Lab 7

In: Science

Submitted By jnr13b
Words 1350
Pages 6
Justice Ross
Physiology Lab
Dr. Xu
2 March 2016
Frog Skeletal Muscle Lab
A biologist by the name Jan Swammerdam performed the first experiments on muscle physiology between 1661 and 1665. Swammerdam demonstrated that an isolated frog muscle can contract if the sciatic nerve is irritated with a metal object. Almost a century later, a physician by the name Luigi Galvani demonstrated that frog muscle responds to electrical currents. In the late 1840s, either Carlo Matteucci or Carl Ludwig attributed to the invention of the kymograph, which is illustrated as a rotating drum powered by a clockwork motor. The invention of the kymograph changed experimental physiology by allowing muscle contractions, and other actions, to be recorded and analyzed for the first time ever. Muscle cells, or muscle fibers, are defined as the basic unit of a muscle. Therefore, complete muscles are constructed from bundles of muscle fibers, but there are no gap junctions between adjacent cells so each fiber performs independently. Myofibrils establish an ordered structure for single muscle fibers. Every myofibril is comprised of actin and myosin. Actin and myosin are contractile proteins that can slide past each other when Ca2+ and ATP are present. A motor unit is described as a single motor neuron and all of its innervating muscle fibers. Like nerve tissue, muscle fibers produce an all-or-none response to a stimulus, generating a twitch. A single motor neuron supplies numerous muscle fibers to make up a motor unit. Motor units can range from a few muscle fibers innervated by a single neuron to thousands innervated. Although most muscles consist of a variety of different motor unit sizes, smaller motor units have finer control of movement. Since the muscles that control movement in the fingers and eyes have smaller motor units, muscles controlling larger limb movements…...

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