In: Science

Submitted By mosab8890

Words 289

Pages 2

Words 289

Pages 2

Introductory Section

Yes, it defines the governmental reporting entity and the primary government is The Lansing Building Authority. Component unites are The Lansing Entertainment & Public Facilities Authority, Tax Increment Finance Authority, the Smart Zone, and the Brownfield Redevelopment Authority

Yes, the introductory section discusses the financial condition of the reporting entity at the balance sheet date.

Yes, it discuss the most significant changes in financial condition occurred that year like Lansing’s regional unemployment rate has dropped more than 2% and is one of the lowest rates in Michigan

Yes, it alerts the reader to forthcoming changes in the financial condition e.i. The former Knapps Centre, a $36 million, historic 150,000 sf. former department store in downtown Lansing, will be renovated next year into a mixed use development

Yes, it includes a list of principal officials and organization chart

Yes, it includes a certificate of achievement for excellence in financial reporting and that’s its 33rd consecutive certificate

Financial Section

Yes, it is audited by the independent Rehmann CPA firm, and it’s the City of Lansing’s responsibility for an accurate financial statement. Yes the auditors express their opinion in the financial statement. The opinion is qualified. The opinion only covers the basic financial statement.

Yes, it contains the two government wide financial statements and the seven fund statements (governmental, proprietary, and fiduciary). There are four notes follow the basic financial statements. Yes there is a phrase at the bottom of the basic financial statements indicating that the notes are an integral part of the financial statements.

Yes, the CAFR provides combining and individual fund statements. The combining statements only aggregate the nonmajor funds

Yes, CAFR contains MD&A. The MD&A is located in…...

...Introduction to Discrete Structures --- Whats and Whys What is Discrete Mathematics ? Discrete mathematics is mathematics that deals with discrete objects. Discrete objects are those which are separated from (not connected to/distinct from) each other. Integers (aka whole numbers), rational numbers (ones that can be expressed as the quotient of two integers), automobiles, houses, people etc. are all discrete objects. On the other hand real numbers which include irrational as well as rational numbers are not discrete. As you know between any two different real numbers there is another real number different from either of them. So they are packed without any gaps and can not be separated from their immediate neighbors. In that sense they are not discrete. In this course we will be concerned with objects such as integers, propositions, sets, relations and functions, which are all discrete. We are going to learn concepts associated with them, their properties, and relationships among them among others. Why Discrete Mathematics ? Let us first see why we want to be interested in the formal/theoretical approaches in computer science. Some of the major reasons that we adopt formal approaches are 1) we can handle infinity or large quantity and indefiniteness with them, and 2) results from formal approaches are reusable. As an example, let us consider a simple problem of investment. Suppose that we invest $1,000 every year with expected return of 10% a year. How much...

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...are using drugs and alcohol and every one out of ten schoolgirl are pregnant. We encounter many discipline problems and not all the teachers are capable to deal with this learners. Our learner total are 920 and the teachers are 26 . The school have a teacher and classroom shortage . There are many social problems at the school and they are struggling mostly with Mathematics . Our feeder school is the local primary school and the total of the gr. 8 learners are near 300 every year. These Gr. 8 learners are very weak in Mathematics and the class sizes are 50 and more. The Gr 9 classes are also very big and most of them pass not Mathematics at the end of the year , but been condened to Gr. 10 . Usually there are only one gr. 10, 11 and Gr.12 class for Mathematics. The passrate for Mathematics in Gr. 9 are so poor that only 10 % of the learners can do pure Mathematics , The rest of the learners should do Mathematical Literacy. The Maths learners are not commited and only a few pass at the end of Gr. 10 . JUSTIFICATION When the grade 8 learners came to our school they usually struggle with Mathematics .The can`t do the basic fractions , do not even know how to use the factors and multiples . in grade 8 the learners are suppose to do know how to get the LCM and the bigests factor . When we do this in class the learners are able to do it but in a test they could not do it. Then in gr. 9 they also can do it but the same problem occurs in a test they get it......

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...Math 479 Prof:Gonzales Reading and Respond to the History of Mathematics in a Large Nutshell This is the first time am reading something on mathematics and I find it very interested especially with the way mathematics came about. Tracing the age of mathematics seems to be very enlighten and it shows how little we know as to compare to how much the people in the ages knew. In this time we have so much of technology to help us out with problem solving but after reading this story on mathematics in a large nutshell made me understand how fortunate we are. It is very interesting to see and ready how people in the centuries used to solve problems and figure equations out on their own. According to the passage I will say that the people of the early times were way smart and intellectual than the people of today societies. This reason behind my saying most of the things that we learn easily today is based on the things they solve without the help of technology. I find so much of things interested in this reading that I do not know where to start and how to start explaining. It actually it helps to clear so much and it had so much of interesting fact that I learn at this moment. All this time I thought the Indians and Chinese was the ones that develop most of the mathematics skills. The reason for my assumption is that most of them are either engineers, and for being that they had to be very good with numbers. Now I get to understand that the Chinese were even around......

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...How to Succeed in Mathematics: A Step-by-step Guide The First Day: 1. Go to class. 2. Get the names, e-mail, and phone numbers of at least 3 classmates whom you can call for information. 3. Get a copy of the syllabus. Read and understand it. 4. Find the instructor's office. This will save you time later on. 5. Find any tutoring or lab facilities that the instructor might mention. This will also save you time later. There is free tutoring in DH 143. 6. Ask about any policies of particular concern to you (attendance policies, late work, etc.). Do not ask questions which are answered in the syllabus. Every Day: 1. Go to class. Stay awake. 2. Make sure to sign or initial the attendance sheet if there is one. 3. Open you notebook. Write the date at the top of the page. Write the topic and sections to be discussed (e.g. Sec. 1.2: Graphs of Equations, and Sec. 1.3: Functions and Their Graphs). 4. Take good notes. This means: a. Your notes must be where you can find them. b. Your notes must be in good order and legible. c. Your notes should cover all the information that was covered in class. This means writing down everything the instructor wrote and almost everything she says. A great deal of important information may not be written. Remember; you are responsible for knowing anything that is even casually mentioned! 5. Ask intelligent questions. These are questions that occur when you do not understand something about the material being......

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... CHAPTER ONE 1. INTRODUCTION The study of mathematics as a subject for both primary and post primary level of education and even in tertiary level of education has been made compulsory because the whole o four life is in mathematics, that why study of mathematics is compulsory by the curriculum planners for both primary and post primary level of education. This is so because of it broader application for all subject and learned in schools, particularly science and technology as well as in our daily life activities especially in the modern world. One of the needs of the Nigerian society which must be given priority today is the advancement of science and technology which is not possible without mathematics. Mathematics is a very important subject which is made compulsory from primary to post primary schools level of education. Since mathematics is an important subject our life, what does mathematics mean? The Academic American encyclopedia defined mathematics as the study of numbers, set of points, and various abstract elements, together with the relations between them and operations performed on them. Wikipedia defined mathematics as the abstract study of topics such as quantity (number) structure, space and change. Mathematic is a science subject that deals with the study of numbers, shapes, sizes and other relationships among the quantities. 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: mathematics is one of the most important and compulsory subjects to be......

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...MATHEMATICS has played a significant role in the development of Indian culture for millennia. Mathematical ideas that originated in the Indian subcontinent have had a profound impact on the world. Swami Vivekananda said: ‘you know how many sciences had their origin in India. Mathematics began there. You are even today counting 1, 2, 3, etc. to zero, after Sanskrit figures, and you all know that algebra also originated in India.’ It is also a fitting time to review the contributions of Indian mathematicians from ancient times to the present, as in 2010, India will be hosting the International Congress of Mathematicians. This quadrennial meeting brings together mathematicians from around the world to discuss the most significant developments in the subject over the past four years and to get a sense of where the subject is heading in the next four. The idea of holding such a congress at regular intervals actually started at The Columbian Exhibition in Chicago in 1893. This exhibition had sessions to highlight the advancement of knowledge in different fields. One of these was a session on mathematics. Another, perhaps more familiar to readers of Prabuddha Bharata, was the famous Parliament of Religions in which Swami Vivekananda first made his public appearance in the West. Following the Chicago meeting, the first International Congress of Mathematicians took place in Zurich in 1897. It was at the next meeting at Paris in 1900 that Hilbert...

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...INFLUENCE OF TEST ANXIETY AND SELF EFFICACY ON MATHEMATICS PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KANDUYI DIVISION OF BUNGOMA DISTRICT By Simiyu, Marango G. Moses E55/5150/2003 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION IN THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION OF KENYATTA UNIVERSITY. OCTOBER, 2010. DECLARATION “This thesis is my original work and has not been presented for a degree in any other University.” Signature _______________ Date Name: Simiyu, Marango G. Moses________ E55/5150/2003 Supervisors: “we confirm that the work reported in this thesis was carried out by the candidate under our supervision as university supervisors. Supervisors: Signature: 1 _______________ Date____________ Prof. Fredrick Moses Okatcha Educational Psychology Department 2 _________________ Prof. Haniel N. Gatumu Educational Psychology Department Date____________ ii DEDICATION To my dear wife Maria and our children, Maureen, Valerie, Bramuel and Gideon. Your support, love and understanding remain a strong inspiration to move on. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Am indebted to acknowledge the invaluable support accorded to me during the period of study by my supervisors Prof. F.M Okatcha and Prof.H.N Gatumu of Kenyatta University. I would also like to appreciate the assistance of Dr. Kwena, Dr.Mweru and Dr.Mugambi of Educational Psychology department for their constructive criticism of this work. I thank Dr. John Wesonga and......

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...LONDON'S GLOBAL UNIVERSITY Mathematics with Management Studies BSc UCAS code: G1N2 www.ucl.ac.uk/prospectus/maths MATHEMATICS WITH MANAGEMENT STUDIES BSc This BSc combines a broad-based training in mathematics with highly practical courses from UCL’s Department of Management Science and Innovation, which will be of direct use to those seeking a career in management. No previous knowledge of management studies is required. Degree summary • • • • Gain transferable skills such as numeracy, problem-solving and logical thinking, which can lead to a large variety of interesting, diverse and well-paid careers. All of the courses given by UCL's Department of Management Science are validated by external experts from the private, public and charitable sectors. Many of our graduates choose to build their management knowledge and experience by following a further management qualification, such as the MBA (Masters in Business Administration). UCL's internationally renowned Mathematics Department is home to world-leading researchers in a wide range of fields, especially geometry, spectral theory, number theory, fluid dynamics and mathematical modelling. Peer Assisted Learning has been pioneered in the department, with second-year students offering support and advice to first years. Your career We aim to develop your skills in mathematical reasoning, problem-solving and accurate mathematical manipulation. You will also learn to handle abstract concepts and to think......

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...Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous. In contrast to real numbers that have the property of varying "smoothly", the objects studied in discrete mathematics – such as integers, graphs, and statements in logic[1] – do not vary smoothly in this way, but have distinct, separated values.[2] Discrete mathematics therefore excludes topics in "continuous mathematics" such as calculus and analysis. Discrete objects can often be enumerated by integers. More formally, discrete mathematics has been characterized as the branch of mathematics dealing with countable sets[3] (sets that have the same cardinality as subsets of the natural numbers, including rational numbers but not real numbers). However, there is no exact definition of the term "discrete mathematics."[4] Indeed, discrete mathematics is described less by what is included than by what is excluded: continuously varying quantities and related notions. The set of objects studied in discrete mathematics can be finite or infinite. The term finite mathematics is sometimes applied to parts of the field of discrete mathematics that deals with finite sets, particularly those areas relevant to business. Research in discrete mathematics increased in the latter half of the twentieth century partly due to the development of digital computers which operate in discrete steps and store data in discrete bits. Concepts and notations from discrete mathematics are......

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...Mathematics and Forensics 8 March, 2015 Math History - 109 In a world filled with technology, accountability, and a desire for higher quality of living; the world owes it all to math. As children grow up and are taught mathematics in countries all over the world; they are all being taught the same language. Math is the universal language of the world and math has changed the world from the time of the Egyptians to the present day era of technology. Mathematicians like Nicolaus Copernicus gave the world the truth of the universe with heliocentrism, while Isaac Newton gave the world the modern laws of physics. Mathematics has even paved its way into music with each beat of music being timed by numbers. Math is everywhere and people with brilliant minds can use mathematics to contribute to the world in very positive ways. One such way is the science of forensics. Without math, forensics could not exist. As population growth increases at an alarming rate, people have to find ways of holding people accountable for unlawful behavior. Forensic science has allowed civilization to evolve and become less barbaric and move towards factual based evidence when solving crimes against nature. Forensic science measures facts involving a crime and figure out the truth behind those measurements. Whether it is the skid marks from a vehicle collision or blood splatter analysis; mathematics is the reason why this can be done. Forensics have paved the way to a better justice system......

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...Running Head: MATHEMATICS and VISUALITY Mathematics and Visuality By: Monica McCarty Jackson State University Mathematics is one of the most useful and fascinating divisions of human knowledge. It includes many topics of study. For this reason, the term mathematics is difficult to define. It comes from a Greek word meaning “inclined to learn.” Most of the basic math taught in school involves the study of number, quantity, form, and relations. Arithmetic, for example, concerns problems with numbers. Algebra involves solving equations in which letters represent unknown quantities. Geometry concerns the properties and relationships of figures in space. The most important skills in mathematics are careful analysis and clear reasoning. These skills can help us solve some of the deepest puzzles we must face. Mathematics is based upon logic. Starting from, widely accepted statements, Mathematicians use logic to draw conclusions and develop mathematical systems. The work of mathematicians may be divided into pure mathematics and applied mathematics. Pure mathematics seeks to advance mathematical knowledge for its own sake rather than for any immediate practical use. Applied mathematics seek to develop mathematical techniques for use in science and other fields. In everyday life we use mathematics for simple tasks as telling time from a clock or counting change after making a......

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...Pascal and developed a revolutionary math learning material for children as young as 3 years old. Her mathematical materials allow the children to begin their mathematical journey from a concrete concept to abstract idea”. With reference to the above statement please discuss how these children utilize their mathematical mind as part of their natural progression, to reason, to calculate and estimate with these Montessori mathematical materials in conjunction with their aims and presentations? The child doesn’t learn mathematics only through Montessori, but he learns it from the day he was born or even before that. It is a known fact that an embryo can hear its mother. When a mother says ‘the baby kicked me 4 times’, the baby can understand this in her womb. After the baby is born people often tell him what day he was born or how many siblings he has, etc. The child’s day-to-day life and environment is connected with math. The child is born into a mathematic world where he has to adapt to it. The child needs math to sort and group objects within their environment. When the child enters the Montessori environment, he can already count without knowing the real meaning of the numbers (rote-counting). He counts with understanding of numbers and gradually learns arithmetic’s, geometry and algebra in the Montessori classroom. ‘The Mathematical Mind’ refers to the unique tendencies of the human mind. The French philosopher B. Pascal said that ‘every human being is born with......

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...Teaching Mathematics Teaching Mathematics My interest in teaching mathematics came from the experience of helping others. I have always enjoyed learning math, and I realized that I also like helping other people learn math, especially those that struggle with it or those who have a disliking for it. As a teacher, I will be able to fulfill my aspirations; both my students and I will learn together and from one another. I feel that it is important for me, as a teacher, to stay current and deepen my understanding of mathematics and mathematics education. My learning will continue from my experiences and interactions as a teacher, helping me to become a better educator. I must always be willing to learn from the things I do and use this to better my teaching style, which will, in turn, benefit my students’ learning. To begin, I want to be able to benefit my students’ learning by aiding them in understanding math and realizing that, although they may not think so, math is practical in real life. In particular, I want to work with students at the secondary grade level because as kids get older they seem to lose their enthusiasm for learning, especially in mathematics. I would like to help my students maintain an interest in all their learning, especially math. Also, it is important when teaching to satisfy the needs of all students in the classroom. Everyone should have the opportunity to learn. However, this can sometimes be a difficult task because learning happens in a......

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...EFFICIENCY LEVEL IN SOLVING POLYNOMIAL EQUATIONS AND THEIR PERFORMANCE IN MATHEMATICS OF GRADE 9 STUDENTS A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Teacher Education Program Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Colleges General Santos City In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in Mathematics Armando V. Delino Jr. October 2015 TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents Page Title Page i Table of contents ii CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING 1 Introduction 1 Theoretical Framework Conceptual Framework Statement of the problem Hypothesis Significance of the study Scope of the study Definition of terms CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY Research Design Research Locale Sampling Technique Research Instrument Statistical Treatment CHAPTER 1 PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING Introduction In Mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of variables (or indeterminates) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and non-negative integer exponents. Polynomials appear in a wide variety of areas of Mathematics and Science. For example, they are used to form polynomial equations, which encode a wide range of problems, from elementary word problems to complicated problems in the Sciences; they are used to define polynomial functions, which appear......

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...the Performance of Selected Public and Private Schools in Mathematics 7: Basis for Learning Difficulties in Real Numbers RESEARCHERS: Fanuncio, Rowena Mae B. Huit, Richell G. Javier, Rajah Mae R. Nicolas, April Joy A. Resulto, Paul James M. ADVISER: Mr. Anjo M. Abaratigue The main goal of the study is to compare the Performance of Selected Public and Private Schools in Mathematics 7 as basis for learning difficulties in Real Numbers. Specifically, this seeks to answer the following questions: 1. What are the strengths of the respondents in Real numbers of the public and private schools? 2. What are the learning difficulties or weaknesses of the respondents in Real numbers of the public and private schools? 3. What are the performances of the respondents in Real numbers of the public and private schools? 4. Is there a significant difference between the performance of public and private schools? 5. Is there a significant difference in the learning competencies in Mathematics 7 as basis for learning difficulties in Real numbers between public and private schools? The study utilized a descriptive method of research. This method was used to obtain information concerning the current status of a phenomenon to describe which exist with respect to variables as condition in a situation. This is suitable in this study where the intention is to describe the level of learning difficulties in mathematics 7 of the grade 8 students between public and......

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