Gaps in Semantics of ‘Knows’

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By MilosPetrovic
Words 4237
Pages 17
Gaps in Semantics of ‘Knows’

[Word Counts: Main text: 3330 words Footnotes: 581 words Abstract: 80 words] Abstract Keith DeRose has proposed that different participants in a conversation do not have different contextually determined standards for knowledge-ascriptions. Rather, there is one contextually determined standard for the whole conversation. On this ‘single scoreboard’ view, when different participants use different standards, the semantics for ‘knows’ have a truth-value gap. This essay discusses a variety of cases in which truth-value gaps will arise on single-scoreboard contextualist views. These gaps will be widespread, but that is not an argument against single-scoreboard contextualism.

Keith DeRose has argued extensively for contextualism about the word ‘knows’: that the standards for what counts as knowledge are determined by the context in which the knowledge ascription is made. But DeRose does not hold that the context-sensitivity of ‘knows’ means that both parties to an apparent dispute about knowledge can be right. Some contextually sensitive terms, such as ‘I’, can take on different semantic values in the course of a single exchange, so that one person’s utterance of “I am sitting” and another’s utterance of “I am not sitting” can both be true. DeRose (2004), however, argues that the standards for knowledge never vary within a single exchange in a way that could make true one person’s utterance of “S knows that p” and another’s utterance of “S doesn’t know that p.” In fact, DeRose argues that in such exchanges it may be that neither party’s utterance is true; “S knows that p” falls into a truth-value gap. This essay explores DeRose’s gap view and argues that on his view truth-value gaps must be fairly widespread. DeRose uses two different kinds of case to argue for contextualism about knowledge. In…...

Similar Documents

The Gap

...build something not only for them, but something that the whole world could use and be inspired by. Gap Inc. is definitely a retail business that has a past story that has inspired costumers and anyone wanting to take a step into the world of retail business. Don and Doris Fisher created the Gap in order to cater to their needs, but in the process helped thousands of customers find what they needed when it came to certain merchandise. The year 1969 was a year to remember in the business of retail. Located in San Francisco, California, Donald G. Fisher and wife Doris Fisher opened the very first Gap. Don Fisher initially had no real experience in the business of retail seeing as he made his living from real estate, but when Mr. Fisher could not find the right pair of Levis jeans to fit what he wanted, he decided to take matters into his own hands. He decided to open up his own retail store that would have everything that a customer could dream of having. In order to get his start Mr. Fisher had to identify the type of clothing and the age group that he would appeal to. Considering the time period and his original dilemma with finding the right pair of jeans he found his niche. During this time jeans had become the trend among teens, and even though he wasn’t a part of this generation he felt that he could be more successful in selling to this specific generation. Hence, the name the Gap was given to the retail store that he established. Jeans had become the type of clothing......

Words: 471 - Pages: 2

Semantics

...CURRICULUM MAJOR: ENGLISH COURSE DESCRIPTION 1. General Info: - Course: English Semantics - Code: LI005 - Credits: 2 - Option: Compulsory - Prerequisite: Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing from 1 to 3 - Requirements: Students are required to attend the class fully, to participate in class activities such as exercises, mini-tests, discussion, etc. based on their self-study in accordance with their lecturers’ guidance and assignment. - Credit hours: + Lecture: 30 periods + Self-study: 45 hours - Department: Department of Foreign Languages – Linguistics Division 2. Objectives - Knowledge: to introduce students to all the main elements of Semantics in a simple step-by-step fashion. - Skills: to provide students with an opportunity to discover the value and fascination of studying Semantics, and move on to such topics as sense and reference, basic sense relations, simple logic, word meaning, and interpersonal meaning. - Attitude: to provide students with an opportunity to develop and promote their apt selfstudy and scholarship 3. Course summary This course has been carefully planned to introduce students to most of the main elements of Semantics. Students begin by discovering the value and fascination of studying Semantics, and move on to such topics as sense and reference, basic sense relations, simple logic, word meaning, and interpersonal meaning. Each unit of the course book used “Semantics A Course book” by James R. Hurford and Brendan Heasley includes short......

Words: 576 - Pages: 3

Basic Semantics

...Becky Vella Muskat LIN 1180 Semantics Assessment type: Assignment Date: February 28th 2011 Table of Contents Distinguish between sense, reference and denotation 3 Outline the main features of Prototype Theory and show how it differs from the classical view of concepts as necessary and sufficient conditions. Give examples to support your answer 5 To what extent would you expect people who speak different languages to display fundamental differences in the way they think and perceive the world? Support your answer with examples from one particular domain, such as that of colour terms or number words 7 Bibliography 9 Distinguish between sense, reference and denotation I answer this question in an attempt to draw a distinction between sense, reference and denotation. While doing my research I discovered a clearly defined line between sense and reference, however the line between reference and denotation seems slightly hazier and thus somewhat more difficult to define. The only analogy I can think of, is trying to compare chopsticks to a fork and knife. How does one distinguish between two entities that are essentially the same functionally yet, intrinsically different? This essay is an attempt to make this distinction, by defining denotation before drawing a contrast to reference and sense respectively. A clear definition of denotation can be understood through Saussure’s (1959) explanation of the signification (concept) and signal (sound......

Words: 2291 - Pages: 10

The Gap

...-2003AmyAshleyKristenPennyRegina • 3. Company Background The first Gap store was opened in 1969In 2001, there 2,298Gap stores in the U.S, and 634 stores outside the U.S.Online store opened at 1998 • 4. Industry OverviewApparel retailing storeSpecialty storeMass merchant / Promotional department storesTraditional department storesNational chains • 5. Competitive ForcesJ. CrewAbercrombie & FitchAeropostaleAmerican Eagle OutfittersJ.C. Penny • 6. Current IssuesNegative Sales GrowthAn overlapping of clientele with Old Navy Strong competitive forcesNo loyal customer baseMarketing Communication StrategyStrategy to reach boarder target customersPromotion strategy (Product line versus Brand)Celebrity endorsementBudget allocationNew Positioning • 7. Perceptual Map • 8. Objective for 2003Stop negative growth in salesReposition Gap brandStrengthen brand loyalty among older generations (Baby Boomers, Generation X)Build brand preference among younger generation (Generation Y) • 9. Objective for 2003 (cont’d)Sales increased by 2.7%Maintain 2.8% market share • 10. SWOT Analysis • 11. Strengths Strong Brand LoyaltyBaby BoomersEstablished its identity among Baby Boomers in 1960’sThey rebelled against the existing fashion standardGeneration XersOne-stop store fos school and casual clothesThey grew up with GapAmerican icon2,298 stores in U.S. & 2,932 in the world in 2001 • 12. WeaknessesWeak performance of Gap brand Total domestic sales in 2001......

Words: 847 - Pages: 4

Semantics

...the test and didn’t bother to ask any questions. V.I.I EMOTIONAL FACTORS: The Baron EQ Test reveals that he has some areas of relative strength. He needs to develop his overall social and emotional functioning. He seems to be Effective in dealing with other people and flexible in getting along with others. Throughout the interview, the client manifests sociability, friendliness and easiness. V.I.I.I BEHAVIORAL FACTORS The Sacks Sentence Completion Test (SSCT) demonstrated that the client seems to be depressed in many experience in his life. Attitude towards father • I wish that my father would only know my homosexuality and accept me as well. • I feel that my father seldom notice my mistakes and don’t appreciate me. Attitude towards Mother • I like my mother but she doesn’t know it Attitude toward men • I think most boys are cruel • I believed that most men are not loyal Attitude toward guilt feeling • My greatest mistake was not expressing how much I love my family VI. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: He feels accepted with his friends. He is closer to his group of friends than to his family. This client is very aloof in his family. Whenever he is at school, that’s the only time he feels the freedom of being homosexual. He enjoys his homosexuality outside the house and forgot his depression whenever he is with his friends. VII. COUNSELOR’S CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE......

Words: 2177 - Pages: 9

Ielts: a Semantics Introduction

...IELTS (International English Language Testing System) is now one of the most popular exams all over the world. According to the data released by the British Council, there are about 200,000 Chinese took the exam in 2012. However, average Chinese did not perform well in this exam. Personally, my performance improved a lot after I learned linguistic course. In my point of view, this exam is closed related to the Semantics study. Therefore, in this paper, I will present the exam in a semantics way. The IELTS exam has four parts---listening, reading, writing and speaking. I will look into them respectively from a semantics perspective. The listening part has much to do with context. Hall E. T. defines the “context” as the information that surrounds an event; it is inextricably bound up with the meaning of the event. Thus, we have high-context and low context. A high-context communication or message means most of the information is already in the person, not in words. A low context communication is the just the opposite, that is, the important information is stated. IELTS is made by the British Council, and Britain is a typical low-context country. Nevertheless, China is a typical high-context country and we Chinese are affected by that culture in the IELTS exam. In Chinese exams, we have questions that need us to infer the content or the relationship between the speaking people or guess the intended meaning behind a word. But in IELTS, they never have questions like these. The......

Words: 1016 - Pages: 5

The Gap

...  Case 11 Gap, Inc. Jeri Schuster Dickinson State University History Gap Inc. is a retailer located at America at San Francisco that deals with clothing and accessories. It was founded in year 1969. It is one of the world largest giant's dealers in the apparel retailers. It has more than 3000 stores and branches in the United States, Canada, Britain France, Ireland and Japan. In 2009, it registered fiscal revenue of 14.2 billion dollars. This shows how it operates at great budget and has high revenue. Therefore, the profit margin is also high. The most apparel brand in the word that it operates is five and consists of Piperlime, Antheta, Old Navy, Gap and Banana Republic. Executive Summary The apparel industry consists of the lifestyle and is much saturated in the provision of the clothing and the accessories. Completion is high and, therefore, the Gap Inc had the strategy to target new markets. It has established new physical store locations that improved the margin from other businesses in the industry. This has enhanced its brand image. It has also had many branches stores outside United State that consist of more than 300. This gives Gap Inc. aplenty room of expansion hence growth globally because it is well known. The feasibility of development of the Gap, Inc. and the business proposal evaluation shows great opportunities at the China market. This has been made possible through analysis of the company's environment at the capacity of the internal and......

Words: 918 - Pages: 4

Semantics

...because English speakers typically used horizontal-oriented spatial metaphors such as ‘forward’ or ‘back’ for temporal relations, they might grow to think about time horizontally. Conversely, because Mandarin speakers commonly used vertical terms such as 上 (shang) and 下 (xia), which means ‘up’ and ‘down’ in English; this mapping may also become habits of thoughts. From her experiments, Boroditsky noted that Mandarin speakers relied on a ‘Mandarin’ way of thinking even when responding to English sentences. The subjects’ RT mirrored their perceived habit of thinking about time with Mandarin speakers demonstrating vertical biases even when thinking in English. Her investigations also suggested that earlier exposure to English decreases this semantic biases. Finally, her findings with English speakers briefly trained in vertical spatiotemporal metaphors indicated that it was language and not cultural differences that directs one’s way of thinking as they produced results similar to the Mandarin speakers (Boroditsky, 2001). Thus, according to Boroditsky, her findings suggest that language does have a strong influence in shaping habitual thoughts (2001), thereby supporting the linguistic relativity claim. J Y Chen (2006) countered Boroditsky’s claim, stating that a repetition of Boroditsky’s testing in Taiwan with native Mandarin and English speakers did not support her claims nor replicate similar findings. Chen’s findings suggested that the use of horizontal spatial metaphors......

Words: 1033 - Pages: 5

A Gap of Skye

...case in the short story A Gap of Sky by Anna Hope from 2008 that deals with the issues of drugs, freedom and reflection. Ellie is a nineteen year old teenager who lives in the heart of London. She is a student at an unknown university, and it appears that she lives at a college because she in the beginning of the short story have to walk all the way down the corridor to get to the hall toilet. Ellie is not taking her education very serious and she even blames her parents that she is doing what she calls “this bloody course”(p. 2, l.66). Furthermore, Ellie is doing drugs, smoking a crack pipe etc. and skips lectures because she stays up late and parties. The short story is told with third person narration and takes place at her place and in the streets of London; an urban setting. Though the short story is told with third person narration, we follow Ellie’s point of view and her thoughts. Therefore the language is predominantly influenced by the vocabulary of a nineteen year old, which is to be seen in the text where it says Coffee plunged, poured, slurped; hot, fuck that’s hot. Anything else? Of course: printer, printer’s out of ink. Student shop too. Fine. Time? Ten minutes to get there. Shit. (p. 1, ll. 35-36) This quote gives the reader an insight in the mind of Ellie. We are almost literally in her head, reading her thoughts. Throughout the short story it is clearly that Ellie is tired of education, things she has to do and expectations. She knows that she has to......

Words: 1333 - Pages: 6

Customer Gap and Provider Gap of Qubee

...Services Marketing Assignment on customer gap and provider gap of QUBEE Submitted by: ORCHID Executive summary: This assignment topic is about choosing a service organization to analyze customer gap, to find the factors that causes customer gap and to give solutions to reduce or eliminate customer gap. We have chosen Qubee wireless broadband internet service provider to analyze its customer gap. Qubee provides both corporate services for offices, organizations etc. and individual customer services. But here we have considered only the individual customer services. Customer gap: Occurs when there is difference between expected service and perceived service. Expected service: Customer expectations are the hopes or believes about what should or will happen. The sources of expectations are price, advertising, word of mouth, physical evidence etc. Perceived service: The actual service experience. And the key factors that are responsible for the occurrence of this gap is the provider gaps. The provider gaps are given below: 1. Listening gap: Not knowing what the customers expect. 2. Service design and standard gap: Not having the right service designs and standards. 3. Service performance gap: Not delivering to service standards. 4. Communication gap: Not matching performance to promise. Company background: Qubee is the Bangladeshi customer-facing brand of Qubee Broadband, the wireless broadband business founded in 2007. It has a mission to......

Words: 1575 - Pages: 7

Discussing Frame Semantics: the State of the Art

...consult our website: www.benjamins.com Tables of Contents, abstracts and guidelines are available at www.benjamins.com Interviews Discussing frame semantics: The state of the art An interview with Charles J. Fillmore József Andor University of Pécs J.A.: Thank you, Chuck, very much for accepting my invitation for this interview. I would like to center it around the notion of frame, a conceptually valid notion of interdisciplinary relevance, as pointed out by all of the speakers, including ourselves, of an important international colloquium that took place at the oldest university of the Old World, in Bologna in 2005 (Rossini Favretti, 2008). As a sort of father of research elaborating on the conceptual as well as the linguistic relevance, the status of the notion of frames, you were invited to that interdisciplinary conference by its organizers with the aim to give the keynote speech, based on your work devoted to outlining the linguistic theory of frames and also to investigating their role in linguistic representation (Fillmore, 2008). You have been working on frame-based linguistic analysis, frame semantics for several decades now. In a book written on the frame-based presentation of political issues and standards, your devoted colleague at Berkeley, George Lakoff, called you the Father of Frame Semantics (2004, p. 121). Now, George’s approach to frames is — perhaps one may say — considerably, radically different from yours. His notion is very......

Words: 9885 - Pages: 40

Divergences in the Semantic Structure of Words

...in the semantic structure of words: Different Valency Content Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………… Chapter 1. The Problem of Polysemantic Words 1. Semantic Structure of Words……………………………………………………………… 2. Ways of analyzing Polysemy……………………………………………………………… Chapter 2. Polysemantic Words 1. Polysemantic and Monosemantic Words…………………………………………………….. 2. Semantic Structure of Polysemantic Words………………………………………………….. 3. Examples of Polysemantic Words……………………………………………………………. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………. References………………………………………………………………………………………….. Introduction The following paper is devoted to the theme “Divergences in the semantic structure of words”. The semantic structure of words presents a complicated problem .The only exceptions are some groups of monosemantic words. Divergences in the semantic structure of words of the Sourse and Target languages are one of the primary cases of lexical transformations. These divergences are connected with certain peculiar features of a word or a group of words. Even words which seem to have the same meaning in the two languages are not semantically identical. The primary meanings of correlated words often coincide while their derivative meanings do not. Thus there is only partial correspondence in the structures of polysemantic words as their lexical semantic variants do not cover one another. Semantic correlation is not to be interpreted as semantic......

Words: 8025 - Pages: 33

Tracing the Reasons for Semantic Change

...Running head: TRACING THE NATURE OF SEMANTIC CHANGE Tracing the Nature of Semantic Change Shahrin Akter 1521358655 Department of English North South University Tracing the Nature of Semantic Change Introduction Language never stands still. All living languages are continually changing over the course of time due to social, cultural, environmental, historical and linguistic factors. Semantic change is one of the major phenomenon of language change. Basically, semantic change deals with the change of the original meaning of a word as well as the development of a new word which is reflected in the way the words are being used. This paper mainly puts an insight to the major causes of semantic change as well as trace the traditional classification made by various scholars. According to Varshney, “The main factors responsible for semantic change are vagueness in meaning, loss of motivation, polysemy, ambiguous contexts and the structure of the vocabulary”. (p. 284). Over the passage of time, people use words in a new context. Hence the meanings of the words are changing gradually, often to the point that the new meaning is radically different from the original usage. For instance, the word ‘awful’ originally meant ‘awe-inspiring, filling someone with deep awe’,......

Words: 2548 - Pages: 11

Semantic

...επινόησε τον παγκόσμιο ιστό το 1989,είχε το όραμα ενός ιστού δεδομένων αυτόματα επεξεργάσιμων από τις εφαρμογές ,βάσει του νοήματος και όχι της μορφής της πληροφορίας Το κέντρο βάρους των περιεχομένων του διαδικτύου μετατοπίζεται συνεχώς από το ελεύθερο κείμενο που είναι πλήρως κατανοητό μόνο από τον άνθρωπο, προς την ημιδομημένη ή/και πλήρως δομημένη πληροφορία η οποία μπορεί να γίνει αυτόματα κατανοητή από διαδικτυακές εφαρμογές ,όπως είναι οι διαδικτυακές υπηρεσίες ή οι ευφυείς πράκτορες. Το Σημασιολογικό Διαδίκτυο αποτελεί πρωτοβουλία της Κοινοπραξίας του Παγκόσμιου Ιστού(W3C) και η σχετική δραστηριότητα (Semantic Web Activity) έχει δημιουργηθεί για να διαδραματίσει έναν ηγετικό ρόλο ,τόσο στο σχεδιασμό προδιαγραφών, όσο και ανοικτή ανάπτυξη της τεχνολογίας μέσω της συνεργασίας. Θα πρέπει να διευκρινιστεί ότι η ακριβής μετάφρασή του αγγλικού όρου Semantic Web είναι Σημασιολογικός Ιστός . όμως η τεχνολογία που αναπτύσσεται και το εύρος των εφαρμογών ,καλύπτουν και άλλους τομείς του διαδικτύου πχ το ηλεκτρονικό ταχυδρομείο. Επίσης, είναι γεγονός πως το διαδίκτυο(internet) γίνεται πλέον αντιληπτό στο χρήστη σχεδόν αποκλειστικά μέσω του παγκοσμίου ιστού. Σαν αποτέλεσμα, οι δύο όροι ιστός και διαδίκτυο χρησιμοποιούνται σχεδόν ταυτόσημα. Για τα παραπάνω, στο εξής θα χρησιμοποιείται ο όρος Σημασιολογικό Διαδίκτυο. 2.Το όραμα του Σημασιολογικού Διαδικτύου Το Σημασιολογικό Διαδίκτυο αποτελεί μια επέκταση του υπάρχοντος διαδικτύου, στην οποία η πληροφορία που......

Words: 10061 - Pages: 41

Semantic Web

...delegar ciertas tareas en el software, todas estas acciones de forma automática. Un agente inteligente entiende (lo que se pide), comprende (el contenido de los sitios), valida (si lo encontrado corresponde a lo pedido) y deduce (nueva información sobre la ya obtenida). Pero, para entender una consulta, comprender sitios web, validar información y deducir nueva información se precisa estandarizar: El alfabeto, las referencias, el lenguaje, el formato, las anotaciones sobre significados, los conceptos generales, las reglas y sistemas de deducción Funciones que aportan las distintas capas de la Web Semántica. Según Berners-Lee, la arquitectura de la Web Semántica se podría representar de la siguiente forma: Fuente: Tim Berners-Lee. Semantic Web-XML2000. Architecture http://www.w3.org/2000/Talks/1206-xml2k-tbl/slide11-0.html Unicode: el alfabeto. Se trata de una codificación del texto que permite utilizar los símbolos de diferentes idiomas sin que aparezcan caracteres extraños. De esta forma, se puede expresar información en la Web Semántica en cualquier idioma. URI: las referencias. URI es el acrónimo de "Uniform Resource Identifier" o Identificador Uniforme de Recursos, identificador único que permite la localización de un recurso que puede ser accedido vía Internet. Se trata del URL (descripción de la ubicación) más el URN (descripción del espacio de nombre). XML + NS + xmlschema: se trata de la capa más técnica de la Web Semántica. En esta capa se......

Words: 3626 - Pages: 15