Gender, Class, and Race Stereotypes in American Television

In: Business and Management

Submitted By shansimons
Words 1249
Pages 5
Gender, Class, and Race Stereotypes in American Television

A Content Analysis

Gender, class, and race stereotypes abound in contemporary society, much like they have done throughout human history. With the advent of television, however, stereotypical assumptions have become so pervasive, and so diffused, that some call for a serious and purposeful scrutiny of television's contents. On the following pages, various content analyses of television programs will be addressed, followed by discussions on the greater implications race, class, and gender stereotypes have on society. The research method most often used in studying media images is called content analysis. Content analysis is a descriptive method in which researchers analyze the actual content of documents and/or programs. By systematically counting items pertaining to a specific category, researchers are able to conceptualize a larger theoretical framework based on their observations of media content (Wiseman 1970).

Content analyses of television programming show, that during prime time hours, men make up the vast majority of characters shown. Furthermore, women characters found during that same time frame are mainly in comedies, while men predominate in dramas. Thus, the implications are that men are to be taken serious, while women should not. (Tuchman 1978). Similarly, content analyses on soap operas reveal highly stereotypical representations of the genders. In soap operas, strong, willful women are predominantly depicted as villainous, while the more benevolent women are suspect of vulnerability and naivety (Benokraitis 1986). Furthermore, another sharp gender-stereotypical contrast on television content can be seen in advertisements. In fact, 75% of all television ads using women are for kitchen or bathroom related products (Tuchman 1978) On average, women tend to be portrayed in roles in…...

Similar Documents

Race and Gender

...and have children with each other. So, our differences biologically are superficial, hair texture, some ailments which tend to be environmental, and skin color. Those who want to dismiss the notion of the social construction of race normally do so due to their inherent bias to attribute dysfunctional behavior in minority communities due to a racial makeup instead of addressing more systemic problems that plague these communities. Countless studies reveal that lower income people of all groups tend to follow the same negative trajectory. Racism is the belief that one race or culture is superior to another, regardless of biological evidence that negates this belief. This difference – the perceived inferiority of one race over another – is commonly used and abused as basis for discrimination, whether institutionalized or individualized through social construction. The widespread societal and institutional changes in America since the 1960s have done little to eliminate discrimination faced by racial minorities even after the election of a black president. Race is not just a social construction but a historical construction that has been embedded into each of our lives through social classes and institutions since the day we were born. “Even though race is constructed through historic meanings and social interactions it is as much a part of our national character as themes of patriotism.” (Defending Whiteness, 8) Minorities historically have had less access to quality......

Words: 1810 - Pages: 8

Gender and Cultural Stereotypes

...Gender Stereotyping in Advertising In the Swiffer® commercial, Morty Are You Listening? We meet Lee and Morty, an older married couple who are showing us how Swiffer® makes cleaning so much easier for Lee, the wife. We see Morty telling Lee to be careful climbing up on a stool to dust the top of a cabinet and saying, “There has to be an easier way.” This is a major gender stereotype. Morty could have climbed on the stool and dusted himself. After they receive the Swiffer® duster, we see Lee making her way around the house and dusting different areas. As she is dusting, she is talking to Morty and commenting about what a great job the Swiffer® is doing. They show Marty yawning, while Lee is talking to him. As Lee continues to talk to him, they show Morty fast asleep. This is another gender stereotype. The man of the house relaxes and falls asleep, while the woman cleans around him. For the older generations in the United States, many women will not have a problem with this. This was how they were raised and how they have lived for most of their lives. However, many women in the younger generations would most likely find this commercial offensive. They are being raised in homes where the woman can be the major breadwinner, while the man stays home and takes care of the house. It seems as though, the manufacturer is implying that women are the only ones who clean the home, while the man will sit and watch or eventually fall asleep. If the......

Words: 676 - Pages: 3

Gender Stereotypes

...4/8/13 PROFESSOR: CURTIS MALOLEY Mass media plays an important role in the functioning of our society. On top of that gender identities portrayed in television and film send mix messages to their viewers. Although it may seem to be normal in popular culture today, it indirectly produces negative outcomes. We are manipulated by popular culture in accepting their representation of gender roles. In my essay I plan to prove the wrongful depiction of gender identities in the film “Lying to be perfect.” The movie lying to be perfect is based on the novel the Cinderella pact by Sarah Strohmeyers. Although the director is a male, he illustrates the movie in a different and altered version of Sarah’s novel. The characters analyzed are Nola, Alex, Nancy and Deb. The genre of this movie revolves around comedy, drama and romance. The main character Nola is a magazine editor who is neglected due to her being overweight. Nola is shy and concededly writes a book but authors it as Belinda Apple, although as it being her alter-ego. Nola creates a Cinderella pact with her friends for their journey to health. The hidden identity of Belinda Apple comes into question and Nola is pressure into accepting what “beauty” in the modern world comes to believe. I’ve chosen this movie because of its quality to show the ability of how society affects gender roles particularly women, in the way they present themselves to how they should act. It also portrays hegemonic feminism......

Words: 490 - Pages: 2

African American Stereotypes

...African American Stereotypes in Movies Media Research Methods CO 455 November 20, 2012 African American Stereotypes in Movies Introduction There once was a time when everyone expected the black man to be the first actor to die in every movie that possessed a black man in its cast. However, over time the assumption of the black man being the first to die has changed. Currently in the year 2012, there are progressively more movies in which black men portray leading roles. This change in black men as leading characters in movies is a welcome change. In the past, supporting or backup roles were considered the best role a black man could achieve. In this paper, the researcher will conduct information by means of content analysis. Content analysis is the most commonly used methodology because of its ability to measure human behavior, assuming that the verbal behavior is a form of behavior. This study will examine specific media products and define these products by determining smaller elements that complement these products. This document will address a wide view of concerns regarding the African American culture, and will provide assumptions on how this issue can be addressed in the future. The stereotype of African Americans in movies today, is the topic of this research paper. Why do African Americans face stereotypes in the media? Why do black actors and actresses have difficulty obtaining roles that are not......

Words: 6681 - Pages: 27

Oppression Among Gender Race and Class

...become a “restrictive structure of forces and barriers that immobilize and reduce a group or category of people” (Heldke & O’Connor 2004:530). “Class refers to endure and systematic differences in access to and control over production of goods and services, as well as the resources for provisioning and survival” (Acker 2006: 442). “Gender, refers to the socially constructed differences between male and female and the beliefs and identities that support difference and inequality, is also present in all organizations” (Acker 2006:444). “Race, refers to socially defined differences based on physical characteristics, culture, and historical domination and oppression, justified by entrenched beliefs” (Weber 2001 :10).This paper will analyze and discuss the issue of oppressions in relation to class, gender, and race using W.E.B. Du Bois’ thoughts on race, gender, and class. Also, the intersectional theory according to Patricia Hill Collins will be used for analyzing and discussion in regards race, gender and class. The work of W. E. B. Du Bois (1868-1963) has recently become recognized for its significant contributions to sociological theory (Zuckerman 2004:3). Although Du Bois himself was overwhelmingly concerned with the scientific perspective of "value free" sociological research, later social theorists have found his views on race to offer one of the first instances of the articulation of standpoint theory ( Zuckerman 2004:5). This theoretical perspective is anything but......

Words: 2635 - Pages: 11

Gender, Race, Class

...Birgit Rommelspacher Gender, race, class Ausgrenzung und Emanzipation Kein Thema ist derzeit so aktuell wie die Gleichstellung der Frau. Die ganze Gesellschaft debattiert darüber – sobald es um Muslimas geht. Es scheint, als hätten breite Schichten der Bevölkerung unversehens ihr Engagement für die Emanzipation der Frau entdeckt. An dieser Frage droht sogar die multikulturelle Gesellschaft in Deutschland beziehungsweise die Erweiterung Europas zu scheitern. So einigten sich etwa kürzlich die TeilnehmerInnen einer Fernsehdiskussion im Rundfunk Berlin Brandenburg unter der Leitung des „ZEIT“-Herausgebers Michael Naumann darauf, dass es bei dem Beitritt der Türkei zu Europa „im Kern um die Frauenfrage gehe“. Warum ist das Interesse an der Gleichstellung der Frauen plötzlich so groß? Wird es so sehr von der Sorge um die Unterdrückung der Frauen getragen oder spielen dabei auch noch andere Motive eine Rolle? Dieser Verdacht liegt nahe, wenn man sich daran erinnert, dass frau zu Zeiten des feministischen Kampfes von einer solchen, breiten und vollmundigen Unterstützung nur träumen konnte. Zudem ist zu fragen, wenn dieser Diskurs auch anderen Interessen dient, wie er dann auf das Anliegen der verschiedenen Frauen zurückwirkt beziehungsweise das Verständnis von Emanzipation und deren Bedeutung in dieser Gesellschaft verändert. ihre Aufstiegschancen deutlich geringer als die ihrer deutschen Kolleginnen (vgl. MÜNZ /SEIFERT/ULRICH 1997). Die Zurücksetzung von Migrantinnen hängt......

Words: 2963 - Pages: 12

Gender Stereotypes

...Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation Chelyabinsk State University Faculty of Linguistics and Translation Department of Theory and Practice of the English Language Intercultural Communication Project Stereotypes of gender roles in Egypt and Russia Written by: Elena Yakusheva Group: LIE – 503 Chelyabinsk, 2014 Table of contents Introduction………………………………………………………………………...3 Part one GENDER STEREOTYPES THEORY. …………………………….........6 1.1 Stereotypes: definition and functions…………………………………………..6 1.2 The gender concept……………….. ………………………………………….10 1.3 Gender stereotype: types and functions……………………………………….14 Conclusions on part one………………………………………………...…….......20 Part two. STEREOTYPES OF GENDER ROLES IN EGYPT AND RUSSIA….21 2.1 Research method on the stereotypes of gender roles in Russia and Egypt........21 2.2 The interpretation of the results of the research in Russia……………………21 2.3 The interpretation of the results of the research in Egypt……………………..24 2.4 The comparison of the results and its reasons………………………………...25 Conclusions on part two…………………………………………………………..29 Resources………………………………………………………………………….30 Online resources…………………………………………………………………..32 Appendix………………………………………………………………………….33 Introduction The questions connected with features of a sex of the person and his or her psychological and social distinctions, are among recently the most discussed in society. Today the role of the man and the woman undergoes considerable changes....

Words: 8717 - Pages: 35

Gender Stereotype in Media

...Name Professor’s name Course number Date Gender Stereotypes in Media The mass media plays a significant role in the contemporary society. It provides broadcast information at a fast race and gives entertainment to audiences from diverse social backgrounds. Mass media is made up of press, books, magazines, radio, television, and internet. The internet is the most embraced medium in the contemporary society where digital technology dominates. Nevertheless, TV also has a wide influence in the society. By creating and conveying certain type of information to the audience, media can manipulate the attitudes and opinions of people. In this study, we intend to discuss problems associated to media influence through an investigative study of its commercial structure. The study also tries to specify gender stereotypes as used in persuasive advertising technique. Humans organize their knowledge about the world sorting and simplifying the information they receive (Gu 291). They tend to establish cognitive schemes that are certain representations of reality portraying its basic elements and features (Everett 387). The schemes developed by humans are responsible for the definition of our perception and view of the world. They have significant influence our social understanding, situation, anticipation and emotional control. The most common type of these schemes used for social orientation in our environment is stereotypes (Darling 153). The stereotypes scheme represents the opinions and......

Words: 1525 - Pages: 7

Gender Stereotypes

...discussed gender norms, specifically in communities of color. The big center of the debate was referring to men as the head of the household. The argument was deciding whether or not usage of this term was antiquated in today’s climate, or whether it was still relevant. Personally, calling a man head of the household gives him pride in his family. It is supposed to be his spiritual role in a Christian household. Judging by the growing and disproportionate number of single mothers out there, this ideal of men being the cornerstone of their families seems to be a necessity now more than ever. So honestly, what is the harm in bestowing this title upon our men? Of course, the trick is to make a man feel like he’s head of the household, when really women are running things in the background. Is this why society often views women as the more nurturing of the two genders? However, the idea that women are naturally more nurturing than men is largely a social construct. Men respond the way they do because they have more to lose. If women are naturally predestined to serve as nurturers, men are not only relieved of much of the child-rearing burdens, but also face less competition in the workplace. Removing the biological ties binding women to nurturer roles could turn traditional gender roles inside-out, leaving both men and women facing equal opportunities and responsibilities in terms of child-rearing and the workplace. My parents hold more traditional views on gender......

Words: 485 - Pages: 2

Stereotypes of Gender

...Stereotypes of Gender against Women Throughout history, women have been discriminated against in our society. At times, they have been considered the weaker sex and also, they have been expected to do work that only demands low responsibility. These responsibilities may include: housework, being a good wife and mother. However, the world’s perspective towards women has had significant changes, and companies like Walt Disney Production are still generating stereotypes of gender against women in their films such as Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Cinderella, Beauty and the Beast, and Mulan. Media is frequently responsible of encouraging these patterns by the way they show their information and entertainment to the audience. Laura Mulvey, a British feminist film theorist, is best known for her essay, “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema” which was published in 1975. Here, she describes the role of women in movies “as a tool of attraction for the male gaze” (Mulvey). According to Mulvey’s statement, this work aims to describe the stereotypes of gender that Disney films display throughout their past productions. It also shows how the films can affect everyday lives. Over decades, these cartoons have been criticized for illustrating the traditional American and European values, thus creating stereotypes, which are often not a clear image of the current situation in our society. One of the most discussed topics in the animated features of Walt Disney Productions is the......

Words: 1607 - Pages: 7

Gender Stereotype

...Female Gender Stereotype Miguel Mendoza English-100-TR-10:00AM Professor A.Cerda March 8, 2015 In the twentieth century, there was a time when men believed that women could not match the same intellectual levels of men because of the fact they were women and their only priorities were offerings, cooking, and keeping house clean. On the contrary, important women have made a difference our society, like Rosa Park, who fought for civil rights, or Francis Wright, who played an important role in women’s right movement, and many more. Now in our time, women have well paid jobs and successful lifestyles, with good careers because of these women, that helped shape are society and changed what were stereotypes to men, to equality of comprehension in women. Therefore, women should have the right to choose if they want to get an education and work, or become housewives. It is important for women to have the right to choose because it is a different era, they should be treated equally with men, and the rise of feminism has changed the social norms of society over the years. To begin with, the article of “Women’s Rights: Then and now,” talks about very important times, when women had no rights, or equality among men. Women were not allowed to vote, study, or work in the twentieth century because the only priorities given to women, were to giving birth and take care of the offerings. In addition, women were not allowed outside unless the husband gave them approval to step outside....

Words: 740 - Pages: 3

The Double-Sided Blade: Gender Stereotype

...Workshop Section010 3:15PM 13 March, 2014 Reckoning with Research—Final Draft The Double-sided Blade: Gender Stereotype Often times, the word “gender discrimination” brings out the image as women being the victims and men as the attackers. Such notion is proven by the simple fact that the word “feminism” is known and used every day while “masculinism” is not. In this context, Betty Friedan, author of the Feminine Mystique, raises question on stereotypes based on gender. She fiercely argues for the housewives whose lives are mainly comprised of being mothers and housewives. Freidan expresses her central issue by asking the question “these women have no dreams of career, no visions of a world larger than the home; their only ambition, their only dream is realized [as mothers and housewives]. But were they fulfilled women?” (Friedan, 225). Friedan’s text is a representation of people’s perception of gender discrimination—women kept in households with their world revolving around domestic matters rather than the world outside of their homes. Although it is true that women did and still do suffer these tilted standards of society, a more holistic view should be sought in terms of acknowledging the suffering of both genders. Betty Friedan, in her writing The Feminine Mystique, identifies how gender stereotypes have confined women by examining the white, American, middle-class housewives in the suburbs. The time frame is limited to the late 1960’s, a period of time after the......

Words: 1741 - Pages: 7

Gender Stereotypes and Discrimination in the Workplace

...Gender stereotypes and discrimination in the workplace Introduction Organisations need to participation of diversity gender in workplace, which is very necessary, whereas, still have gender stereotypes and gender discrimination in the workplace. Stereotype refers to individual or specific types of people who have stationary characteristic when people think. As Michael P. (2001) said, stereotypes like a bias when people always accustomed to the mechanical classification to a specific person as a typical representative of class of persons and even the evaluation of certain types of people as a personal evaluation. Basically, stereotyping can turn into discrimination if people misunderstand a bias and undertaking upon it in a negative manner. This essay will concern the gender issue involving stereotyping in workplace when a person was supposed set of common characters and behaviours of particular gender. In addition, having gender discrimination tendency when stereotype turn into a negative manner in workplace and gender discrimination becoming a big problem in workplace, this essay will considered managers and employees how to face this problem and how to solve it. In the following lines gender stereotypes and discrimination in workplace will be involved with the help of literature. Main Body * Gender stereotypes 1. Definition for Gender Stereotypes The gender issue involving stereotyping in the workplace is when a person applies an assumed set of common......

Words: 839 - Pages: 4

Discuss How the Interaction of Class, Gender, Race and Age Affects Criminal Opportunities

...1. Discuss How the Interaction of Class, Gender, Race and Age Affects Criminal Opportunities Many criminologists have looked for the answers on the effects of crime with only a few who agree on common grounds on why some choose to commit crimes and others choose to defy it even though there are given opportunities. Criminologists have found four sociological variables class, gender, race, and age are now viewed as a direct contributor to deviant behavior. One view as put by Anderson “When alienation becomes so entrenched, an oppositional culture can develop and flourish. This culture, especially among the young can gain strength and legitimacy by opposing dominant society and its’ agents.”(Andersen 1999: 216). This view I think is one of these biggest contributing factors. The second biggest factor I think lies in the Strain theory which argues that these variables, particularly class, lead to blocked opportunities in achieving the shared “American Dream” which then fostered deviant alternatives for economic success (Cloward and Ohlin 1960). Race, class gender and age are positions that do shape access to the opportunity structure, and may make a path to values that are a direct cause of deviance. Certain types of deviant activities do require knowledge, skills, rationales, and avenues for engagement. Class continues to be the primary consideration, because it interacts with race, gender and age, these which are often implied if not thoroughly addressed. Until recently, the......

Words: 312 - Pages: 2

Gender Stereotype

...Gender Stereotype By Menglu Wu Professor T. Hyland Writing 1021G Feb 15th, 2011 The Oxford English dictionary defines stereotype as “a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing”. Society has formed the gender stereotypes that have four dimensions including traits, role behaviors, physical characteristics and occupations (Deaux and Lewis, 1984). I watched one episode of Desperate Housewives which talks about four housewives in the 7th season and found out some American gender stereotypes. Gabrielle, a model who is thin, sexy and beautiful, is married to a rich businessman. She has neither high academic degrees nor a steady job. Her daily routine is spending the money earned by her husband and enjoying lives. No matter how shallow a woman is, she can easily get what she wants if she has a slim figure and good look. Besides, Gaby’s husband is regarded as a successful man because he makes a lot of money and can afford their expensive cars and house. Meanwhile, Lynette was once a successful career woman and the financial support of the whole family. And her husband stayed at home to do the housework. However, she finally quitted her job and went back home to take care of her children and husband. From this result, men should be viewed as financial providers, whereas women should be viewed as caretakers. Last of all, the housewives have neighbors who are gays. When they moved in the town at first, they were not......

Words: 332 - Pages: 2