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First & Second Order Cybernetics

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By MarciaOsborne
Words 3316
Pages 14
Table of Contents

* First Order Cybernetic principles: named and defined

* Second Order Cybernetic principles: named and defined

* How reality is seen by each specific approach

* How health and pathology are addressed by each approach

* How first and second order cybernetics deal with therapy

* The role and function of the therapist in each approach

* Critical ethical concerns about each specific perspective

* How both approaches can be integrated in a useful and complementary way

* References

* First Order Cybernetic principles

* Recursion - The principle of recursion or reciprocal causality is based on the premise that individuals and elements are constantly interacting and influencing each other. Meaning is derived from the relationship between individuals and elements as each defines and is defined by the other. Each of us, therefore, shares in the destiny of the other (Becvar & Becvar, 2013). Just as every individual is influenced and is being influenced by every other individual, the same can be said for every system. Recursion sees all individuals as members of a world community who are connected at every level of the system.

* Feedback - Feedback is the process whereby information about past behaviour is fed back into the system in a circular manner. Two types of feedback occur, namely positive and negative feedback. Positive feedback refers to forces which try to alter the system’s rules, interaction patterns and/or power structures. Regardless of whether these changes are to the benefit or detriment of the system, any change to the system is considered positive. Negative feedback refers to the forces which try to maintain the system’s current rules, interaction patterns and / or power structures. Negative feedback will always cause the system to maintain the status quo.…...

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