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Harvrd

In: Business and Management

Submitted By christinequeen52
Words 2553
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References/Bibliography
Harvard Style
Based on Style manual for authors, editors and printers revised by Snooks & Co. 2002

Referencing with Harvard
When writing assignments you must acknowledge the source of your ideas and quotes in sufficient detail so that those reading can locate the item.
Referencing is important to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations and to enable readers to follow up what you have written and locate the cited author’s work. The “Harvard style” is a generic author-date style for citing and referencing information used. There are many styles which follow the author-date convention, including the American Psychological Association (APA) and the Chicago Manual of Style. This guide is based on an Australian style manual
(AGPS style) now revised by Snooks & Co, 2002.
Note: Before you create your list of references, check with your lecturer or tutor for the bibliographic style preferred by the School.
Keep in mind the following points:



Write down all the citation details of a source as you use it.
Place quotation marks “ “ around a direct quote and include page number(s) when quoting directly.
Insert brief citations at the appropriate places in the text of your document.
Compile a reference list at the end of the document that includes full details of all references cited.

In-text citations:
In an author-date style, in-text citations usually require the name of the author(s) and the year of publication.
A page number is included if you have a direct quote, paraphrase a passage or you want to direct the reader to a specific page. Page numbers may also be included if you are referring to a long work and the page numbers might be useful to the reader.
How to create a reference list/bibliography
A reference list contains only the books, articles, and web pages etc that are cited in the text of the document. A bibliography includes all sources consulted for background or further reading.
A reference list is arranged alphabetically by author. If an item has no author, it is cited by title, and included in the alphabetical list using the first significant word of the title.
If you have more than one item with the same author, list the items chronologically, starting with the earliest publication.
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Contents
Book ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3
Chapter in a book ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
Conference paper ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5
Journal Article .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6
Thesis ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Web page ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7
Table, Image or Diagram .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8
Other Internet sources................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9
Patent ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9
Standard ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9
Map ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 10
DVD or Video.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 10
Lecture Notes ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 11
Personal communication ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11
Indirect citation .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12
Direct quotation ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12

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Book
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of book – family name and initials Year of publication, Title of book – italicised, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication.
Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

EndNote reference type

Single author

Sophisticated searching techniques are important in finding information (Berkman 1994)
OR
Berkman (1994, p. 25) claimed that …
OR
Berkman (1994, pp. 30-35) agrees that …
… from an engineering perspective (Cengel &
Boles 1994)
OR
Cengel and Boles (1994) found …
… as previously demonstrated (Reid, Parsons &
Green 1989)

Berkman, RI 1994, Find It fast: how to uncover expert information on any subject, HarperPerennial, New York.

Book

Cengel, YA & Boles, MA 1994, Thermodynamics: an engineering approach, 2nd edn, McGraw Hill, London.

Book

Reid, DH, Parsons, MB & Green, CW 1989, Staff management in human services: behavioral research and application,
Charles C. Thomas, Springfield.
Jull, G, Sterling, M, Fallah, D, Treleaven, J & O'Leary, S 2008,
Whiplash headache and neck pain: research-based directions for physical therapies, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.
Be, know, do: leadership the Army way 2004, Jossey-Bass, San
Francisco.

Book

2 authors

3 authors

4 or more authors No author

October 2011

… neck pain caused by whiplash (Jull et al. 2008).
OR
Jull et al. (2008) have argued …
… already mentioned (Be, know, do: leadership the Army way 2004).
OR
In Be, know, do: leadership the Army way (2004) there is an interesting example …

Book

Book

3/12

Multiple works by the same author … geology of Queensland’s national parks
(Willmott 2004, 2006).

Multiple works by the same author, published in the same year
Two or more works by different authors

… geographically speaking (Dawkins 1996a,
1996b)

Book by an organisation or institution Different Editions

… in the case of an institution (Australian
Government Publishing Service 1987)

Edited book

… some findings (Sjostrand 1993)
OR
… optics defined (Pike & Sarkar 1986)

Book Series

In defining permutation groups Bhattacharjee
(1998) …

October 2011

… rock formations (Dawkins 1996; Willmott
2004)

… the meaning of educational research (Pring
2004)

Willmott, WF 2004, Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of southern Queensland, Geological Society of Australia,
Queensland Division, Brisbane.
Willmott, WF 2006, Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of central Queensland, Geological Society of Australia,
Queensland Division, Brisbane.
Order chronologically in the reference list.
Dawkins, R 1996a, Climbing Mount Improbable, Viking,
London.
Dawkins, R 1996b, River out of Eden, Phoenix, London.
Order alphabetically by title in the reference list.
Dawkins, R 1996, Climbing Mount Improbable, Viking,
London.
Willmott, WF 2004, Rocks and landscapes of the national parks of southern Queensland, Geological Society of Australia,
Queensland Division, Brisbane.
Australian Government Publishing Service 1987,
Commonwealth printing and publishing manual, 2nd edn,
A.G.P.S., Canberra.
Pring, R 2004, Philosophy of educational research, 2nd edn,
Continuum, London.
The edition statement is placed after the title of the work.
This is not necessary for a first edition.
Sjostrand, S (ed.) 1993, Institutional change: theory and empirical findings, M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y.
Pike, ER & Sarkar, S (eds.) 1986, Frontiers in quantum optics,
Adam Hilger, Bristol.
Bhattacharjee, M 1998, Notes of infinite permutation groups,
Lecture notes in mathematics no.1698, Springer, New York.

Book

Book

Book

Book

Book

Edited book

Book

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Chapter in a book
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of chapter – family name and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of chapter – in single quotation marks’, in Editor(s) – family name and initials
(eds), Title of book – italicised, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication, Page numbers.
Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Chapter in an edited book

Bernstein (1995) explained intelligent traffic flows. Bernstein, D 1995, ‘Transportation planning’, in Chen WF (ed.),
The civil engineering handbook, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp.
231-61.

EndNote reference type
Book section

Conference paper
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of paper – family name and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of paper – in single quotation marks’, Title of published proceedings which may include place held and date(s) – italicised, Publisher, Place of Publication, Page number(s).
Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Published conference paper

Bourassa (1999) emphasised …

Unpublished conference paper

… estimating partner change (Bowden and
Fairley 1996)

Bourassa, S 1999, ‘Effects of child care on young children’,
Proceedings of the third annual meeting of the International
Society for Child Psychology, International Society for Child
Psychology, Atlanta, Georgia, pp. 44-6.
Bowden, FJ & Fairley, CK 1996, ‘Endemic STDs in the Northern
Territory: estimations of effective rates of partner change’, paper presented to the scientific meeting of the Royal
Australian College of Physicians, Darwin, 24-25 June.

October 2011

EndNote reference type
Book section

Conference paper

5/12

Journal Article
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of journal article – family name and initials Year of publication, ‘Title of journal article – in single quotation marks’, Title of journal – italicised,
Volume, Issue or number, Page number(s).
Reference type
Print/Online
Journal articles with page numbers Online journal article without page numbers

In-text examples
Huffman (1996) expanded on the theory …
OR
… uses for whey protein (Huffman 1996).
… the discipline of art history (Donahue-Wallace
& Chanda 2005)

Reference list example

EndNote reference type
Huffman, LM 1996, ‘Processing whey protein for use as a food Journal article ingredient’, Food Technology, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 49-52.
Donahue-Wallace, K & Chanda, J 2005, 'A case study in integrating the best practices of face-to-face art history and online teaching', Interactive Multimedia Electronic Journal of
Computer-Enhanced Learning, vol. 7, no. 1, viewed 30 January
2009, .

Electronic article in EndNote

Thesis
Elements of the citation
Author of thesis – family name and initials Year of preparation of thesis, ‘Title of thesis – in single quotation marks’, Award, Institution issuing degree,
Location of institution.
Reference type

In-text examples

Thesis

Exelby (1997) described the process …
OR
… processing gold (Exelby 1997)

October 2011

Reference list example

EndNote reference type
Exelby, HRA 1997, ‘Aspects of gold and mineral liberation’, PhD Thesis thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
The title is not italicised and is placed in quotation marks.

6/12

Report
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of report – (person or organisation) Year of Publication, Title of report - italicised, Report number (if available), Publisher/ Institution, Place of publication, (viewed date, URL - if accessed electronically).
Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Report

… in Queensland waterways (Mortimer & Cox
1999)

Mortimer, M & Cox, M 1999, Contaminants in mud crabs and sediments from the Maroochy River, Environment technical report no. 25, Queensland Department of the Environment,
Brisbane.

Report with corporate author

(Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2010)

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2010, Child protection Australia 2008-09, Child welfare series no. 47. Cat. no. CWS 35, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare,
Canberra.

EndNote reference type
Report
Use the institution field for publisher name Report
Use the institution field for publisher name Web page
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of page – (person or organisation) Year (page created or revised), Title of page - italicised, Publisher (if applicable), Place of publication (if applicable), viewed date, URL.

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Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Web page with author … this agreement (Albanese 2009)

Web page - no author Web page with institutional or organisational author

(Behaviour modification 2007)

Albanese, A 2009, Fairer compensation for air travellers, media release, 29 January, Minister for Infrastructure,
Transport, Regional Development and Local Government, viewed 30 January 2009,
.
Behaviour modification 2007, Viewed 31 August 2011,
.
Queensland Health 2009, Sun safety and physical activity, viewed 31 August 2011,
.

Web page with no date of publication … it has been argued that emotional intelligence is a combination of competencies (Bliss n.d.)

(Queensland Health 2009)

Bliss, SE n.d., The effect of emotional intelligence on a modern organizational leader’s ability to make effective decisions, viewed 10 February 2008, .

EndNote reference type
Web page

Web page

Web page

Table, Image or Diagram
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of item – family name and initials Year of publication, Title of item – italicised, Edition, Publisher, Place of publication.
Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

(Newton 2007)

Newton, AC 2007, Forest ecology and conservation: a handbook of techniques, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

References are placed directly under the table, diagram or image.

October 2011

EndNote reference type
Book
Use the relevant reference type for the item you are citing. 8/12

Other Internet sources
Elements of the citation
Author(s) Year, Title - italicised, Type of medium, Publisher (if applicable), Place of publication (if applicable), Viewed date, URL.
Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Podcasts

(Williams 2011)

Williams, R 2011, New lab for ancient DNA: Science Show, Podcast,
ABC, viewed 31 October 2011,
.

Blog Post

(O’Neill 2011)

O'Neill, I 2011, Could Kepler Detect Borg Cubes? Why Not, AstroEngine, viewed 5 October 2011,
.

EndNote reference type
Audiovisual
material
Web Page
Use the publisher field for blog name

Patent
Elements of the citation
Author(s) of patent – family name and initials Year of issue, Title of patent- italicised, Number of patent including country of issue.
Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Patent

… gas insulated transmission systems (Cookson
1985)

Cookson, AH 1985, Particle trap for compressed gas insulated transmission systems, US Patent 4554399.

EndNote reference type
Patent

Standard
Elements of the citation
Corporate body issuing standard Year of publication, Title of standard- italicised, Number of standard including identifier of issuing country or body,
Publisher of standard, Place of publication.
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Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Standard

… steels are classified (International Organization for Standardization 1982)

International Organization for Standardization 1982, Steels classification - part 1: classification of steels into unalloyed and alloy steels based on chemical composition, ISO 49481:1982, International Organization for Standardization,
Geneva.

EndNote reference type
Standard

Map
Elements of the citation
Issuing body Year of publication, Title of map – italicised, Series (if available), Publisher, Place of publication.
Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Map

… reading this map (Department of Mines and
Energy, Queensland 1996)

Department of Mines and Energy, Queensland 1996,
Dotswood, Australia 1:100 000 geological series, sheet 8158,
Department of Mines and Energy, Queensland, Brisbane.

EndNote reference type
Map

DVD or Video
Elements of the citation
Author/Producer/Director Year, Title, Type of medium, Publisher, Place.
Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

DVD or Video

(Smith 2009)

Smith, S 2009, Excellence in teaching: lesson planning, DVD,
Sunburst Media, Plainview, NY.

October 2011

EndNote reference type
Audiovisual media
Add DVD to the
Type field.

10/12

Lecture Notes
Elements of the citation
Name of author(s) or the institution responsible, use & for multiple authors Year of publication, Title and subtitle of publication – italicised, Type of medium,
Name of institution, Location of institution.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Lecture notes

(Johnson 2008)

Johnson, A 2008, Week 3 Pipes, PowerPoint slides, University of Queensland, Brisbane.

EndNote reference type
Book

Personal communication
Elements of the citation
Information obtained by interview, telephone call, letter or email should be documented in the text, but should NOT be included in the list of References.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Personal communication When interviewed on 15 June 1995, Dr Peter
Jones explained that …
OR
This was later verbally confirmed (P Jones 1995, pers. comm., 15 June).

Do not include in the Reference List

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EndNote reference type

11/12

Indirect citation
An indirect citation is when the ideas of one author are published in another author’s text but you have not read or accessed the original author’s work.
In the list of References provide the details of the author of the work you have read.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

EndNote reference type

Indirect citation or secondary source Miller (cited in Agrios 2005) found …

Agrios GN, 2005, Plant pathology, 5th edn, Elsevier,
Burlington, MA.

Book

… it was found (Miller cited in Agrios 2005).

Add “cited in” manually using “Edit Citation” option. Use the relevant reference type for the item you are citing. Direct quotation
A direct quotation reproduces word-for-word material directly quoted from another author’s work, or from your own previously-published work.
If the quotation is fewer than 40 words, incorporate it into your paragraph and enclose the quotation in double quotation marks.
If the quotation comprises 40 or more words, display it in an indented, freestanding block of text, without quotation marks. At the end of a block quotation, cite the quoted source and the page number in parentheses, after the final punctuation mark.
If you have directly quoted words from a source (in inverted commas, or in an indented paragraph), provide the author, year, and specific page number for that quotation. (For material without page numbers, give the paragraph number.) Include a complete reference in the reference list.

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