Lab 7

In: Science

Submitted By jnr13b
Words 1350
Pages 6
Justice Ross
Physiology Lab
Dr. Xu
2 March 2016
Frog Skeletal Muscle Lab
Introduction
A biologist by the name Jan Swammerdam performed the first experiments on muscle physiology between 1661 and 1665. Swammerdam demonstrated that an isolated frog muscle can contract if the sciatic nerve is irritated with a metal object. Almost a century later, a physician by the name Luigi Galvani demonstrated that frog muscle responds to electrical currents. In the late 1840s, either Carlo Matteucci or Carl Ludwig attributed to the invention of the kymograph, which is illustrated as a rotating drum powered by a clockwork motor. The invention of the kymograph changed experimental physiology by allowing muscle contractions, and other actions, to be recorded and analyzed for the first time ever. Muscle cells, or muscle fibers, are defined as the basic unit of a muscle. Therefore, complete muscles are constructed from bundles of muscle fibers, but there are no gap junctions between adjacent cells so each fiber performs independently. Myofibrils establish an ordered structure for single muscle fibers. Every myofibril is comprised of actin and myosin. Actin and myosin are contractile proteins that can slide past each other when Ca2+ and ATP are present. A motor unit is described as a single motor neuron and all of its innervating muscle fibers. Like nerve tissue, muscle fibers produce an all-or-none response to a stimulus, generating a twitch. A single motor neuron supplies numerous muscle fibers to make up a motor unit. Motor units can range from a few muscle fibers innervated by a single neuron to thousands innervated. Although most muscles consist of a variety of different motor unit sizes, smaller motor units have finer control of movement. Since the muscles that control movement in the fingers and eyes have smaller motor units, muscles controlling larger limb movements…...

Similar Documents

Lab Report 7

...Lab 7 Mechanical Properties of Polymers Student: Mikel Ricks Class: ME 3701-1 Instructor: Yang Mu This report contains experimental data and results regarding the mechanical properties of polymers. These tests were conducted under controlled environments to determine the tensile strength of certain polymers. Abstract This lab report was constructed from the results of testing the tensile strength of various polymers. These tests were done to determine the material properties, such as modulus of elasticity and the ultimate strength. The polymers that were tested were an acrylic and a nylon sample. Each specimen was placed in a tensile test machine and placed under load until failure. This is an important test because polymers are very lightweight and strong materials and it allows uses for them to be discovered by knowing their tensile strength. After the testing the data showed that the acrylic sample had a higher ultimate strength than the nylon sample. Table of Contents Title | Page No. | Introduction | 3 | Experimental Apparatus and Procedure | 4 | Results | 8 | Discussion | 10 | Conclusion | 10 | References | 10 | Homework | 11 | List of Nomenclature -Engineering Stress -Engineering Strain -Modulus of Elasticity -Ultimate Strength List of Figures and Tables Title | Page No. | Figure 1—Specimen Load Sample | 4 | Figure 2—Instron Machine | 4 | Figure 3—Nylon Stress Strain Curve | 5 | Figure 4—Acrylic Stress Strain......

Words: 1575 - Pages: 7

Lab 7

...encrypt your hard drives content in order to secure it. 3. Name 2 different types of encryption supported by GPG for your key? The MD5 and Sha1 type of hashing encryption are supported by GPG. 4. What happens when you sign and trust a new key to your keychain? A new key is created to include the private and public key based on how the new key was created. 5. If a user sends you his public key will he be able to decrypt your encrypted messages once you import and sign his key? Both parties need to have each other private keys in order to be able to encrypt and decrypt all messages that is exchange among themselves. 6. What are the similarities between an MD5 hash and a fingerprint? They both insert a fingerprint to the data. 7. How would you encrypt a webserver and the pages it serves up? By setting the web server to redirect it’s web traffic to SSL hence encrypting all conversations between server and host in relation to the web traffic. 8. Why is hashing all database inputs not considered encryption of the database? What value does hashing database entries from server to client? Hashing the input entries of a database is not considered encryption because the data in the database is still in a readable. Hash appends to the data as the fingerprint ensuring data integrity is still there....

Words: 291 - Pages: 2

Lab 7

...IS3445 Security Strategies for Web Applications and Social Networking Lab 7 Assessment 05/10/14 1. How does Skipfish categorize findings in the scan report? As high risk flaws, medium risk flaws, and low issue scans 2. Which tool used in the lab is considered a static analysis tool? Explain what is referred to by static code analysis. RATS, because the running of static code analysis tools that attempt to highlight possible vulnerabilities within ‘static’ (non-running) source code. 3. What possible high risk vulnerabilities did the Rats tool find in the DVWA application source code? Allow system commands to execute. 4. Did the static analysis tool find all the potential security flaws in the application? Yes, although such tools like these would automatically find security flaws with high degree of confidence that what it found was a flaw. 5. What is black box testing on a web site or web application? They’re designed to threat the application as an “unknown entity”; therefore, no knowledge of the tiers is provided. 6. Explain the Skipfish command in detail: ./skipfish-o/var/scans/is308lab.org –A admin:password –d3 –b I –X logout.jsp –r200000 http://www.is308lab.org This is a standard, authenticated scan of a well-designed and self-contained site. 7. During the manual code review, what is noticed about high.php to make it less likely to vicitimize users with XSS reflection and why is it considered more secure? Because when a php is at......

Words: 379 - Pages: 2

Lab 7

...forwarding on the fly (without rebooting the system), where the setting is changed instantly; the result will not be preserved after rebooting the system. 5. If you wanted to limit the number of files that a user can open simultaneously on the Fedora Linux Server to a maximum of 1, what is the command syntax you need to enable in the Linux Kernel? su -c 'sysctl -w fs.file-max=1 ' 6. What is the best way to make a system-wide permanent change to the kernel to enable syncookies? Step 1 = Open the /etc/sysctl.conf file in text editor. Step 2 = Find the directive net.ipv4.tcp_syscookies by using the directive net.ipv4.tcp_syscookies = 0 Step 3 = Change the directive's value by using the directive net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1 Save and exit 7. Given a system that has been freshly installed your boss wants you to make sure it is up to date and locked down at the Kernel level. What steps would you take to verify what modules are loaded into the Kernel and how would you go about locking them down? To verify what modules are loaded into the Kernel = cat /proc/modules To lock them down = $ /etc/init.d/sshd stop 8. What would you enable to set the Kernel to debug mode? Why would someone choose to enable this? Have the kernel running under the control of gcb from the beginning by putting 'debug' on the command line. In order to see the IRQ process during start up, in case you want to modify something (eg. module that is not needed). 9. What is the relation between......

Words: 473 - Pages: 2

Lab 7

...Antonio Johnson Class: Access Security Unit: IS3230 September 25, 2014 Lab 2 Design Infrastructure Access Controls for a Network Diagram Lab 2 Answers 1. To check it there I any malware, updates where it be made, and to know if any other viruses are the system or application 2. help to cut down storage and backup cost, to meet legal regulatory requirements for retrieving specific information within a set timeframe. Data strategies are different types and volume. 3. Have backup/ restore for the patch management 4. Networking monitoring allows real-time communication to take place on a data path that’s established and does change. Performances monitoring is circuit-switched networks known for stability and reliability with industry standards, it alarms the network engineers of new attack protocols. It also helps secure IT infrastructure be increasing storage needs 5. I think passwords and PIN are required for multi-factor authentication 6. Systems/Application domain because attackers will target that first. 7. Network-based firewall is a computer network firewall operating at the application layer protocol stack. Hose-based firewall is monitoring any application input, output, or systems services calls are made from. I put in the implementation, the firewall will block out malware and it let me know when the firewall needs to be updated. 8. Consuming Entering Using All 3 controls use permission called authorization which gives users right......

Words: 323 - Pages: 2

Is418 Lab 7 & 8

...Week 4 Lab This lab consists of two parts: Make sure you label each section accordingly and answer all the questions. For this lab it is recommended that you review the Demo Lab presentations in the Unit 7 and Unit 8 Learning Space. Click the PRACTICE link > DEMO LAB > then click the hyperlink to launch the demonstration. Part #1 Apply Hardened Security for the Linux Kernel Learning Objectives and Outcomes Upon completing this lab, students will learn about the following tasks: * Review and tune the kernel parameters on a Fedora Core Linux Server for security and monitoring purposes * Produce kernel versions and loaded options for a better understanding of how the system is configured and to identify potential security vulnerabilities in the Fedora Core Linux Server * Edit /etc/sysctl.conf file and adjust tcp_sysncookies settings to configure secure options for users on a Fedora Core Linux Server * Review and assess the Loaded Kernel Modules (LKM’s) of the target Linux system and provide recommendations on the output and current running configuration * Use and interpret the lmod command output and perform security hardening configurations on the Fedora Core Linux Server Overview This lab is an extension of the previous hands-on labs. This lab continues with the system and security hardening for the Fedora Core Linux Server. In this lab the students need to review and security harden the Linux kernel with security parameters. They......

Words: 1460 - Pages: 6

Lab 7 Circuits

...EMNG 1001 CIRCUIT ANALYSIS LAB #7 – Multisim Date: Student Name & IDN: Lab Partner Name & IDN: ___________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ Notes: 1. Practice safety at all times. Anyone not following safety rules and practices will NOT be permitted to continue with the lab and a “Zero” grade will be applied to the affected student(s). 2. Read and follow ALL lab instructions provided. 3. Answer all questions, neatly, clearly and concisely, on supplied forms. 4. If additional space is required for any work, it must be typed and included as attachments to the main lab report. Make sure all attachments are titled and serially labeled as Attachment A, B, C, etc. 5. Labs are only conducted during scheduled lab times and cannot be made up. A grade of “Zero” will be assigned for missed labs. 6. Complete lab reports are to be submitted at the very next lab class on an alternating week basis.  Students assigned an odd number will hand in a complete lab report for all odd numbered labs (LABS 1, 3, 5, 7, 9).  Students assigned an even number will hand in a complete lab report for all even numbered labs (LABS 2, 4, 6, 8, 10). 7. Upon completion of lab, make sure that the professor reviews and signs off on the lab cover page. If the lab is not signed by the professor or lab supervisor, a grade of “Zero” will be assigned. Professor’s......

Words: 574 - Pages: 3

Nt1210 Lab 7

...Chapter 7 Lab 7.1.1 Why is it impractical for an organization to own the entirety of a WAN? There are no limitations on WANs so they can be custom built for the size of the organization. Why is it favorable for an organization to maintain ownership of the entirety of the LAN? Because the purpose of organizational expansion. Table 7-1 WAN Physical Media MediaInfrastructureSummary UTPPhone linesThe quality of UTP may vary from telephone-grade wire to extremely high-speed cable. The cable has four pairs of wires inside the jacket. Each pair is twisted with a different number of twists per inch to help eliminate interference from adjacent pairs and other electrical devices. CoaxialTelevision cableCoaxial cabling is difficult to install, it is highly resistant to signal interference. In addition, it can support greater cable lengths between network devices than twisted pair cable. Fiber-opticConnecting networks between buildings.Uses a customized infrastructure to run dedicated connections; this is a costly option. Electric power linesThe bulk transfer of electrical energy.This type of media can be used with broadband over power lines (BPL), making use of the extensive infrastructure in place already. Lab 7.1 Review 1.How can cables like UTP and coaxial cable be used for long-distance communication in a WAN infrastructure? Where are these cables used most often? The quality of UTP may vary from telephone-grade wire to extremely high-speed cable. It uses most......

Words: 321 - Pages: 2

Lab 7

...Lab #3 – Assessment Worksheet Data Gathering and Footprinting on a Targeted Web Site Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________ Overview The first phase of hacking is the footprinting phase, which is designed to passively gain information about a target. In this lab, you performed technical research against three Web domains using Internet search tools. You collected public domain information about an organization using the Google search engine to uncover information available on the Internet. Finally, you recorded the information you uncovered in a research paper, describing how this information can make an organization vulnerable to hackers. Lab Assessment Questions & Answers 1. What information can you obtain by using the WHOIS tool contained within Sam Spade? 2. Besides the WHOIS utility covered in this lab, what other functions did you discover are possible with the Sam Spade utility? 3. What is the purpose of the tracert command? What useful information does the trace route tool provide? How can this information be used to attack the targeted website? 4. Is Sam Spade an intrusive tool? What is your perspective on the use of a freeware utility such as Sam Spade? 5. By its......

Words: 341 - Pages: 2

Pt1420 Lab 7

...Lab 7.1 Module main () Declare String keepGoing = “y” While keepGoing == “y” Declare String clientName = “ “ Declare Real feetUTP = 0 Declare Real subTotal = 0 Declare Real taxCost = 0 Declare Real totalCost = 0 Call inputData (feetUTP, clientName) Call calcCosts (feetUTP, subTotal, taxCost, totalCost) Call displayBill (clientName, totalCost) End While End Module Lab 7.2 Lab 7.3 Module Main() Declare integer toPower = 2 Declare integer number = 2 Declare integer counter = 0 While Counter < 7 Set toPower = 2^Number Display 2 to the power of, “number,” is,”toPower,” Counter += 1 Number += 1 End While End Module Lab 7.4 Lab 7.5 Module Module1 Sub Main() Dim keepGoing As String = "yes" Do While keepGoing = "yes" pingMe() Console.Write("Enter yes if you want to run program again") keepGoing = Console.ReadLine() Loop Console.WriteLine("Press enter to continue. ..") Console.ReadLine() End Sub Sub pingMe() Dim counter As Integer = 5 Do While counter > 0 Console.WriteLine("Count down . ") counter = counter - 1 Loop Console.WriteLine("Now ping. ..") Shell("Ping.exe 127.0.0.1", , True) Console.Out.WriteLine(" ") End Sub End Module Lab 7.6 Module Module1 Sub Main() Dim keepGoing As String = "y" ...

Words: 262 - Pages: 2

Pt1420 7 1 Lab

...Unit 7 lab Short Answer Module main () // Declare variable Declare String clientName Declare Real feetUTP=0 Declare Real subtotal=0 Declare Real totalCost=0 Declare String keepgoing=“y” Display “Do you want to make a call?” Type y for yes. Input keepgoing While keepgoing == “y” // Module Calls Call Call Call End Module 7.2 7.3 // Declare loop control variable Declare Integer toPower=2 Declare Integer number=2 Declare Integer counter=0 Do ToPower=number^2 Display “2 to the power of”, number, “is” toPower Counter=counter+1 Number=number+1 While counter < 8 Lab7.4 Declare integer counter = 1 Declare integer toPower = 2 Declare integer number = 2 counter < 7 Display “2 to the power of”, number, “is”, toPower counter = counter + 1 False toPower = 2 ^ number True   Lab7.5 Module Module1 Sub Main() Dim keepGoing As Integer = 1 Dim Count As Integer = 5 pingMe() openWebsite() finalOutput() While Count > 0 Console.WriteLine("Count down ..." & Count) Count -= 1 End While Console.ReadLine() End Sub Sub pingMe() Shell("Ping.exe 127.0.0.1", , True) End Sub Sub openWebsite() Dim myTargetURL As String = "http://www.microsoft.com" System.Diagnostics.Process.Start(myTargetURL) End Sub Sub finalOutput() Console.WriteLine("Complete and explanation of what this program does.") Console.WriteLine("The Shell function and ping.exe check for a response from the web......

Words: 298 - Pages: 2

Nt 1230 Lab 7

...problems Safe Mode Safe Mode is a troubleshooting tool used to allow the user to start computer in a limit state with only the basics running this allows user to remove or roll back drivers Windows 7 Configuration (Custom lab Manual Exam 70-680). A user asks you to troubleshoot his Windows 7 workstation, which is behaving erratically. He has recently purchased and installed a new graphics adapter, and ever since then, he sees occasional wavy lines in the display. You run Device Manager on the system and note the manufacturer, model, and version number of the device driver for the graphics adapter. Then, you check the adapter manufacturer’s web site and discover that there is a new driver available for the adapter. After downloading and installing the driver update, you restart the system. The system appears to start normally, except that the graphical interface has been replaced by incomprehensible noise. Because you can’t see the display, you can’t work with the system. What should you do return the computer to an operational state? The new graphic adapter is most likely interfering with current devices. Boot Windows 7 into safe mode, then use generic driver, and remove the driver from Add Remove Programs and/or get cleaner from piriform.com and run that for removal/general Windows 7 cleaning assistance. If you want a generic hardware test also can run a Linux Live CD from your disc drive, enabled as first boot device in BIOS, visit distrowatch.com look for Linux Mint......

Words: 335 - Pages: 2

Itt Lab 7 Lab Doc

...© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION Lab #7 - Assessment Worksheet Using Encryption to Enhance Confidentiality and Integrity Course Name and Number: _____________________________________________________ john schenberger Student Name: ________________________________________________________________ Instructor Name: ______________________________________________________________ Lab Due Date: ________________________________________________________________ Overview In this lab, you learned how cryptography tools can be used to ensure message and file transfer integrity and how encryption can be used to maximize confidentiality. You used Kleopatra, the certificate management component of GPG4Win, to generate both a public and private key as both a sender and a receiver. You used the sender’s keys to encrypt a file, sent it to the receiver, and decrypted it using the receiver’s copy of the keys. Lab Assessment Questions & Answers 1. If you and another person want to encrypt messages, should you provide that person with your public key, private key, or both? The public key is the only key that I will share with another person as part of the handshake in order of the encryption take place. 2. What does Kleopatra allow you to do once it is installed? Kleopatra allow you to encrypted messages, files and text with a private key. 3. What key type was used to create the certificate on Kleopatra? What other types of encryption key......

Words: 285 - Pages: 2

Bioe 431 Lab 7

...Lab Write-up for Lab #7 CATHETER MODELING BioE431 Abstract Catheters have many uses when it pertains to medicine, a simple design that consists of a long narrow tube connecting to the body externally or internally and the other end to an apparatus or module. It is a negative system meaning the catheter is always connected at both ends making it a closed system. This setup can be / is being used for medicine delivery, fluids input and output, measuring volume displacement and many other operations. We are constructing a similar catheter module to measure and display a step response to a catheter loosing its negative/closed environment. To achieve this data we have a tube filled with water connected to a pressure sensor that doubles up as a transducer converting the pressure change as an electrical signal, which via software is being graphed. The other end of the catheter is connected to a funnel with a balloon atop and this funnel is junctioned using a 3-way stopcock. The tube is filled with water end to end, the balloon attached on the funnel is blown up which in turn puts pressure on the water which puts pressure on the pressure sensor, that transudes the pressure difference in to an electrical signal and LabView software displays that signal as a graph. Documenting and analyzing the step input when the balloon is popped is the purpose of this lab. Introduction The purpose of this lab is to build a catheter system, with an inflated balloon applying pressure to......

Words: 621 - Pages: 3

Lab 7

...Laboratory 7: Security Basics December 1, 2014 Lab 7: Security Basics Task 1: Procedure 1. Firewalls may be hardware devices or software programs. Hardware firewalls protect an entire network. Software firewalls protect a single computer. Locate an example of each of these types of firewalls and compare their features. Linksys and Cisco make firewall/routers for home use. The Zonelabs Zone-Alarm firewall is an example of a software firewall. a. Cisco RV082 Dual WAN VPN Router i. Dual Fast Ethernet WAN ports for load balancing and/or business continuity ii. Built-in 8-port Fast Ethernet switch iii. Strong security iv. High capacity VPN capabilities v. Optional cloud-based web security service vi. Support for Small Business QuickVPN software b. Linksys WRT54GS Wireless i. G Broadband Router with SpeedBooster IEEE 802.3/3u, IEEE 802.11b/g ii. VPN Pass Through iii. Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI) Firewall, Internet Policy Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2), WEP, Wireless MAC Filtering Task 2: Procedure 1. By 2010 the number of different known viruses numbered over 4 million. Many companies produce anti-virus programs to help protect your computer against these threats. Some of the companies are Panda, Norton, McAfee, AVG, and Kaspersky. Which of these companies provide free versions of their software? Which ones provide trial versions? a. Free versions i. AVG b. Trial versions i. Panda ii. Norton iii. McAfee iv. AVG v. Kaspersky 2. Viruses and......

Words: 1291 - Pages: 6