Given the Relative Weakness of the 16th Century Europe, How Do We Account for the Fact That European Nations Came to Dominate Most of the World by the End of the 19th Century?

In: Other Topics

Submitted By chaos10
Words 1164
Pages 5
Given the relative weakness of the 16th century Europe, how do we account for the fact that European nations came to dominate most of the world by the end of the 19th century?

In the 16th century, majority of the population in Europe was living in poverty. Europe paled in comparison to the great empires of the Ming, Ottoman and Mughal. Though Portuguese and Spanish represented Europe civilization to set sail and explore new lands in search of new settlements and viable trade routes, the Chinese empire lead an expedition of a massive scale larger than ever known earlier than that time with a different motive. Such expeditions imply these major empires could be suitable candidates for world domination. However, they became insignificant in the world politics arena due to internal declines and isolation.
Strong and impregnable as they seem, these great empires had their weaknesses and suffered downfalls due to inefficient government and inadequate resources. The Ottoman Empire has expanded beyond what its resources could sustain. Coupled with widespread corruption and incompetent leadership, the empire’s armies suffered and became vulnerable to its Christian and nomadic rivals. The Mughal empire leader Aurangzeb, expanded his empire in name of purifying Islam hence weakening alliances with Hindu princes and disrupted the already fragmented social order. With focused expansion of territory using obsolete armies and tactics, the empire was drained of its wealth and fell when civil unrest overtook the crown. The Ming Empire was somehow different. It was an empire with a well-developed industry and culture. The initial overseas expeditions were driven by curiosity. However, Ming was facing an imminent danger of aggression from neighbours. Hence resources were diverted to defense rather than for expansion. As a result, the Chinese became isolated and withdrawn. Above…...

Similar Documents

19th Century

...19th Century Life Criticized Hard Times is a novel written by Charles Dickens in the mid 1800’s. Hard Times criticizes the philosophy of Utilitarianism (Hard Times, 2013). “Dickens believed that Utilitarianism reduced social relations to cold self-interest.”(Hard Times, 2013) This reduced social relation can be seen throughout the novel. Dickens criticizes several aspects of 19th-century life. Dickens criticizes the treatment of children, the life of factory workers, the relationship between employer and employee, and the city they live in. Dickens shows how little respect there is for the children of the time. The children in the school are numbered. They are called by their number and not by their names. Mr. Gradgrind points out Sissy Jupe and calls her “Girl number twenty.” (Dickens, 1854, pg. 10) Gradgrind showed no respect for her name or who she said she was. He insisted that “Sissy” was not a name and that she should only refer to herself as “Cecilia” (Dickens, 1854). Sissy attempted to answer Gradgrind’s questions and he interrupted her every time. Gradgrind’s idea of teaching is to only feed children facts. Children are not allowed to imagine or fancy things. “You are never to fancy,” said a gentleman and Gradgrind confirmed his statement (Dickens, 1854, pg. 14). The only thing the children are to be taught and to repeat is fact. The children are not allowed to have a mind of their own. Dickens raises many contemporary issues in his......

Words: 763 - Pages: 4

The Muslim World and Its Problem in 21st Century

...The Muslim World and its Problems in the 21st Century The Prospects of Muslim Renaissance Problems of the Muslim world in 21st century and Prospects of Muslim renaissance In the twenty first century the Muslim world is passing through a very challenging and crucial situation. We will face countless problems in the near future and we have to fight for our survival. There are multidimensional external attacks as well as internal challenges in the Muslim world. The Muslim world is under cultural raid and very fatal conspiracies. In order to know about the problems of the Muslims, it is necessary to look briefly at some of the aspects of physical and demographic profile of the Muslim world Area and population of Muslim world The Muslim world represents one fifth of the humanity occupying a global land mass spreading over 57 countries. It represents 23% of world population. The birth rate in Muslim world is 3.4%. about 80% of Muslim population is living in Muslim countries and the rest in the non-Muslim countries. DEFENSE The Muslim world is very weak as far as their defense is concerned due to low literacy rate and short of science and technology. In this case they cannot compete with the western world. Most of the Muslim countries look to the west for their defense. Total army of the Muslim world is 67 lacks. Although the Muslim world spends almost 76 billion......

Words: 1991 - Pages: 8

What Was the Enlightenment and How Did It Influence the Politics of the 19th Century?

...was the Enlightenment and how did it influence the politics of the 19th century? The Enlightenment was, in its simplest sense, a body of writers and writings of 18th century Europe which advocated reason and the belief in human rationality above all else and challenged long-standing values and institutions which were based on traditional and religious beliefs. The political ideas of the Enlightenment, which can be best understood against the backdrop of 18th century absolutism and the dominance of Christian world-views, denounced the ‘divine right of kings’ and called for reform in governance (Gieben and Hall, 1992:23). These were the ideas that influenced 19th century politics, and gradually led to the switch from all-powerful monarchies to the democracies of the modern world. In this essay I shall give a brief overview of the Enlightenment whilst focusing mainly on its political ideas and put these ideas in context by describing the political landscape of the time. I will then discuss how these political ideas shaped the politics of the 19th century. I will limit myself to looking at the influence of the Enlightenment on European politics as that is where its affect was most sharply felt and was the main location for the Enlightenment movement (Gieben and Hall,1992:72). The Enlightenment was the emergence of new ways of thinking which came about mainly in 18th century Europe, although Enlightenment ideas can also be seen in the 17th century, for example in the......

Words: 1324 - Pages: 6

How the Renaissance, Reformation and Nation-States Contributed to the Concept of European Identity?

...MERVE DENİZ 13735009 How the Renaissance, Reformation and Nation-States Contributed to the Concept of European Identity? 1. Introduction I would like to study the connection between the material culture that sprang to life after the Reformation in Europe and the urbanization that came with the Industrial Revolution in order to see if or if not it had any effects on constituting the European Identity. Starting first with analyzing the material culture of which the Italian Renaissance movement and then the Reformation planted its seeds, I want to follow the dynamics of social changes that slowly transformed the life in Europe from peasantry with only the Christian identity to nation-state citizenship with a European notion. In order to understand how the Industrial Revolution that started in the 19th century and spreaded across the continent affected Europe, it is first required to analyze the changes in the mentality of people that lived in Europe and the transformation the societies went through as a result of the Protestant Reformation that took place in the 16th century. Although the Industrial Revolution had basically been a drastic economic upheaval, it cannot be considered without its social causes and social results. How the humanist mindset that came up with the Renaissance had affected the daily lives of people and how this effect helped people to search for improvements in working and production have been widely......

Words: 1984 - Pages: 8

Women Slaves in 19th Century

...Jacquelynn Bernhardt History 1 Social Group Research Paper Women Slaves in the Nineteenth Century Since I was a young child I could never quite understand the reasoning behind slavery. I do not understand how one human being could possibly believe he or she has the right to treat another human as little more than an animal - buying, selling, leasing, and physically punishing someone else. Although slavery in general interested me, I was even more interested to find out how enslaved women were treated in the nineteenth century, before the Civil War and also after they were finally granted their freedom. I often thought women would have been treated a little better than males. I believed they would have been given an easier workload to bear since they also had the task of raising their children. It was disturbing to discover they were treated much worse than males were. Because women could work as well as reproduce offspring, providing an additional generation of slaves, women were extremely valuable to slave owners. "Strong black women were sold as breeders valued for their reproductive as well as productive capacity" (Doherty). In the years just before the Civil War women were often sold for higher prices than males at slave auctions. "For one group of women, the assigned price depended upon their beauty and subsequent use to the master who could lease them to wealthy white men" (Doherty). Women were sold for as much as $1,800. Skilled men were sold...

Words: 2661 - Pages: 11

Century World

...Century World (Ladies and gentlemen, I’m writing this off the top of my head and not checking my facts. They are essentially as laid out in this paper, but the sources are imaginary—just to illustrate how to document a scholarly paper.) The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Could Have Succeeded: But Would It Have Mattered? One of the most horrifying realities of World War II surrounded the genocide of millions of people the Axis Powers deemed inferior. Of those, the best known group was Jewish. Every nation in Europe that fell under Axis control had some Jewish citizens, and millions of these people were arrested, detained, and eventually executed, worked, or starved to death. Poland’s Jews were the most numerous group outside of Germany itself and, from the beginning of the war, suffered under Nazi rule. Initially confined to ghettos in major cities, the Jewish population was systematically deported to concentration camps and exterminated. When Jews failed to report for deportation 2 in sufficient numbers, the Germans decided to demolish the ghettos in every city, the largest of which was in Warsaw. In the spring of 1943, some Jews in the Warsaw ghetto elected to resist militantly, and they held the German Army at bay for weeks longer than Poland itself had held out against the invaders in 1939. The ghetto uprising failed for a number of reasons, but it could have succeeded if different decisions had been made sooner and if the outside world had been......

Words: 1855 - Pages: 8

Native Americans in the 19th and 20th Centuries

...Native Americans in the 19th and 20th Centuries Table of Contents I Introduction………………………………………………………….P. 4 II Treaties Involving the Native Americans…………………………...P. 4 III Military Actions Involving the Native Americans…………………P. 7 IV Policies Involving the Native Americans………………………….P. 10 V Conclusion………………………………………………………….P. 12 VI Bibliography……………………………………………………….P. 13 I Introduction The term Native American means just what it says. These people were the people that were Native to the land when the first European settlers arrived here. These first settlers were not interested in taking away what belonged to the natives. They were not concerned with trying to change them to become more “civilized”. The early settlers were more interested in learning from them and trading with them for their survival in this new and untamed land. This would not always be the case though. As time progressed hostilities exploded between the Native Americans and the settlers. There were many policies and treaties placed upon the Indians, and when they revolted against these things military actions were what made them accept the fate that they did not want to accept. II Treaties Involving Native Americans Treaties were put in place supposedly to protect the Native Americans. Unfortunately they were mainly used as a way for the white man to take over the Indian’s land and hunting grounds. A lot of the time these treaties were ignored all together by the government that......

Words: 1756 - Pages: 8

Why Nations Fail

...A Review of Acemoglu and Robinson’s Why Nations Fail by Michele Boldrin, David K. Levine and Salvatore Modica Acemoglu and Robinson’s Why Nations Fail [2012] is a grand history in the style of Diamond [1997] or McNeil [1963]. Like those books, this book is exceptionally fun to read and full of interesting historical examples and provocative ideas. The basic theme of the book is that what matters most in why some nations fail – and others succeed, for the book is as much about success as failure – are not – as earlier authors have argued - economic policies, geography, culture, or value systems – but rather institutions, more precisely the political institutions that determine economic institutions. Acemoglu and Robinson theorize that political institutions can be divided into two kinds - “extractive” institutions in which a “small” group of individuals do their best to exploit - in the sense of Marx - the rest of the population, and “inclusive” institutions in which “many” people are included in the process of governing hence the exploitation process is either attenuated or absent. Needless to say Acemoglu and Robinson’s theory is more subtle than this simple summary. They argue that for any economic success political institutions must be sufficiently centralized to provide basic public services including justice, the enforcement of contracts, and education. Given that these functions are carried out, inclusive institutions enable innovative energies to emerge and lead to......

Words: 5886 - Pages: 24

United Nations in the Next Century

...UN : THE NEXT CENTURY CHAPTER - 1 : INTRODUCTION “More than ever before in human history, we share a common destiny. We can master it only if we face it together. And that is why we have the United Nations” - Kofi Annan 1. The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the UN Charter had been ratified by a majority of the original 51 Member States. The day is now celebrated each year around the world as United Nations Day. 2. The purpose of the United Nations is to bring all nations of the world together to work for peace and development, based on the principles of justice, human dignity and the well-being of all people. It affords the opportunity for countries to balance global interdependence and national interests when addressing international problems. 3. There are currently 192 Members of the United Nations. They meet in the General Assembly, which is the closest thing to a world parliament. Each country, large or small, rich or poor, has a single vote, however, none of the decisions taken by the Assembly are binding. Nevertheless, the Assembly's decisions become resolutions that carry the weight of world governmental opinion. 4 he United Nations Headquarters is in New York City but the land and buildings are international territory. The United Nations has its own flag, its own post office and its own postage stamps. Six official languages are used at the United Nations - Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian...

Words: 1948 - Pages: 8

Europe in Turmoil: Foreign Influences on Tenth Century Europe

...Europe in Turmoil: Foreign Influences on Tenth Century Europe The Viking and Hungarian invasions across the European continent during the Ninth and Tenth centuries left a dramatic impact upon the continent. These two separate cultures would rampage across large swaths of Europe, bringing with them a wave of terror and fear. Their actions are now things of legend, but their military triumphs exist within the historical sphere as well. The purpose of this paper is three-fold: first, we will examine why these invasions were so damaging to Europe, second we will determine which one was ultimately more destructive, and third we will discuss how these invasions effected Christianity and spiritualism across the European continent. The Vikings hailed from the modern day Scandinavian countries of northern Europe, and their tireless efforts to pursue land and wealth by sea and land would take them on journeys from the Newfoundland coast to almost every major area of the European continent. Although the Viking presence in the British Isles is well documented, perhaps their ferocity and influence can best be seen with their encounters with the Franks. The Franks, who inhabit modern day France, would defend against almost constant Viking attacks by sea and land through most of the ninth century. An example of Viking influence in France still remains today. The Viking leader Rollo was made an offer by the Frankish King in 896; if he converted to Christianity and protected the...

Words: 900 - Pages: 4

Nationalism in 18th Century Europe

...Throughout the nineteenth century three political ideals began influencing states and their  citizens like no other ideals had done before. These ideals were liberalism, socialism and, the  most important, nationalism. Each one possessed its own uniqueness which inspired mass  followings of people that would last thoroughly into the twentieth century. Each one also proved  to form a catalyst for the modernisation of many European countries. However, in comparison,  none of these ideals had the impact that the nationalistic approach had. This is due to many  reasons which ranged from the fact that not everyone was affected by socialism or that ninety  percent of people in eighteenth century Europe lived in a ‘nation­state’ which acted as a breeding  ground for nationalism growth. A nation­state is a bordered country with its own culture and, the  main component of a nation, language. Once politically tapped, this shared heritage and  collective ideas could easily take the form of nationalism and depending on the capability of the  leadership in control the approach could take many different directions, the most well­known  being: ‘Pride Nationalism’ which originated from France or ‘Blood and Soil Nationalism’ from  Germany. One of the greatest accomplishment of nationalism was its ascension to the dominant  doctrine of ordinary people’s lives at the expense of religion whose power had become a tattered  shadow of previous centuries. However, that is not to say t......

Words: 1772 - Pages: 8

Capital in Xxi Century

... Capital in the Twenty-First Century CAPITAL IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY Thomas Piketty Translated by Arthur Goldhammer The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS LONDON, ENGLAND 2014 Copyright © 2014 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College All rights reserved First published as Le capital au XXI siècle, copyright © 2013 Éditions du Seuil Design by Dean Bornstein Jacket design by Graciela Galup The Library of Congress has cataloged the printed edition as follows Piketty, Thomas, 1971– [Capital au XXIe siècle. English] Capital in the twenty-first century / Thomas Piketty ; translated by Arthur Goldhammer. pages cm Translation of the author’s Le capital au XXIe siècle. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-674-43000-6 (alk. paper) 1. Capital. 2. Income distribution. 3. Wealth. 4. Labor economics. I. Goldhammer, Arthur, translator. II. Title. HB501.P43613 2014 332'.041—dc23 2013036024 Contents Acknowledgments Introduction Part One: Income and Capital 1. Income and Output 2. Growth: Illusions and Realities Part Two: The Dynamics of the Capital/Income Ratio 3. The Metamorphoses of Capital 4. From Old Europe to the New World 5. The Capital/Income Ratio over the Long Run 6. The Capital-Labor Split in the Twenty-First Century Part Three: The Structure of Inequality 7. Inequality and Concentration: Preliminary Bearings 8. Two Worlds 9. Inequality of Labor Income 10.......

Words: 272681 - Pages: 1091

19th Century Philosophers

...|eliminating Kant’s “things-in-themselves” (external reality) and making the self, or the ego, the ultimate reality. Fichte | |maintained that the world is created by an absolute ego, which is conscious first of itself and only later of non-self, or the | |otherness of the world. The human will, a partial manifestation of self, gives human beings freedom to act. Friedrich Wilhelm | |Joseph von Schelling moved still further toward absolute idealism by construing objects or things as the works of the | |imagination and Nature as an all-embracing being, spiritual in character. Schelling became the leading philosopher of the | |movement known as romanticism, which in contrast to the Enlightenment placed its faith in feeling and the creative imagination | |rather than in reason. The romantic view of the divinity of nature influenced the American transcendentalist movement, led by | |poet and essayist Ralph Waldo Emerson. | |C | |1 | | | |Hegel ...

Words: 2218 - Pages: 9

19th Century Art Education, Industrial Art or Fine Art?

...19th Century Art Education, Industrial Art or Fine Art? Varick Taylor East Carolina University MAED Art 6800 History and Philosophy of Art Education Abstract As an art educator in the today’s public school system, I feel that it is my responsibility to introduce and allow my students to explore the arts from the past and the present. I want them to learn a variety of art making techniques and art history. I also want to prepare them for future by giving them exposure to possible career choices that utilizes the arts. Therefore I feel it is important that my art classes allow students to be exposed to both the fine arts and design fields of the 21st century. 21st century technology like 19th century industrialization has influenced art education methods. The use of technology in classes is increasing each year. We are using design software to create both designs and fine art assignments on computers. In the 19th century, industrialization was one of the most important reasons why art became a part of public school education. Government leaders and the industry wanted America to able to compete with the superior European imports. As a result they felt that requiring drawing as a subject in public schools would help the U.S. in competing with Europe and balance trade. Knowing how much they wanted America to produce better products, I was puzzled when the Massacusetts did not model its art education after the France, whom was considered the best in producing superior......

Words: 4170 - Pages: 17

Modern Philippine Society vs 19th Century Europe

...Modern Philippine Society Vs 19th Century Europe While the Philippines is deemed to be a “developing” country, one can easily presume that the country has reached some sort of plateau in terms of social growth and progress. In fact, one may even argue that Philippine society still closely resembles 19th Century Europe. Political Alfred McCoy and Ed de Jesus iterate that the Philippines as a society was essentially “political” in nature. Restrained by traditional values of reciprocity, the Filipino lived in a state of cultural, political, and economic “undevelopment” that served as a positive barrier to “modernization”. While the economy faltered, politics boomed. Channeling all their conflicts and aspirations through the political system, the Filipinos were unified through and electoral-cum-bureaucratic structure. Much like the uprising in 19th century Europe, which was founded on the citizens’ dissatisfaction of economic and political state. Economical As far as social class is concerned, modern-day Philippine society can still see a very huge and apparent gap between social classes, even with the existence of the middle-class. While luxury stores were popping up like mushrooms in the central business district, the average monthly income per family was pegged at Php10, 750 . Clearly foreign luxury brands would not even consider setting up shop locally without a readily available market. Religion The church and the state although technically and......

Words: 309 - Pages: 2