / Le......

Words: 49583 - Pages: 199

International Trade Logistics Could Be Termed Is Reflection.

...International trade logistics could be termed is reflection of Governmental Policies, Geopolitics, foreign relations ,World Economy, Infrastructure development, Skilled workforce and Secured Supply Chain etc. Governmental policies: Exchange logistics may be characterized as the procedural and narrative foundation of generation and transport logistics which empowers cargo to change hands by method for business exchanges. At the heart of exchange logistics lies the arrangement of guidelines overseeing business reports and systems, saving money what's more, money related securities, transport and delivering bills, and shows which control worldwide streams of products by organizing supply and request from vender to purchaser and of installment from purchaser to dealer. The merchandise's physical development from creation to last destination may be prove by proper records. Installment, be that as it may, is affected by trust between the business parties, their requirement for money, and by administrative exchange arrangements and trade control regulations. Thusly, the "narrative credit" procedure is at the heart of exchange logistics, and is a critical universally perceived strategy by which installment of universal exchange emerges Geo-politics: Worldwide worth chains have turned into a predominant element of the world economy. With creation progressively divided and frequently disseminated crosswise over national limits, accomplishment in worldwide exchange......

Words: 1480 - Pages: 6

International Logistics goal. In recent years, many manufacturing and retail firms have been relocating their sourcing strategies to the East. The reason in the globalization of supply chain is undoubtedly to lower the cost of resources and labor, and also to benefit from favorable exchange rates. According to the researchers, empirical evidence suggests that supply chains are forming to help deliver to the flattening forces. Multiple supply chain structures such as loosely-coupled global supply chains and increased use of counter trade in cross country businesses are emerging to effectively address changes caused by flattening forces. As we can see, the supply chain once a factor of flatter world, is now changing to meet the needs of the flat world. QUESTION 2 Logistics comprises a relatively large number of managerial activities. Discuss five of these activities and why they are important to logistics system. 1. Transportation Transportation is one of important activity in logistics. It is the major connector of the upstream and downstream of a supply chain. Transportation involves the physical movement or flow of raw materials or finished goods to the retail end and involves the transportation agencies that provide service to the firm. It is the major promoter of globalization and as such is one that is to be given high attention to ensure efficiency of the chain. In terms of cost, transportation costs account for a large proportion of any mature supply chain system. 2.......

Words: 1030 - Pages: 5

International Trade

...The International Trade of Solar Power International Business The United States is in the midst of a power crisis. Rolling blackouts in California, Mother Nature taking a toll on aged and outdated power infrastructure and Peoples dependence on power are a few contributing factor to this power crisis. The wind and solar alternative energy sources seem to be the way of the future. The only problem is they are not reliable 24/7. Just because the sun is going to shine, and the wind is going to blow tomorrow, does not mean we will have electricity in our homes tonight. Solar power is clean power, seems to be the new catch phrase. You can buy solar panels or lease the panels depending on your current financial situation. According to, there are five things to consider. Cost, maintenance, terms, offsets and return on investment are items to consider. Something you may not have thought about is where the panels are made. There are approximately 28 companies that manufacture and sell solar panels. Of the 28, 12 are made in China, and only four are made in the United States. Two of the 28 total companies that manufacture and sell solar panels hold the market share at 17 percent. Both companies Triana Solar and Yingli Solar, headquartered out of China, produce solar panels there. How good are the panels, what is the life expectancy, and how are they being made all come into question. As the largest Photovoltaic (PV) market in the world, 57 percent......

Words: 1004 - Pages: 5

International Trade

...International Trade Today, international trade has grown to be both complicated and essential to the survival of global economies for the future. International trade has been able to help third world countries improve their own economic system, therefore bettering the lives of the people who live there. For those countries who have opened themselves up to international trade, or world trade, they have opened a door for their economy to prosper and raise the living quality of all citizens (International Monetary, 2001). This in turn helps out the economy of all countries that trade. International trade is the trade of any good, service, funds, or anything else that can be traded between any person, company, and any type of organization in different countries (Griffin, 2010). This trading enables countries to use their assets to the best of their ability. By trading for something another country has, a country can save resources for making that product and use the resources to make something else they may need. World output is the total amount of economic production within a given time frame from all different countries. This would include any industries from goods to services. With world output measures the production of the economy, this tells where all goods are produced, which countries can produce which products more productively, and which countries are trading with which countries (Griffin, 2010). Knowing where the products are creates more international trade......

Words: 1003 - Pages: 5

International Trade

...the grass waiting to be evaporated by the winter sun; we cannot imagine the smell of first rain falling in the thirsty land of summer. Does our generation know the beauty of fireflies in the eclipse of moon, the molasses rolling down from date tree, the majesty of desultory white cloud flying aimlessly in the sky of autumn? They cannot. Even we cannot recall the fabric of our rural life that has been woven from the time immemorial. But we are looking it. We feel the enigmatic call nature from the heart of modernity and artificiality. Our untamed mind likes to escape us sometime. But we fail to trade off, being stuck, between the lure of urbanity and the crying for nature. Our thirst for embracing the nature is continuously enriching our tourism sector. Industry Analysis Tourism in Bangladesh is a slowly developing foreign currency earner. The country has much to attract international and domestic tourists. Bangladesh as a holiday making land exposes too many flamboyant surfaces. Its tourist attractions are many folded, which include archaeological sites, historical mosques and monuments, resorts, beaches, picnic spots, forests and tribal people, wildlife of various species. Bangladesh offers ample opportunities to tourists for angling, water skiing, river cruising, hiking, rowing, yachting, sea bathing, surfing as well as bringing one in close touch with pristine nature. Bangladesh is a very small country, broken into 6 administrative......

Words: 7825 - Pages: 32