Microeconomics 2

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* MIKROEKONOMIE II.
NÁSTROJE MIKROEKONOMIE
Předmět zkoumání
MIE zkoumá rozhodování tržních subjektů, jako jsou jednotlivci, firmy a stát
Tržní subjekty: * Jednotlivci -domácnosti - Rozhodují zejména o tom co, kde, kdy a kolik nakoupí – determinováno chutí, přáním a preferencemi – a tím rozhodují o struktuře výstupu společností * Firmy - Rozhodují o tom, co budou vyrábět, za jakou P, v jakém Q a technologii, dále také marketing… * MI se zajímá volbou výstupu a volbou ceny (max. zisk = optimální výstup) * Existence firmy spojená s transakčními náklady = náklady na vyjednání a použití (nájmu či koupi) výrobních faktorů * ***transakční N trhu > než transakční N firmy… je ekonomicky výhodné, aby byla výroba organizována prostřednictvím firem*** * Stát - Vytváří právní normy, v jejichž rámci probíhá ekonomická činnost * Státní firmy * * Činnosti v rámci ekonomického systému * Spotřeba - impuls pro existenci a rozvoj výroby na základě spotřebitelovi spotřeby * Výroba – proměna zdrojů ve statky (fyzická - tvorba, časová - uskladnění, prostorová - přeprava) * Směna - výměna prostřednictvím trhu *
Má-li ekonomický systém správně fungovat, měl by plnit následující funkce: * Alokovat zdroje mezi alternativní užití * Kombinovat je za účelem výroby * Rozdělovat vyrobené statky * Vytvářet impulsy pro rozvoj jednotlivce a celé společnosti * Realizace pomocí cenových systémů – proto se mi často označuje jako teorie cen
ALE! Cenový systém nefunguje na: nežádoucí spotřebu (drogy), v případě strategických oblastí (zemědělství, obrana) nebo veřejných statků, externalit… zde je potřeba aktivizace státu
Základní metody a nástroje MIE analýzy
Zjednodušeně řečeno, zkoumání MIE se zaměřuje zejména na: * Zjišťování optima –…...

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