Management Thoughts

In: Business and Management

Submitted By misegayoong
Words 1150
Pages 5
Douglas McGregor introduced two theories that are still commonly used for motivation and management today. They are Theory X and Theory Y. He was influenced by Dr Abraham Maslow’s Humanistic School of Psychology and based his researches on Dr Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, namely psychological, safety, love, esteem and self actualisation. He saw these two theories (X & Y) as two quite separate attitudes.
He was a forerunner for seeing the need of values-based leadership. These’s values are from one’s belief, assumptions about what seems to cause what, and fundamental attitudes. McGregor’s goal was to introduce a framework that provides ways of liberating the employees from authoritarian leadership and management with a good balance of soft and hard management styles.
Managements that are hard or strong had an environment of command and control involving close supervision, tight controls and limited flexibilities as opposed to soft management which involve satisfying employees’ demands, seeks harmony and being permissive with more flexibility which employees will cooperate in return. Having said these, hard and soft management are not the best management styles. The hard approach resulted in hostility, low-output, and extreme union demands and the soft approach resulted in increasing desire for greater reward in exchange for diminishing work output.
The characteristic of McGregor’s Theory X is much of a top-down approach of decision making. It is a conventional authoritarian management style which had the believe that employees had little ambition at work, prefer to work as little as possible, find great comfort with security above everything., dislike responsibilities and prefer to be led. Motivation is managed through fears, threats, punishments and occasional rewards and as a result, employees have no initiative to move forward voluntarily. Subordinates do…...

Similar Documents

Assignment on Management Thought

...Early management Writers Chapter- 4 Compared with the two preceding centuries, the 1800s brought forth a veritable wealth of literature on management. Economists perceived of and wrote about managerial concepts, the functions of management, and the applications of management theory. Samuel P Newman wrote in 1835, needed to constitute a good undertaker, a combination of qualities, rarely found united in the same individual. He should possess an unusual share of foresight and calculation, that his plans may be well laid. He must also exhibit perseverance and consistency of purpose in carrying his plans into execution. This is assuredly an impressive set of qualifications to add to Adam Smith’s simple list of “order, economy, and attention”. J.S. Mill adds two important qualifications to the list: Fidelity and zeal. Moving into the concepts of management, many of the economists of this period distinguished between the functions of a manager and the functions of the organizations. Most of the writers write about functions of a manager. Turgot was concerned with direction and control, Bowker felt that organizing and directing were a manager’s chief functions. Of all these writers, Neman alone appeared to have the sharpest focus when he wrote that a manager’s functions are “planning, arranging, and conducting the different processes of production. Actually time and motion study was researched by Adam Smith in his Wealth of Nations. The economists of this period were......

Words: 1253 - Pages: 6

Evelution of Management Thought

...വിഭവ ളം ഉപേയാഗി പ്െപടാെത വ േ ാൾ, പണ ിന്െറ വികാസേമാ േചാദനവർധനവിേല നയി മ സംേവദ േളാ വില വർധി ി ം. തത്ഫലമായി ഉപേയാഗി പ്െപടാതിരി ഉത്പാദനഘടക െള ഉപയ മാ തിലെട ഉത്പാദനം വർധി . ഇത് െതാഴിലില്ലായ നിശ്േശഷം ഇല്ലാതാ വെര ടർ െകാ ിരി ം. ഈ ഘ ം കഴി ാൽ, പണ ിന്െറ പരിമാണേമാ ചര കൾ േചാദനേമാ വർധി ാൽ വില വർധി െമ ിലം ഉത്പാദനേമാ െതാഴിേലാ വർധി കയില്ല. ഇതിൽ ആദ െ വിഭാഗ ിൽപ്െപ വിലവർധന നല്ലതാെണ ് െകയിൻസ് വാദി . അ മലം അലസമായിരി ഉത്പാദനഘടക ൾ ഉപേയാഗി പ്െപടകയം െതാഴിലം ഉത്പാദനവം വർധി കയം െച . ര ാമെ തര ില വിലവർധന ഉത്പാദന ിന്െറേയാ െതാഴിലിന്െറേയാ വർധനെയ സഹായി ാ തിനാൽ അത് േദാഷകരമാണ്. ര ാമെ വിഭാഗ ിൽപ്െപ വില വർധനെയയാണ് െകയിൻസ് നാണയപ്െപ െമ ് നിർവചി ത്. Economics Economie s by re gion [ ദർശി ി ക] General categories Microeconomics · Macroeconomics History of economic thought Methodology · Mainstream & heterodox Mathematical & quantitative methods Mathematical economics · Game theory Optimization · Computational Econometrics · Experimental Statistics · National accounting Fields and subfields Behavioral · Cultural · Evolutionary Growth · Development · History International · Economic systems Monetary and Financial economics Public and Welfare economics Health · Education · Welfare Population · Labour · Managerial Business · Information Industrial organization · Law Agricultural · Natural resource Environmental · Ecological Urban · Rural · Regional · Geography ഉ ട ം 1 േചാദനേ രകവം െചലവേ രകവമായ വിലവർധന. 2 നാണയപ്െപ വിടവ് 3 നാണയപ്െപ ിന്െറ ഫല ൾ 4 നാണയപ്െപ നിയ ണം 5 പണപ്െപ ം അവികസിതരാജ ളിൽ 6......

Words: 2196 - Pages: 9

School of Management Thought: an Introductory Overview

...1. What are the features of the major management thought schools? The major schools of management theory can be, according to the author Koontz, classified into six main groups: 1) The Management Process School: which deals with management as being a process of getting things done through and with people operating in organized groups. This school is also called the “traditional” or “universalist” school, and is fathered by Henri Fayol. It views management theory as a way of organizing experience for practice, research and teaching. It begins by defining the functions of managers. 2) The Empirical School: which deals with management as being a study of experience that has to be taught and transferred to the practitioner or student. Koontz mentions Ernest Dale's comparative approach as an example which involves the study and analysis of cases. The general idea is that generalizations can be drawn from cases that can be applied as guides in similar situations. 3) The Human Behavior School: which believes that since managing involves getting things done with and through people, then the study of management must be centered on interpersonal relations. It’s also called the “human relations”, “leadership”, or “behavioral sciences” approach. Its theory focuses on the motivation of the individual viewed as a socio-psychological being. 4) The Social System School: which identifies the nature of the cultural relationships of various social groups and attempts to show these as a......

Words: 1231 - Pages: 5

Early Management Thought

... Early Management Thought in Perspective      Management is not a new concept. It has been employed for thousands of years, as seen in the practices of the Sumerians, the Romans, and the Roman Catholic Church. However, the emergence of the factory system.  presented management with a new challenge. With industrialization it became necessary to develop rational, scientific principles for handling workers, materials, money, and machinery. The scientific managers played a major role in helping attain this objective.      The primary goal of these managers was that of achieving the highest productivity possible by devising efficient work methods and encouraging employees to take advantage of these new techniques. In the United States, scientific management was made famous by people such as Frederick W. Taylor. His experiments at Bethlehem Steel illustrated the importance of time-and-motion study, and his difFerential piece-rate system provides students an insight into the types of wage incentive payment plans used during this period. Another important scientific manager of the day was Frank Gilbreth, renowned for his work in time-and-motion study and for a large body of work in management in which he collaborated with Lillian Gilbreth.      The success of the scientific managers brought about changes in the worker-manager ratio and moved the focus of attention farther up the hierarchy. The result was two distinct levels of inquiry about management. The first sought to......

Words: 421 - Pages: 2

Evolution of Management Thought and Patterns of Management Analysis.

...Evolution of management thought and patterns of management analysis. Scientific management school •A theory is simply a blueprint or roadmap that guides towards achieving the goal. In other wards, it provides a systemic framework for actions. •Study of management only dates for the last century, although there has been concerns about effective management practice for over centuries Scientific management school The two earliest pioneers of management theory are: -Robert Own and -Charles Babbage Scientific management school Robert Own (1771 -1858) A British industrialist who valued the organization’s human resources. Scientific management school He advocated ideas such as, - better working condition - meals for employees - reduced working hours He claimed that people deserve more respect and dignity. Scientific management school *Charles Babbage (1792 -1871) An English Mathematician who encouraged the application of mathematics to solve efficiency problems Scientific management school His work put the basic lines of both classical and quantitative management theories. He was also the originator of modern management theory and practice The classical management theory Includes two approaches: Scientific management Classical management Scientific management Concerned with the management of work and workers. it grew from researches of five people: Scientific management *Fredrick W.Taylor(1856 -1915) He was interested......

Words: 1660 - Pages: 7

Evolution of Management Thought

...The Evolution of Management Thinking 1880 - Scientific Management Frederick Taylor decides to time each and every worker at the Midvale Steel Company. His view of the future becomes highly accurate: "In the past man was first. In the future the system will be first." - Frederick Taylor In scientific management the managers were elevated while the workers' roles were negated. "Science, not rule of thumb, - Frederick Taylor The decisions of supervisors, based upon experience and intuition, were no longer important. Employees were not allowed to have ideas of responsibility. Yet the question remains — is this promotion of managers to center-stage justified? 1929 – Taylorism The Taylor Society publishes a revised and updated practitioner's manual: Scientific Management in American Industry. 1932 - The Hawthorne Studies Elton Mayo becomes the first to question the behavioral assumptions of scientific management. The studies concluded that human factors were often more important than physical conditions in motivating employees to greater productivity. 1946 - Organization Development Social scientist Kurt Lewin launches the Research Center for Group Dynamics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His contributions in change theory, action research, and action learning earn him the title of the “Father of Organization Development:” the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels (group, intergroup, and total......

Words: 1068 - Pages: 5

Management Thought

...What is ERP? ERP is the acronym of Enterprise Resource Planning. ERP utilizes ERP software applications to improve the performance of organizations' resource planning, management control and operational control. ERP software is multi-module application software that integrates activities across functional departments, from product planning, parts purchasing, inventory control, and product distribution, to order tracking. ERP software may include application modules for the finance, accounting and human resources aspects of a business. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) refers to a computer information system that integrates all the business activities and process throughout an entire organization. The objective of ERP is to provide seamless, real-time information to all employees throughout the enterprise. Companies commonly use ERP systems to communicate the progress of orders and projects throughout the supply chain, and to track the costs and availability of value-added services. ERP Definition - A Systems Perspective A sound definition should several purposes: 1. It answers the question of "what is ...?” 2. It provides a base for defining more detailed concepts in the field - ERP Software, ERP systems, ERP implementation etc. 3. It provides a common ground for comparison with related concepts - CRM, SCM etc. 4. It helps answer the basic questions in the field -benefits of ERP, the causes of ERP failure etc. The Goal of an ERP System - The goal of ERP is to...

Words: 1042 - Pages: 5

The Development of Management Thoughts

...THE DEVELOPMENT OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHTS Basic Approaches of Organisational Behavior  An Interdisciplinary Approach: It is integrating many disciplines. It integrates social sciences and other disciplines that can contribute to the Organizational Behavior. It draws from these disciplines any ideas that will improve the relationships between people and organization. Its interdisciplinary nature is similar to that of medicine, which applies physical, biological and social science into a workable medical practice. Organizations must have people, and people working toward goals must have organizations, so it is desirable to treat the two as a working unit.  Scientific Management Approach: The fundamental concern of the scientific management school was to increase the efficiency of the worker basically through good job design and appropriate training of the workers. Taylor is the father of the scientific management movement and he developed many ides to increase organizational efficiency. Taylor showed that through proper job design, worker selection, employee training and incentives, productivity can be increased. The scientific management school advocated that efficiency can be attainted by finding the right methods to get the job done, through specialization on the job, by planning and scheduling, by using standard operating mechanisms, establishing standard times to do the job, by proper selection and training of personnel and through wage incentives.  A Human......

Words: 5903 - Pages: 24

A Summary of the Key Thought Leaders of the Classical School of Management

...A Summary of the Key Thought Leaders of the Classical School of Management Beth J. Beal Mary Baldwin College BUAD200L WA SP2014 Principles of Management A Summary of the Key Thought Leaders of the Classical School of Management Introduction According to Daft (2009) "Management is the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling organizational resources." The classical school of management often referred to as the "Classical School of Thought" was born in the early 1900s out of a need to run organizations efficiently, and it is so named because it comprises the first works and contributions that make up the core of modern management theory. Classical theorists viewed workers as a production instrument and were interested in finding ways to use people efficiently or in "one best way" through the application of science (Lindsey, 1998). It was also during this period of development that the five basic functions of management were identified: planning, organizing, command, coordination, and controlling (Wren, 1994). These five functions are often referred to as "the management process" (Wren, 1994). The classical viewpoint sought to find ways to manage work and run the organization in the most efficient manner, and is made up of the following three major approaches. The scientific management approach represented by the work of Frederick W. Taylor and supporting efforts of Frank and......

Words: 2253 - Pages: 10

Schools of Management Thought

...Schools of Management Thought SCHOOLS OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT Structure 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Objectives Introduction Historical Perspective Theory in Management Classification of Management Theories Classical Management Theory 4.5.1 Scientific Management 4.5.2 Administrative Management 4.5.3 Bureaucratic Organization 4.5.4 Criticisms on Classical Management Theory 4.6 Neo-Classical Theory 4.6.1 Human-Relations School 4.6.2 Behavioural Schools 4.7 Modem Management Theory 4.7.1 Systems Theory 4.1.2 Contingency Theory 4.7.3 Organizational Humanism 4.7.4 Management Science 4.8 Other Schools of Thoughts, Styles and Approaches 4.9 Problems and Conflicts in Management Theories 4.10 Summary 4.11 Key Words 4.12 References and Further Reading 4.0 OBJECTIVES After reading this Unit, you will be able to • know the historical development of schools of management thought; • explain what a theory in management is; • outline the classification of management theories; • describe important schools of management, their contributions and limitations; • elaborate problems and conflicting issues in management theory; and 4.1 INTRODUCTION In the preceding three units of this block you have learnt various scientific principles of management, management functions and what constitutes managerial quality and leadership as propounded by management experts. In this Unit you will have a historical perspective of management approaches or thoughts. The block in toto will set the background about......

Words: 10432 - Pages: 42

Evolution of Management Thought and Patterns of Management Analysis

...MANAGERS AND MANAGING What is Management? "Management is the organizational process that includes strategic planning, setting objectives, managing resources, deploying the human and financial assets needed to achieve objectives, and measuring results. Management also includes recording and storing facts and information for later use or for others within the organization. Management functions are not limited to managers and supervisors. Every member of the organization has some management and reporting functions as part of their job." (Knowledge Management Terms, 2009) Essential Managerial Tasks A manager's job uniquely describes the functions of management, which are most commonly cited as planning, organizing, leading, and controlling, although some managers' jobs identify additional functions. The process of management is defined by the functions of management, which are distinct from accounting, finance, marketing, and other business functions. " These functions provide a useful way of classifying information about management, and most basic management texts since the 1950s have been organized around a functional framework." (Cengage, 2006) Levels and Skills of Managers Most organizations have three levels of management. First-line, middle, and top managers. While first-line managers are responsible for the day-to-day supervision of non-managerial employees, middle managers are responsible for developing and utilizing organizational resources......

Words: 275 - Pages: 2

Management and Creative Thought in World Class Corporation

...Management and Creative Thought in World Class Corporation There is a saying that “Management is an art” which indicated that successful management always associated with creative ways of organize and coordinate of the activities. Creative thought is vital to manager, especially to the managers who worked in world class corporations because some management role in such organization requires the ability to facilitate resources creatively. However, someone may argue that in most developed corporation they have implemented standardized management system. What the managers need to do is just following the guideline and procedure of the corporation so creative thought doesn’t apply to this kind of corporation. In my opinion, if creative thought is required to be a manager that depends on the position in the corporation. According to business dictionary, creative thought is a way of looking at problems or situations from a fresh perspective that suggests unorthodox solutions (Creative). For management, creative thought could be explained as a the manager or team leader looking at the problem of the business at a different point of view and trying to find the solution in an untraditional way sometime involves challenge of the existing business policy or business process. In order to pursue successive development, innovation is unavoidable which requires creative thought in management team, especially in senior management team. In terms of world class corporations, the......

Words: 694 - Pages: 3

Administrative Management Thought

...ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT. Administrative management focuses on the management process and principles of management. In contrast to scientific management, which deals largely with jobs and work at the individual level of analysis, administrative management provides a more general theory of management. Henri Fayol is the major contributor to this school of management thought. Fayol was a management practitioner who brought his experience to bear on the subject of management functions and principles. He argued that management was a universal process consisting of functions, which he termed planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling. Fayol believed that all managers performed these functions and that the functions distinguished management as a separate discipline of study apart from accounting, finance, and production. Fayol also presented fourteen principles of management, which included maxims related to the division of work, authority and responsibility, unity of command and direction, centralization, subordinate initiative, and team spirit. Although administrative management has been criticized as being rigid and inflexible and the validity of the functional approach to management has been questioned, this school of thought still influences management theory and practice. The functional approach to management is still the dominant way of organizing management knowledge, and many of Fayol's principles of management, when applied with the......

Words: 651 - Pages: 3

Thoughts

...catching an attitude. Especially when someone asks me for my two cent and they go against what I tell them. The Last one is Judging. I try not to judge many people. The impressions that people tend to give me, sometimes give me the reason to judge them. I know half the time it is wrong to do. For example, I cannot stand to see any woman in pajama pants outside the house. I think it is very nasty for a woman, to come out of the house like that straight out of the bed. My personality type consist of these types of characteristics: skeptical, often stubborn, critical, independent, and determined. Under most circumstances my day-to-day thoughts are consistent with these traits. Self-management is an important trait when dealing people that tend to get within your circle. Self-management can also mean to be able control your emotions, thoughts, professionalism, temper, and the way you communicate with others....

Words: 461 - Pages: 2

The Evolution of Management Thought

...THE EVOLUTION OF MANAGEMENT THOUGHT Second Edition DANIEL A. WREN The University of Oklahoma JOHN WILEY AND SONS New York • Chichester • Brisbane • Toronto CONTENTS PART ONE EARLY MANAGEMENT THOUGHT A PROLOGUE TO THE PAST 3 A Cultural Framework: The Economic Facet. The Social Facet. The Political Facet. P eople, Management, and Organizations: The Human Being. Organizations and Management. MANAGEMENT BEFORE INDUSTRIALIZATION 15 Management in Early Civilizations: The Near East. The Far East. Egypt. The Hebrews. Greece. Rome. The Catholic Church. Feudalism and the Middle Ages. The Revival of Commerce. T he Cultural Rebirth: The Protestant Ethic. A Criticism of the Weberian Thesis. Modern Support for Weber. The Liberty Ethic. The Market Ethic. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVE The Industrial Revolution in England: The Age of Machines. Management: the Fourth Factor of Production. M anagement Problems in the Early Factory: The Search for Managerial Talent. The Labor Problem. The Shortage of Skilled Labor. Training. Discipline and Motivation. Management Functions in the Early 42 Xll CONTENTS Factory. Cultural Consequences of the Industrial Revolution: The Condition of the Worker. Child and Female Labor. MANAGEMENT PIONEERS IN THE FACTORY SYSTEM Robert Owen: The Search for a New Harmony: Early Managerial Experiences. The Call for Reform. Charles Babbage: The Irascible Genius: The First Computer....

Words: 1240 - Pages: 5