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Ict Terms

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By mustbekeano
Words 6710
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Knowledge of ICT Components
1. DIGITAL : • Discrete values or binary digit
2. PROCESSOR: • Control center of the computer
3. RAM:- • Volatile (temporary storage), working storage, holds programmes currently in use, • Used for writing to and reading. • Measured in gigabytes
4. ROM:- • Instructions computer needs to start, • Non-volatile (permanent storage), can’t be changed, only read • Stores the Boot up/Start up program for the PC
START UP STEPS:- • Power up • Read ROM chip • Connect all in and output devices • Load DOS from hard drive. • Load windows from hard drive
5. CACHE:- • Temporary storage, • Stores most frequently used instructions, • Is RAM memory that the computer microprocessor can access more quickly. • Volatile (128kb-512kb).
6. DOS:- Disk Operating System,
7. GUI:- Graphical User Interfaces, WIMP, user chooses option by pointing mouse at icon or menu and clicking on it with pointer, WHY IS WINDOWS USER FRIENDLY • Uses WIMP • WIMP:- Windows (programme that carries out DOS instructions), icons (Symbol that represents a program/shortcut), menus (selection of options of a list), pointers (to select options) • Help facilities • Easy to understand icons • Wizards that make software easy to install • Plug and Play • PLUG and PLAY: Peripheral devices can be plugged into or removed from the computer and they will work without having to install drivers or software.
8. MICROCHIP:- Perform processing tasks and storage of data.
9. BATCH PROCESSING:- • A system where programmes and data are collected together in a batch before processing in a single operation. These batches of data are then processed without human intervention. EXAMPLES Pay roll system, Billing system.
10. REAL TIME:- • Operations are completed with no significant delay e.g. airline seating reservations. To avoid double booking, no two people can book the same seat.
11. OPERATING SYSTEM • The operating system enables all the hardware / software to work together. It also allows the user to interact with the computer system.
FUNCTIONS • SAVE LOAD files to disk. • BOOT/ start up routine. • CONTROL panel Functions. • MULTI-TASKING (allows two programmes to run apparently at the same time), • ERROR reporting
WHY ONLY PART OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM LOADED? • To leave the maximum amount of memory for user programs • To speed up usability of the system, • Entire suite of programs is not required.

15. KEYBOARD: • Have Keys which when pressed send digital code to the computer, Gives computer demands. • Four groups of keys on QWERTY keyboard are – Numeric Keyboard, Function keys and Cursor keys.
16. MOUSE: • Has a rotating ball, • movement detected by sensors, • hand used to move mouse on flat surface making cursor correspond, • when a button is pressed it sends signal to the computer.
17. TRACKERBALL: • Like up-side down mouse, stays still, the user moves the ball and is used on Laptop computers.
18. TOUCH SENSITIVE PAD (TRACKER PAD): • Move finger on pad to make cursor correspond, used on laptops.
19. JOYSTICK: • Like a mouse but is used for action games. Also used for hospital scanners and CCTV movement.
20. DIGITAL CAMERA: • Light received through the lens, converted into digital signals. • Photographs can be stored on the computer, printed or changed.
ADVANTAGES : • No film, • Can be used over and over, • Can see picture immediately on PC,
Plug in a USB cable into the PC, Copy pictures over to the PC, Use Floppy / Bluetooth. • Editing, • More memory, • Don’t need to process film.
21. SCANNER: Scans page, • transmits image to the computer as digital code, • images can be saved, printed and changed. • Resolution- DPI (Dots Per Inch), OCR (Optical Character Recognition)
OPERATION : • Light is moved across picture, • reflected light picks up image, • Image is digitised to be passed to the computer.
22. TOUCH SENSTIVE SCREEN: • User touches icon, • infrared light detects finger position,
ADVANTAGES : • Don’t need a mouse/ Keyboard • Easy to use • No training needed • Cannot steel components • Easy to reprogram if changes need to be made
23. GRAPHICS TABLET/DIGITISER: • Is electronic tracing paper, • User draws the picture, is scanned and turned into an image onscreen.
24. BAR CODE READER OR SCANNER: • Reads information in bar code form. • Used to read the prices of items at checkout. • Items found on a supermarket bar code are- Product Code, Country of origin, Manufacture, Check digit.
25. VOICE / SPEECH RECOGNITION: • User speaks and it analyses it, • Comparing it to known words bringing them onto the screen.
APPLICATIONS: • Security, • Voice message email, • Word processing , • Autodial.
26. MIDI INSTRUMENTS: Musical instruments that have a midi port for input to a midi interface in a computer. Music can be stored, displayed and edited.
27. LIGHT PEN: A pen with wire connecting it to the computer, Works directly on screen.
28. CONCEPT KEYBOARD: • Overlays on keyboard with text or picture, • Keys sensitive areas of a plastic surface, • Easy to operate. • Use in a Restaurant
ADVANTAGES • Fast input of data, • Can be wiped clean, • Limited choice so less chance of making mistakes
29. SENSORS: Chemical responses to surroundings converted to electrical signals translated to the computer. Measures heart, light, sound, humidity, speed, whether valve is open or shut. Etc
30.THREE METHODS IN WHICH CAN BE ENTERED INTO A COMPUTER. • OCR/Scanner • Keyboard • Voice data entry / microphone

OUTPUT DEVICES34. MONITORS: • Resolution measured in Pixels. TYPES : CRT, TFT (Thin Film Transistor)
LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS (LCD’s): • Smaller, lighter, less power than monitor, found in laptops, watches, calculators, LCD projectors.
35. RESOLUTION • Quality of the image on the screen • Based on the number of Pixels • More Pixels the sharper the image
36.PIXEL • Smallest area of a VDU that can be edited • VGA-Video Graphics Array, SVGA-Super Video Graphics Array, XGA-Extended Graphics Array.
37. PRINTERS: • Connected to computer transferring information from computer to printer. Can be Impact/Non Impact, Character Line/Page Printers. HARDWARE NEEDED : USB cable / Serial cable SOFTWARE NEEDED : Setup / Installation CD (Driver )
38. DPI: • Dots Per Inch, Number of dots that make up an inch of a printed image, higher the DPI, sharper the image.
39. DRAFT MODE: • Faster, uses less ink, less wear on ink heads.
40. PPM: • Pages Per Minute, Measures speed of the printer by how many pages it can print.
41. MEMORY BUFFER: • Part of printer RAM, processors can output data faster than can be accepted so stores data waiting to be printed.
42. PRINT SERVER: • A computer that holds files and documents waiting to be printed, used in networks
43. IMPACT: • Creates marks on page by striking ink ribbon against it, makes noise.
44. NON-IMPACT: • No contact with paper, no noise.
45. DAISY-WHEEL PRINTER: • Like typewriter but has letters on ends of spokes to form a wheel. • Letters strike ribbon onto paper. • Very slow (1/2PPM), • noisy, no graphics, • one colour. (IMPACT)46. DOT-MATRIX PRINTER: • Print head made up of , steel pins strike an inked ribbon producing a sequence of dots. • Quite fast (1PPM). • Print any shape of character and graphics. (IMPACT)
47. INK-JET PRINTER: • Fires a jet of liquid ink through tiny nozzles onto page. • Fast (3PPM), • Very quiet. • Print black and colour on same page. (NON-IMPACT)
48. LASER PRINTER: • Non-Impact, • like photocopier, Powered ink fused onto paper by heat and pressure, • Very fast (12PPM), • Almost silent. (NON IMPACT )
49. BRAILLE PRINTER: • Converts text into Braille code, • Producing patterns of raised dots.
50. PLOTTER • Is an impact printer, • used to produce Architect plans
51. HARD COPY • A permanent copy of information usually in the form of a printout
56. BACKUP : • Backup files are copies of data usually on a different medium which can be used if the original data files become corrupt or lost. • Methods Used : Backup to a Zip disc, CD/ROM, DVD, USB/Flash key, Magnetic Tape/Disk57. TAPE: • Data stored as magnetic fluctuations, • Coded data processed into information for computer, very slow. • Holds thousands MB and used for daily backups of work & programmes on network -Tape Streamers- scheduled to make backups at night.
58. FLOPPY DISK : • Magnetic Storage device • faster than tape, • Needs to be formatted in tracks and segments to organise where data is stored. • Holds 1.44 MB. • Uses: transferring work & backing up. • Easily damaged, cheap.
FORMATTING A HARD/FLOPPY DISK • Is to wipe all the information on the storage medium
59. ZIP DRIVE • Magnetic storage device • High Capacity storage • Larger & thicker than floppy, • Store 250 MB, • Transferring large files.
60. JAZ DRIVE: • Removable disk drive, • Fast at transferring up to 2GB.
61. HARD DISK: • Magnetic Storage device • made of aluminium inside the computer permanently, • faster than 1MB per second. • Holds gigabytes of data. • USES: Storing programmes & files for fast access. • Capacity : 40 GB - 160GB+
62. COMPACT DISK (CD-ROM): • Optical: • Stored by laser technology, Can be read not written to. • ROM, faster than floppy but slower than hard drive. • Holds up to 650 MB. • USES: Large Programmes, information libraries, music, safest form of storage.
63. CD-R: • Optical: • Compact Disk Recordables, • One time recording (Worm) can hold 74-80 min of data (650-700 MB).
64. CD-RW: • Compact Disk Rewriteable, • Repeated Recording, • Holds 74-80 minutes of data (650-700 MB), • Works with a CD-RW drive.
65. DIGITAL VERSATILE DISK (DVD): • Optical large capacity . • Stores up to 17 GB, 4.2 GB DVD Drive can also read CD-ROM.
66. OPTICAL DISK: • Looks and used like a floppy but has a CD inside. • Can read and write to disk repeatedly. • Has 100 MB capacity.
67. BAR CODE: • Parallel black lines which represent decimal number code, • Computer prints them and can be scanned back very quickly,
68. DATA LOGGER: • Remote input/output devices • stores data received from sensors • can be inputted different time or place.69. USB: • Universal Serial Bus. • Memory Stick with magnetic storage. • Capacity. 64 MB, 128MB, 2565 MB, 512 MB, 1GB +

73. DATA: • Collection of numbers, figures or signs without meaning.
74. INFORMATION: • Is data that has been processed and given a meaning
75. OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION (OCR): • Machine recognition of printed characters by light sensing. • Converts into Digital data.
USES: • Reading typed postcodes, Elec./Gas bills.
ADVANTAGES: • Reads quickly by computer
DISAVANTAGES : • Hard to recognize some characters
76. OPTICAL MARK RECOGNITION (OMR): • Reads marks in predetermined positions by light sensing. • Less light reflected back indicates mark. • Converts into digital data.
USES: Lottery Pools, Multiple choice exams, School register, Questionnaire
ADVANTAGES • Less chance of making errors • More accurate data entry • Lots of information can be read quickly • Less staff needed to enter large amounts of data • Little training needed to use Technology
DISADVANTAGE: • Rejected if creased or folded.

81. DATABASE : • A collection of records all of which have the same structure
82. FILE: • A table in a database, is a collection of records.
83. RECORD: • All the information stored about a person or thing. • A record consists of a number of related fields.
84. FIELD: • Single item of data stored.
85. KEY FIELD : • A field which uniquely identifies a record. • A field can have different types of data e.g. Text, Currency, Numeric
86. FLAT FILE: • Simplest kind if database. • Only one table in a Flat file • No Links • Has a lot of duplication
87. RELATIONAL DATABASE: • Contains tables that are linked • Using relationships in common fields. • Data is organised in a way which makes searching and sorting easy.
88. DATA REDUNDANCY: • Is where data is repeated unnecessarily in the database • This makes the file bigger and searching will take more time.
ADVANTAGES: • Searching is quicker as there is little repeated data. • Most data is recorded once, making it more likely to be correct – no repetition
89. DATA INCONSISTENCY: • same items of data are held in several different files that have to be updated in each separate when it changes.
90. DATA INTEGRITY: • Involves ensuring the accuracy and completeness of data throughout its processing life.
91. DATA SECURITY: • Protection of data from accidental or deliberate loss, misuse or disclosure. • E.g. Natural hazards, Mechanical problems, access by hackers.
92. MASTER FILE: • Holds all main details/mostly permanent data, • Updated or changed by another transaction file.
93. TRANSACTION FILE: • Temporary File • Holds all transactions in a given period used to update the master file. • Holds all the changes made, since the master file was last updated.
1. Sort transaction and master into the same order.
2. Merge data from Transaction file with master file.
3. Update master file using data from the transaction file.

95. VERIFICATION : • Ensures data is correctly transferred to computer from medium originally stored on. E.g. Double entry, Proof reading data (Sight verification) • Double Entry : Data is entered by two people, two data values compared, Don’t match error reported.
96. VALIDATION : • Automatic check to ensure data is sensible and legitimate.
TYPE CHECK : • Checks the data is of the right type. • E.g. Numeric, Text, Date, Boolean, Currency
RANGE CHECK : • Checks a number isn’t too big or small.
PRESENCE CHECK : • Checks that a field has been entered.
CHECK DIGIT : • The last one or two digits on a code are used to check the other digits are correct.
LENGTH CHECK : • Checks the data entered isn’t too short or long.
LOOKUP TABLE : • Looks up acceptable values in a table.
SPELL CHECK : • Looks up words in a dictionary.
FORMAT CHECK : • Checks the data is in the right format.

97. RTF- • Rich Text Format • Allows all users to transfer data between different word processors on different operating systems
98. ASCII- • American Standard Code for Information Interchange • A standard code, made up of a set of Binary digits and represent a character
99. CSV- • Comma Separated Value • A simple text file. Field names are entered first. • Each record is entered on a new line • Can be imported into a database.
100. JPEG- • Joint Photographic Experts Group • A graphics file format which supports compressed images • Used on Web pages.
101. MPEG- • Motion Pictures Experts Group • Stores motion video • Compressed file format
102. TIFF- • Tag Image File Format
103. GIF- • Graphic Interchange Format • Supports compressed images. • Suitable for inclusion on web pages.
104. MP3 – • Music files of CD quality • Compressed, filters out noise that is not detectable by the human ear.
105. MIDI – Musical instrument Digital Interface
ADVANTAGES of a Conventional Keyboard • Music directly entered onto a computer • Music in a digital format • Special effects can be added, • Music from different sources can be mixed
106. DATA COMPRESSION- • The act of reducing the size of a file without losing any of the data it contains. • Using special software e.g. WinZip
EXAMPLES OF USE: • Email a large file, to fit into a Recipients mail box. • Too big to fit onto a Floppy disk.
107. DECOMPRESSION- • The act of taking a compressed file and converting it back to its original size and format.
108. OPTIMSE GRAPHICS (Image files ) • Reduces resolution, less pixels, makes a graphic file smaller.




109. LAN (LOCAL AREA NETWORK)- • Covers a small area such as one building e.g. school network • Linked together using cables – Copper, Fibre optic
110. CONNECTING A PC TO A LAN NETWORK. • A cable • A network card
111. TOPOLOGIES • Physical layout of the LAN Network
RING NETWORK • All computers are linked together in the shape of a RING • Data travels around the ring in one direction • If a computer breaks down the network is not able to operate.
BUS NETWORK • Computers are linked together using one main cable. • Each computer is linked to the main cable.
STAR NETWORK • Have a central server • All computers are linked via a cable to the main computer. • Cable comes from each computer to a Switch/ Hub.
112. WAN (WIDE AREA NETWORK)- • Covers a large geographical area e.g. the Internet • Linked together using Telephone lines
113. NETWORK ADVANTAGES:- • Can share devices like printers • Network software licences are likely to be cheaper • Files can be easily shared between users • Communication between users • User activities can be monitored • Workstations don’t need their own hard drive/CD Rom drive – Cheaper • Users can save their work centrally on the server, Backup is easy, Users can retrieve their work from any workstation.
114. NETWORK DISADVANTAGES:- • Network cabling can be expensive • If file server breaks all computers will break down • Viruses can spread to other networks throughout a computer network
115. FILESERVER • Stores all user data on the network • Stores all applications/software for the network • Allows communication between users on the network • Stores usernames and passwords • Manages shared peripherals • If the Fileserver breaks down no computer will function.
116. USER ID- • Identifies the user to the network, used to log on
117. PASSWORD- • Security systems for individual users, secure access to own files, Passwords prevent unauthorized log in
118. NETWORK ADMINISTRATOR CAN • Ensures only users with the appropriate levels of access can access data/applications • Allocate Printer Credits • Allocate software • Change PC Settings
119. FUNCTIONS OF A NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM • Provides security • Shares software between users • Controls access to a printer • Allows users to communicate • Logs user onto the network • Schedules Backups • File Management
120. BACKING UP A NETWORK. • Onto Magnetic tape/ DAT/ External hard drive.

124. ON LINE :Connected to the Internet
125. INTERNET: • Global open interconnection of computer networks that enables computers to communicate directly by a telephone network
126. INTRANET: • Pages of information simulate the World Wide Web, which can only be accessed over a LAN. • Only authorised users can log on and use the Intranet. • USES IN COMPANIES • Share documents, • Internal e-mail, • Discussion by Bulletin boards • USES IN SCHOOLS: • Share exemplary pupil work. • Share resources with other subject teachers. • Visit department websites • Provide feedback on tests.
INTERNET- • WAN, • Access to files across countries
INTRANET- • Limited to a LAN, • No external communication required, • Data is only accessible to local users.
ADVANTAGES OF AN INTRANET: • Cheaper/no internet costs • Company/organisations, notes/bulletin boards
128. WWW: (World Wide Web): • huge collection of computers, which are linked together in a Network.
129. WEBSITE: Set of web pages belonging to an organisation or individual
130. URL: web page address (uniform resource locator)
131. HYPERLINKS: when clicked take you to another page.
132. SEARCH ENGINES: e.g. Yahoo, Freeserve, Ask Jeeves, Google • A program which allows the user to search the internet to find information by using keywords or phrases. • To refine the Search more specific criteria may be used. • LOGICAL OPERATIONS: Or, Not, And or Symbols +/-
133. HARDWARE NEEDED: • Modem, Cable, USB lead / Phone line, Router, Computer
134. SOFTWARE NEEDED: • A browser, ISP installation CD.
135. ISP (Internet Service Provider): • Companies who provide Internet access, e.g. Freeserve, AOL.
FEATURES PROVIDED BY AN ISP • Firewall • Popup blocker • Email • Webspace • Internet Filtering • User Support • Anti Virus Software • Parental Controls
136. WEB BROWSER: E.G. Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator. WHY NEEDED: To view web pages.
ICONS INCLUDED • Forward and back buttons, • History folder, • Stop button, • Favourites. • Mail
137. HTTP: Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. • A protocol used to exchange data
138. FTP : File transfer Protocol • It allows users to upload web pages to Web servers.
139. HTML : Hyper text markup language.
140. WWW: World Wide Web
141. ORG: Organisation
142. CO: Company
146. WIRELESS CONNECTIONS • Can connect to the network using a suitable wireless point.
DISADVANTAGES • Failure of a Wireless router • Possible risk of radiation / Health issues • Need a Wireless enabled laptop • Wireless black spots – Thick walls, Distance weak – More than 20M

147. BANDWIDTH: • How fast data (text, voice, audio and image.) can flow on a given transmission path. • Data transfer capacity of a communication link Measured in BPS
148. PSTN: • Public switch telephone network – • Ordinary / normal telephone system.
149. MODEM: • Converts analogue signals to digital signals or vice versa • Modulates / Demodulates the communication signal.
150. ISDN: • Integrated services digital network. • Higher speed of transfer than modems. ( up to 128 kbps )
151. ROUTER: • Hardware : Connects LAN to the Internet. • Decides the best route for data around the network. • Used to share a Internet connection
152. ADSL: • Asymmetric digital subscriber line • Used for Broadband access at home. • Lets you send more data down a normal telephone line. • Always on connection, offered at downstream data rates from 512 kbps and 6 mbps. (Broadband)
153. OPTICAL FIBRE: • Transmission of information as light impulses along a glass or plastic or fibre wire. • Less interference • High speeds over a LAN.
154. PROTOCOL • RULES : which govern the transfer of data over a network, • Lets computers of different types communicate.
155. SWITCH: • A device used to connect several stations / computers to a fileserver or to another switch.
156. DATA ENCRYPTION: • Scrambles data to make it unintelligible during transmission. • It cannot be recognised without a code. • Useful when transferring data over a WAN, as it protects the data from hackers.
157. DECRYPTION: • Converting unreadable data into understandable form
158. TELECONFERENCING: • Method of interactive communication between two or more individuals in geographical dispersed locations using a telephone, computer system, and video cameras.
159. VIDEO CONFERENCING : Use of the internet to transmit pictures and sound between computers
HARDWARE: Video camera, webcam, Microphone, High speed Telecommunication Line
ADVANTAGES: • Allows collaboration with team members • Meeting set up on demand • No travel costs, • No Travel time
160. DIGITAL SIGNATURE : • A digital code, attached to an electronically transmitted message. • Uniquely identifies the sender, guarantees that the sender is who he or she claims to be.
167. SET ( SECURE ELECTRONIC TRANSACTIONS) • Encrypted link created between computers on the internet to prevent credit card fraud. ( a security system for the buying of goods )

172. EMAIL: • NEED – Computer, phone line, Modem or ISDN connection, an ISP
173. HOW EMAIL OPERATES : • A user sends an e-mail, which is directed, to their mail server. • This is then directed to the recipients mail server. • When the recipient logs on to the internet their mail server informs them there is mail in their mailbox. • The recipient then requests that the mail is directed to their machine.
174. EMAIL FEATURES • Facilities to send copies of a message to many people. • Addresses can be stored in an address book on your computer. Signatures can be attached. File, graphics or sound can be sent as attachments, often in compressed formats.
175. EMAIL BENEFITS : • Instant delivery of message available all the time, • Cheap-calls charged at local rates, • Facility to send same message to more than one person. • Reply can be sent as soon as read • Can send an attachment • Saves paper • Don’t have to leave house to post it
176. CONCERNS • Won’t be read until user logs on, • Only can be sent to people subscribed to e-mail.
177. CC – Carbon Copy • Person will receive the email
178. BCC – Blind Carbon Copy • The person will receive the email and will not know who else received it.
179. OTHER METHODS USED TO SEND AN EMAIL • WAP / Internet Mobile phone Wireless Application Protocal • Digital Television • PDA • Public internet phones • Internet kiosk
180. FAX (FACSIMILE) • A device which is used to transfer paper based information along telephone lines.
181. ADVANTAGES: • High speed compared to letters, • Handwritten notes, drawing can be sent. • Do not transfer Viruses. • Can be sent to recipents who do not have an email address.
182. DISADVANTAGES: • Faxed printouts are sometimes of poor quality, • Receiving device must be switched on.
183. MOBILE PHONES • Communication via a telephone or using SMS Short message service – Text Messages • Mobile phones now have features such as MP3, Voice Recognition, Blue tooth • WAP Phones (Wireless Application Protocal ): Can be used to browse the internet E.G. For information Services • Train Timetables, Traffic information, Weather conditions, Send and receive emails
184. BLUETOOTH : • USES : Free • Used to sent e.g. Video Files • Connecting hands free devices when driving • Connecting your mobile phone to your laptop • Connecting your mobile phone to a printer • Using a mobile phone to remotley control another device.

187. EFT • Electronic Funds Transfer: • Moving money from one bank to another using data communications and without paper transactions. • E.g. People are paid their wages straight into the bank, payment of recurrent bills, Paying for Petrol, Purchasing groceries.
ADVANTAGES FOR CUSTOMER • Credit/Debit card can be used. • Don’t need to carry cash • Less chance of robbery • More secure transaction • Cash back • Transaction is recorded on Bank statement (Warranty of product)
188. POS • (Point Of Sales): Online link to all computers from all checkouts. Prints bill.
OPERATION: • The device reads item number from the e.g. bar code, • Item number is then transferred to CPU. • The price is located on the backing store using this number. • The price is then transferred back to the CPU.
CUSTOMER ADVANTAGES: • Services are faster, • Till receipts are itemised.
MANAGEMENT ADVANTAGES: • Stock control is more efficient, Automatic ordering of Stock • Less chance of making errors, • Sales forecasts can be made.
189. EFTPOS (…….POINT OF SALES): • Banks keen to promote EFTPOS because • Cuts down on the amount of paper work involved. • Is more secure for the customer • Reduces the amount of coin being moved to and fro.
WHAT HAPPENS when a CUSTOMER pays for goods at an EFTPOS • Card is swiped / placed into a Chip and PIN terminal • PIN is entered • Authorisation check • Receipt is printed
190. ATM (Automatic Teller Machine): • Each terminal reads the magnetic strip on the back of the card. • Magnetic strip s are built into many plastic cards such as credit cards , debit cards, railway tickets and phone cards.
ADVANTAGES : • Easy and cheap to produce. • Cuts down on the amount of writing involved in a transaction.
FACILITIES: • Check your balance • Withdraw cash • Change PIN number (Personal Identification Number) • Top up mobile phone • Request a statement • Order a Cheque book
191. SMART CARDS: • A plastic card, • Has a microprocessor. • Instead of swiping card you plug it into reader. It can be electronic purse for cashless society. • USES: • Mobile phones (Sim card) • Satellite T.V receivers e.g. Sky TV cards • Retail loyalty schemes • Access to buildings • ADVANTAGES • Cheap to produce. • Hold more information. • Encrypt the data. • Almost completely unaffected by a magnetic field

192. MULTIMEDIA : • The combination of Text, Graphics, Video and Sound to produce a presentation.
FEATURES: Animation of text / graphics, Automated display, Common Backgrounds, Other forms of media (Sound, Video), Allows you to create a master slide, one change all slides in the presentation are changed.
194. SPREADSHEETS : DATA MODELLING: The use of software and data to stimulate/predict an outcome based on the data.
FEATURES OF A SPREADSHEET • AUTOCALCULATION • GRAPHS/CHARTS • LOOKUP TABLES • IF CONDITIONAL FORMATTING: change the look of cells if they meet some condition e.g. <50 • RELATIVE : Is a label which changes when the formula is copied. • ABSOLUTE: Is a label which does not change when the formula is copied distinguished by a dollar sign.
195. DESK TOP PUBLISHING DTP: E.G Publisher FEATURES : *Columns, *Textwrap, *Borders * Templates, *Text boxes, *Graphics / clipart, *Font/styles * Wizards
196. TEXTWRAP: Applies to when a graphic has been inserted and the text is wrapped around a picture.
MAIL MERGE : WHAT IS IT: • Combines names and addresses, imported from a database with a standard letter. The end result is a set of personalised letters. • STEPS INVOLVED : • Create a query in a database package, • Create a standard letter, and include merge fields in the letter, • Merge the letter with the data source.
198. FOOTER/HEADER • Use of page titles, Page numbers, Date on either the top or bottom of each page.
199. TEMPLATE : • A standard layout or plan for a document which determines the basic structure for the document. • The users fills the template with information e.g. an address.
ADVANTAGES : • Faster than retyping information, • looks professional (all documents have a standard presentation and structure) • Can be used many times • Can be customised easily.
200. WIZARD : • Piece of software which guides the user step by step through a series of screens to produce an end product..
201. DATABASES :- FEATURES: *Queries / searches *Reports, *Graphs/ charts *Sort


202. VIRTUAL REALITY (VR): • Means using 3-d graphics to create an imaginary or virtual world, which surrounds the user. • Special vr equipment to use virtual reality: a data/vr glove, headset and virtual/3-d mouse.
USES : • Building design, airlines, medicine, gaming, Formula 1 driver training

203. SIMULATIONS: • Computer simulation is a special type of computer model, which recreates a system. • Simulations are often used to train people to deal with situations, which are too difficult, expensive or dangerous to recreate.
APPLICATIONS: train aircraft pilots, space travel, design and testing packages (wind tunnel).
ADVANTAGES: • Safe method to learn something, • Monitor performance, Can store details and results. • Many extreme conditions can be stimulated • Cannot cause damage to equipment • Cheaper
DISADVANTAGES: • The simulation is not the real world, • Can be affected by random effects, like fire or bad weather conditions, • Very expensive to set up.

204. Computers are now used to controlling many types of devices: • Air conditioning and central heating systems • Manufacturing processes • Security systems and burglar alarms • Traffic lights • Greenhouse
205. A CONTROL SYSTEM typically comprises: • A microprocessor • A control program • An interface box
206. DIGITAL: • Data is recorded in a series of 1’s and 0’s • It is a form that the computer can understand without translation. Discrete
207. ANALOGUE : • Continuous : Data is recorded as value which has to be translated before the computer can understand it. E.G. Mercury thermometer.
208. SENSORS :are used to measure physical quantities • Temperature, • Light, • Pressure sensors in the road could detect traffic. • Sound • Humidity.
209. BENEFITS OF USING COMPUTERS IN CONTROL • Computers can respond instantly to changes • Systems can be running 24 hours a day, 365 days a year • Control systems can operate in places that humans would find dangerous or awkward • Outputs are consistent and error free • Computers can process data quickly and machines can operate faster than humans
210. INTERFACE BOX • Is needed to convert the data from the sensors into computer data. • Data such as pressure, light and temperature is analogue data. • An ADC (Analogue to Digital Converter) converts analogue data from the sensors into digital data.
211. DATA LOGGING • The automatic collection of data over a period of time, without human intervention, Measures values at given intervals, • Places the data into a computer.
212. TIME INTERVAL • The time between readings.
213. PERIOD OF LOGGING • The total length of time over which readings are taken.
214. BENEFITS OF USING DATA LOGGING EQUIPMENT • Can take readings with high degree of accuracy. • Can be left without human intervention. • Can be set to take readings over a long period of time
ADVANTAGES :of Data logging systems over manual data collection methods: • Measurements always taken at the right time • No errors in the measurement • Graphs and analysis can automatically be performed on the data
DISADVANTAGE :of a data logging is the initial purchase cost.
215. FEEDBACK • Using output from a system to influence the input. • EXAMPLES : Burglar alarm, Traffic Lights, Car Air Conditioning, Greenhouse Temperature Control
216. GREENHOUSE. • INPUT :Sensor records Temperature • PROCESSES :Temperature sent to Processor • Temperature compared to a set of values • OUTPUT : Too Hot – Heat off, Message to switch on motors. • Changes recorded by Temperature Sensor. • FEEDBACK : Temperature reading has been increased / decreased when the next reading is taken.
217. EMBEDDED COMPUTERS • Devices that use embedded computers for Control. • Microwave, Kettle, Dishwasher, Burglar Alarm, Washing Machine, Air Conditioning, Fridge, Smoke Alarm


221. SHOPPING can offer :- • You more choice and more products than they can fit in their supermarket • Deliver them to your door. • Last minute bargains • Can compare a range of prices from a range of sites
ADVANTAGES TO THE RETAILER • World wide customer base, Sell more and keep prices down • No need for expensive high street stores ( rent, electricity etc..) • 24/7 accessibility • Fewer staff so save money on wages
OTHER ITEMS OFFERED BY AN ON LINE SHOPPING WEBSITE • Search facility • Email Facility • Order tracking facility • Payment facility • Shopping basket • Item review / rating • Facility to compare similar goods.
222. BANKING ALLOWS customers to use the internet to view account details or transfer money. • On-line banking to make bill payments, • Transfer money between accounts, • Order a cheque book • Find out the current balance on the account.
ADVANTAGES TO THE CUSTOMER • Available 24 hours a day • Can do it from home.
ADVANTAGES FOR THE BANK • Banks may not need as many staff if customers use On line facilities. • Banks may not need as many branches / have the same overheads.
223. RESERVATIONS • On-line reservations allow a customer to search availability of a particular flight and then to proceed and book the flight. • Gives the customer the advantage of seeing all available flights and the prices of these flights.
224. E-COMMERCE E-commerce is the buying and selling of goods and services on the internet. • E-tailing or “virtual storefronts” on websites with online catalogues, sometimes gathered into a “virtual mall”. • ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI), the business to business exchange of data.

225. COMPUTER CRIME: • The illegal use of computer systems.
226. PRIVACY of data • Making sure that personal data is kept safe and not disclosed to anyone.
227. SECURITY • Making sure that hardware, software and data are protected from harm such as fire and theft.
228. ENCRYPTION • Scrambles data to make it unintelligible during transmission.
229. HACKING: • Attempting (with or without success) to gain unauthorised access to a computer system.
230. FILTERING • Keeps the user from accessing inappropriate material, websites • A filter is a program or section of a code that is designed to examine each input request for certain qualifying criteria and then process or forward it accordingly. E.g. Cyber control, Internet Nanny, Smart Filter.
231. COMPUTER VIRUS: • is a program which is designed to create nuisance for users or more seriously to effect varying degrees of damage to files.
WAYS OF GETTING A VIRUS • Infected disks • Downloading files of the Internet • Email • Visiting an infected site
PREVENTING A VIRUS: • INSTALL Anti Virus Software e.g. Norton, can make computers safe from types of virus. • Update Anti Virus software regularly • Don’t use pirated software. • Use diskless workstations on networks. • Use a Firewall • Be Careful when opening Emails with an Attachment, always scan emails.
232. FIREWALL • A program • Designed to protect unauthorised access from outside a LAN • May also protect against some viruses and stop certain types of file from leaving the LAN
233. 3 LAWS
THE COMPUTER MISUSE ACT 1990 LAW : Set up to protect against HACKING • It is illegal to gain UNAUTHORISED DATA. • It is illegal to gain UNAUTHORISED DATA and intend to do it again • It is illegal to gain UNAUTHORISED DATA and Amend it
THE COPYRIGHT DESIGNS AND PATENTS ACT CRIMINAL OFFENCE TO: • Copy or distribute software for reasons other than a backup. • To run purchased software on two or more machines at the same time unless the licence allows it. • For an organisation to encourage or allow its employees to make or distribute copies of illegal software for use by the organisation.
PURPOSE: • To control the way in which personal data about living people can be collected and used.
PERSONAL DATA: • Information about a living individual who can be identified.
234. DATA SUBJECT: • An individual about whom data is stored.
4 RIGHTS OF A DATA SUBJECT: • Data must be corrected if inaccurate. • Right to claim compensation. • View the data. • Data sufficient only to a purpose.
235. DATA CONTROLLER: • A person who holds personal data for processing.
236. DATA USER: • Those who control the contents and use of a collection of personal data.
ITEMS A DATA USER MUST TELL THE COMMISSION • What data they hold. • What they use the data for. • Where they got the data. • Who the data must be passed on to.
237. THE DATA COMMISSIONER: • Person responsible for enforcing the Act approved by the government, deals with and investigates any complaints made about Data Misuse.
238. DATA PROTECTION PRINCIPLES PERSONAL DATA: • Must be processed fairly and lawfully. • Shall be obtained only for one or more specified and lawful process. • Shall be adequate, relevant and not excessive. • Shall be accurate and where necessary kept up to date. • Shall not be kept longer than is necessary.
239. EXEMPTIONS Medical/ social workers, The police, Tax authorities, National Security
240. INTERNET SECURITY :METHODS USED. • Data is ENCODED before transmission. • The use of passwords. • The use of FIREWALLS (servers that filter incoming messages to protect LANs from viruses and hacking) • Tough penalties under the computer misuse act.

241. REPETITIVE STRAIN INJURY (RSI): - • The collective name for a variety of disorders affecting the neck, shoulders and upper limbs as result of prolonged work on a computer.
POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS: • ergonomic keyboards, • wrist supports, • correct positioning on chairs, • frequent breaks, • adjust colour /contrast, • medical checks i.e.: eye tests
242. EYE STRAIN: - • Looking at the screen for a long period of time. • Glare, • improper lighting, • poorly designed workstations all contribute.
POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS: • non-flickering screens, • screen filters to prevent glare, • appropriate spectacles worn
243. SEATING: - • Chairs with adjustable height and backrest are recommended
244. WORKTOPS: - • A fixed height between 660-730mm is required
245. BACK PROBLEMS: - • Uncomfortable or awkward posture at a computer can lad to serious back problems – Slouching.
POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS: • Adjustable chairs, • Foot supports
246. HEALTH & SAFETY REGULATIONS (1992): - • Legislation intended to protect the health of employees within working environments and employers, employees and manufacturers all have a responsibility to conform to the law
247. THE ERGONOMIC ENVIRONMENT: - • The science concerned with designing safe and comfortable machines for humans. This includes furniture design and the design of parts of the computer like keyboards.
248. ERGONOMIC WORKSTATION : WOULD HAVE • Adjustable chair • Top of screen at eye level • Table at correct height • Adjustable monitor • Wrist/Back/ Foot rests • Anti-glare screens • No Flicker Monitor • Ergonomic keyboard / mouse

249. ARE COMPUTERS A GOOD THING • Jobs replaced by computers are repetitive. • EXAMPLES OF JOBS • Car spraying, mail sorting, CAM Computer Aided Manufacturer. • Some jobs would be impossible without computers (air traffic control, space travel). • New jobs are being created
AGAINST • Lead to unemployment. • Jobs created are for highly skilled. • Storage of data has eroded people’s privacy.
250. CHANGES IN WORK PATTERNS • Increased use of ICT means movement towards the paper-less office. • Manual tasks like assembly work are now performed by robots. • New jobs involving computers have been created. Software engineers / Web designers. • More people can work from home. • Increased use of ATM and on-line banking for a range of banking facilities
251. TELEWORKING:- • The use of information and communications technology to allow people to work in their own homes.
HARDWARE NEEDED:- • Telephone, • fax machine, • computer • modem/ISDN, • communications software(ISP, Browser), • Electronic Mail (Outlook Express), • Teleconferencing ( Video links )
ADVANTAGES : • No need to travel to work, • therefore saves commuting costs and • means less vehicles on the road. * • No need for employers to provide expensive office space.
DISADVANTAGES : • On call 24 hours a day, • May find it difficult to get help when something goes wrong.

252. Video games • Virtual reality, theme parks rides
253. Digital music • CD’s, MP3’s, Mini disk players
254. Digital Television • More channels WHY ? Higher bandwidth can support more channels and data is compressed so more data can be sent. • Interactive service, The user can send and receive information.
ADVANTAGES: • Better picture / sound quality • Internet applications including gaming • On screen TV guide / program planner • Less inference • Can lock undesirable channels • Send EMAILS • View programmes from different angles.
DISADVANTAGES • Not all digital TV is free – subscriptions can be expensive • A digital receiver is needed to convert digital signals into analogue signals for display on a TV.
255. Internet gaming, • Music sites, Radio sites.…...

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