Evolution: What Is It Really?

In: Science

Submitted By blaine
Words 843
Pages 4
Evolution “is a process that results in heritable changes in a population spread over many generations” (Moran). There are many different definitions for the word “evolution,” such as biological, stellar evolution… The definition that will be discussed is biological evolution. “Biological (or organic) evolution is change in the properties of populations of organisms or groups of such populations, over the course of generations” (Moran). Evolution can be put into two categories: macroevolution and microevolution. “Macroevolution is used to refer to any evolutionary change at or above the level of species” (Wilkins). That is that it occurs over a long period of time, producing major changes in species. “Microevolution refers to any evolutionary change below the level of species, and refers to changes in the frequency within a population or a species of its alleles (alternative genes) and their effects on the form, or phenotype, of organisms that make up that populations or species” (Wilkins). That is that minor changes occur within a small species or group of organisms within a short period of time. There are many mechanisms of evolution such as: genetic variation, drift and selection, natural selection, and speciation. Genetic variation has two processes recombination and mutation. Recombination is when the genes from two parents are mixed to produce offspring by sexual reproduction. Mutation happens when DNA is copied wrong during replication which leads to a difference between the parents gene and the offspring’s gene. Sometimes the mutation causes a huge difference but sometimes it does not. Drift and selection are random varieties in gene frequency, only scene at the level of DNA. Natural selection was discovered by Charles Darwin and it is when the same organisms adapt to different environment, making the same organism appear different from each other.…...

Similar Documents

What Managers Really Do

...The Manager’s Job Folklore and fact BY HENRY MINTZBERG The above article by Henry Mintzberg enlightens us on what managers actually do. The article differentiates between the traditional myths and actual facts about manager’s role. Traditionally it is thought that a manager’s job is based on four basic aspects: planning, organizing, coordinating and controlling which may be true however the author argues that these aspects only cover a part of manager’s duties. Explain how the structure of comparison (in the article). Mention author’s focus points such as communication, ethics, etc. Managers’ extensive use of verbal media helps to explain why they are reluctant to delegate tasks and are damned by their own information system to a “dilemma of delegation” – to do too much or to delegate to subordinates with inadequate briefing. As an example the author argues that a manager is the person who is under pressure all the time, he has to deal with multiple things going on in his mind, a manager has to keep an eye on each an very employee or sub ordinates he is working with and also pay attention to the surroundings in which he is working. This is one of the facts about the managers where else the folklore is that managers are systematic planners. A good manager always motivates his employees and keep up a good verbal communication...

Words: 449 - Pages: 2

Physical Fitness: What It Really Is

...Some say you’re not fully alive if you don’t eat healthy. Others say the best way to enjoy a day is to run for a mile. Still others don’t care at all. People would go for crash diets and equate “thin” with the word “healthy”. Others would retreat to the gym and workout until they go daft. But of course, none of these are entirely accurate. I guess we can say that this is because no one really understands the true meaning of Physical Fitness. Physical Fitness can simply be defined as being healthy—mind, body, and spirit—without tiring yourself out too quickly for normal. It isn’t only being thin and sexy or strong and muscular; it is yourself being in the best condition as you could be. And there is more than one way to achieve physical fitness. The first and most obvious way would be to eat a balanced diet. And “diet” does not mean surviving on one meal per day. A balanced diet would follow the Food Pyramid where the most you should eat are carbohydrates like rice and bread found at the bottom of the pyramid and the least are salts and fatty foods at the top of the pyramid. You should plan what you eat every week, and make sure you eat in moderation. Just because it says an apple a day is good for you doesn’t mean you should eat pounds of it every single day. The second way would be to exercise. Take note that exercise does not mean the same thing as bodybuilding—exercise is toning your muscles while bodybuilding is increasing the size of the muscles. There are a......

Words: 530 - Pages: 3

What They Really Think About Race

...Breonna C. Close Reading Jared Gardner English 2263: Intro to Film 11 October 2013 What They Really Think About Race In Spike Lee’s film, Do the Right Thing racist stereotypes are a recurring theme throughout the entire film. The slurs are used explicitly in one of the most interesting scenes of the entire film. The three minute and thirty-four second scene shows six different characters breaking the fourth-wall between the audience and each character. The camera angles in the scene also show that the characters know that they are addressing an audience for the purpose of expressing their views on the race they are criticizing. Looking directly into the camera is usually a sin for actors to do. However, each character looks directly into the camera, acknowledging that they know it is there, and citing their rant without looking away. The affect this has makes it seem as though that character is speaking to a person directly. While this scene stands out the most for its obvious use of racist stereotypes, it is only a platform for the entire films views on racism. The scene starts with an intense conversation between Mookie and Pino. The topic of their discussion is race. Mookie questions Pino on why he constantly refers to African American people as ‘niggas’. Pino acts like he despises black people, however Mookie brings up a great point about all of his favorite celebrities, are niggas. Magic Johnson, Eddie Murphy, and Prince are all BLACK celebrities, that Pino is......

Words: 1280 - Pages: 6

Cvs Caremark: What Is Really Going on

...CVS Caremark What is Really Going On Before we get to the major concept presented by Chapter 2, we must define one of the main contributors to the concept, whistleblowers. Whistleblowers are people who decide to report unethical or illegal activities, usually activities under the control of their employers. According to Halbert and Ingulli, “What unites all whistleblowing is the urge to bring a disturbing situation to light, the urge to bring about some corrective change” (Halbert & Ingulli, 2012, p. 46). This brings us to the concept highlighted in Chapter 2, loyalty to the company, and their views on employment-at-will and their rules for and against whistleblowing. Looking at CVS’ policies and Caremark’s Code of Conduct, and I quote, “A provision of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 requires CVS Caremark to provide its colleagues, and certain contractors and agents, with information regarding the federal and state false claims acts, whistleblower protections and CVS Caremark’s process for detecting and preventing fraud, waste, and abuse.” The protections that are said above include “protecting the employee involved in whistleblowing from being laid off or fired by the company, demoting from their current position, denying any overtime or promotion, disciplining in any way, failure to hire or rehire, intimidation and threat-making, delaying any chance for promotion, and reducing pay or hours,” (OSHA, 2013). This code of conduct in the policy itself shows that CVS......

Words: 7325 - Pages: 30

What Is Strategic Management Really

...What Is Strategic Management, Really? Inductive Derivation of a Consensus Definition of the Field Rajiv Nag Department of Management WCOB468 Sam Walton College of Business University of Arkansas Fayetteville, AR, 72701 Tel: (479) 575-6650 Fax: (479) 575-3241 Email: Rnag@walton.uark.edu Donald C. Hambrick The Pennsylvania State University Smeal College of Business 414 Business Building University Park, PA 16802 (814) 863-0917 Fax: (814) 863-7261 dch14@psu.edu Ming-Jer Chen University of Virginia The Darden School Charlottesville, VA 22906-6550 (434) 924-7260 Fax: (434) 243-7678 chenm@darden.virginia.edu October 18, 2006 (Strategic Management Journal, forthcoming) Acknowledgements: The authors are indebted to all those individuals who participated in the survey. The authors thank Hao-Chieh Lin for his help in the early stages of this research. We acknowledge financial support from the Batten Institute and the Darden Foundation, University of Virginia. A note of thanks to Tim Pollock, Wenpin Tsai, and two anonymous reviewers for their extremely useful comments on earlier versions of this manuscript. Keywords: Strategic Management, Academic Communities, Linguistics. 1 What Is Strategic Management, Really? Inductive Derivation of a Consensus Definition of the Field ABSTRACT It is commonly asserted that the field of strategic management is fragmented and lacks a coherent identity. This skepticism, however, is paradoxically at odds with the great success that......

Words: 3424 - Pages: 14

What Is Really Work

...are designed primarily to do differently what is already being done. They are "how to do" tools. Yet "what to do" is increasingly becoming the central challenge facing managements, especially those of big companies that have enjoyed long-term success. The story is a familiar one: a company that was a superstar only yesterday finds itself stagnating and frustrated, in trouble and, often, in a seemingly unmanageable crisis. This phenomenon is by no means confined to the United States. It has become common in Japan and Germany, the Netherlands and France, Italy and Sweden. And it occurs just as often outside business-in labor unions, government agencies, hospitals, museums, and churches. In fact, it seems even less tractable in those areas. The root cause of nearly every one of these crises is not that things are being done poorly. It is not even that the wrong things are being done. Indeed, in most cases, the tight things are being done - but fruitlessly. What accounts for this apparent paradox? The assumptions on which the organization has been built and is being run no longer fit reality. These are the assumptions that N Feter F. Drucker is the Clarke Professor of Social Science and Management at the Claremont Graduate School in Claremont, California, where the Drucker Management Center was named in his honor. This is Drucker's thirty-first article for HBR. HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW September-October 1994 95 THEORY OF THE BUSINESS What underlies the malaise of so many......

Words: 5475 - Pages: 22

What Really Motivates You

...RELEVANCE TO THIS COURSE: “Know What Really Motivates You” is an article about motivation in the workplace. Overall, the article promotes how leaders can create motivational fit for employees. It describes how to promote a way for workers to advance in their current work and shows them whether they are excellent at what they do or not. MAIN IDEAS IN THIS ARTICLE 1. “Know What Really Motivates You” focuses on how to get employee going and how to find what motivates them. From this article, at least three areas of experience should be developed. The first area engages how to manage your professional goal. The second area consists of how to create a motivational fit. And the third area demonstrates how to choose a role model. 2. Managing your professional growth is through first identifying your personality type. This could be done with a tool named the “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.” However, this tool is not accurate to the fact because it doesn’t predict your performance and even if it does, it wouldn’t tell you how to improve your performance. Promotion focus or prevention focus in the other hand can be accurate at predicting performance and how to improve it. 3. Creating a motivational fit is a way to help employees achieve their professional growth which in turn increases performance and job satisfaction. It also helps creating challenges for employees and help to attain specific goals. However, when this motivational fit is not in line with the employees’......

Words: 1250 - Pages: 5

What Value Really Means

...What Value Really Means  Something that has value is usually seen as having some sort of worth.  There are values  with a big price tag, and there are values that are priceless. You probably value people with  qualities like caring, compassion, good work ethic, responsibility, trustworthiness, etc. Also, you  may put value in photographs, memories, heirlooms, and many more; these can be worthless to  some and mean the world to others. To one person an object or memory could be priceless. Other  values are objects like houses, cars, computers, phones, jewelry, and more. They come with large  price tags and are considered universally valuable because of their status symbols. So, which  value is more “valuable?”  Pricy values are material objects. Diamonds and gold have value because they are rare;  flat screens and iPhones have value because they are expensive. They both are symbols of wealth  and status, which is why people strive to own the newest, biggest, and best. These objects  certainly do have value; but in the end they’re just objects. They’re all relative to what society  says is the best. Having valuable objects in today’s world may make people respect you more,  and nobody would dispute that having nice things is better than having nothing. But in the end,  are the homes and the cars and the money really even valuable? In dollars and cents, obviously,     but in life, no. These material values can be taken away in an instant. True value lie in things that ......

Words: 501 - Pages: 3

What Really Happened to the Lindbergh Baby

...What “REALLY” happened to Charles Augustus Lindbergh Jr.? Patience Smith Intro to CJ System CJ101-02 Prof. Dan Bilodeau On June 22, 1930, Charles Augustus Lindbergh Jr. was born to the infamous “Lucky Lindy” and his wife, Anne. When he was a mere 20 months old, he was kidnapped from his crib in the house where parents and staff were in the house beneath him. The kidnapping occurred from a second story window in a rainstorm where no one heard a thing! Here in lie the questions that we will discuss in this paper. The police suspected an inside job from the beginning. Whomever carried out the abduction knew the whereabouts of the nursery and the parent’s plans for the particular evening in questions. With the residence being in Morrow, New Jersey where the family stayed during the week then having a home in Hopewell where they stayed on the weekends. The abduction took place on a Tuesday night when the family had decided to stay longer in Hopewell because the baby came down with a fever and cold. The main question that appears here is that without an insider involved, how would the abductor have known that the baby was still in Hopewell. The first question asked is how the courts, police and corrections apply to the disappearance of the baby. The investigation was shoddy at best. The main concerns were that there was very little evidence to be found. Even though it was proven to be raining, there were no footprints left in the child’s bedroom where he was......

Words: 1216 - Pages: 5

What Leaders Really Do

...BEST OF HBR 1990 What Leaders Really Do They don't make plans; they The article reprinted here stands on its don't solve problems; they own, ofcourse, but it can also be seen don't even organize people. as a crucial contribution to a debate that What leaders really do is began in 1977. when Harvard Business prepare organizations for School professor Abraham Zaleznik change and help them cope published an HBR article with the as they struggle through it deceptively mild title "Managers and Leaders: Are They Different?" The piece caused an uproar in business schools. It argued that the theoreticians of scientific management, with their organizational diagrams and time-and-motion studies, were missing half the picture-the half filled with inspiration, vision, and the full spectrum of human drives and desires. The study of leadership hasn't been the same since. "What Leaders Really Do" first published im99O, deepens and extends the insights ofthe 1977 article. Introducing one of those brand-new ideas that seems obvious once it's expressed, retired Harvard Business School professor John Kotter proposes that management and leadership are different but complementary, and that in a changing world, one cannot function withoutthe other. He then enumerates and contrasts the primary tasks ofthe manager and the leader. His key point bears repeating: Managers promote stability while leaders press for change, and only......

Words: 4191 - Pages: 17

What Leaders Really Do

...What Leaders Really Do In the article Four Seasons Goes to Paris we learned about the ins and outs of Four Seasons’ transition into a market they were not in until 1999. The transition was extremely smooth and, as the article showed, that was due in large part to their rock solid approach to international growth. While it didn’t hurt that Four Seasons was already the world’s leading operator of luxury hotels and that their revenues increased at a compound rate of 22.6% per year from 1996-2000 (Hallowell, Bowen, & Knoop, 2003), for a company as deeply committed to customer service as they are, the real success of the Paris venture would not have been possible without their exceptional leadership and human resource management. Former Harvard Business professor John P. Kotter has done extensive research in the field of organizational change and development. His article What Leaders Really Do examines the role of leadership and human resource management in the transitions of an organization, which closely relate to the challenges that Four Seasons faced. Introduction Kotter promoted the theory that management and leadership are different but complementary and that, in a changing world, one cannot function without the other. While each have their own functions and specific activities, in an increasingly complex and volatile business environment, they are both necessary for success. He found that US corporations tend to be overmanaged and underled and that successful......

Words: 1152 - Pages: 5

What Isis Really Wants

...What ISIS Really Wants What is the Islamic State? Where did it come from, and what are its intentions? The simplicity of these questions can be deceiving, and few Western leaders seem to know the answers. In December, The New York Times published confidential comments by Major General Michael K. Nagata, the Special Operations commander for the United States in the Middle East, admitting that he had hardly begun figuring out the Islamic State’s appeal. “We have not defeated the idea,” he said. “We do not even understand the idea.” In the past year, President Obama has referred to the Islamic State, variously, as “not Islamic” and as al-Qaeda’s “jayvee team,” statements that reflected confusion about the group, and may have contributed to significant strategic errors. The group seized Mosul, Iraq, last June, and already rules an area larger than the United Kingdom. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi has been its leader since May 2010, but until last summer, his most recent known appearance on film was a grainy mug shot from a stay in U.S. captivity at Camp Bucca during the occupation of Iraq. Then, on July 5 of last year, he stepped into the pulpit of the Great Mosque of al-Nuri in Mosul, to deliver a Ramadan sermon as the first caliph in generations—upgrading his resolution from grainy to high-definition, and his position from hunted guerrilla to commander of all Muslims. The inflow of jihadists that followed, from around the world, was unprecedented in its pace and......

Words: 10928 - Pages: 44

What Really Motivates You?

...first step in a testy negotiation The rise of women and the silence of men Former Irish president Maiy Robinson on wielding influence »(ähoiit authority Managing Your Professional Growth hbr.org MANAGING YOURSELF Know what really motivates you. by Heidi Grant Halvorson and E. Tory Higgins n n what kinds of situations are you most effective? What factors strengthen—or U undermine—your motivation? People answer these questions in very different ways, and that's the challenge at the heart of good management—whether you're managing your own performsince or someone else's. One-size-fits-all principles don't work. The strategies that help you excel may not help your colleagues or your direct reports; what works for your boss or your mentor doesn't always work for you. Personality matters. In business the most common tool for identifying one's personality type is the Myers-Bdggs Type Indicator. But the problem with this and many other assessment tools is that they don't actually predict performance. (In fairness to Myers-Briggs, it doesn't claim to.) These tests will tell you about attributes—such as your degree of introversion or extroversion, or your reliance on thinking versus feeling—that indicate what you like to do, but they tell you very little about whether you are good at it, or how to improve if you're not. Fortunately, there is a way of grouping people into types on the basis of a personality attribute that does predict......

Words: 2727 - Pages: 11

What Is Really Important to America

...Of Phoenix Comm 215 Dr. Thomas Chamberlain What’s really important to America oil or our future? In today’s world, trying to remember exactly what is important is more of a challenge then it sounds. With the consent changes in the economy for good and bad, environmental issues and the ever so important war on terror as a result the leadership in this country is constantly of scrutiny and being told its not doing the jog we elected them to do. We never really stop and ask ourselves what is really important to us as a country and a people, and what can we do to help the government get those tasks done. The economy is not in the best of shape and unemployment is at a high like never before and the leadership is busy pointing the finger and off putting blame on the adjacent dept. or political party. And yet we can only focus on the oil spills and the cleanup. With the recent hike in crime in the nation due mainly to the unemployment that has plagued America for the last couple of years, and the threat of families losing their homes, who is at fault is at very least not important or relevant at all. Public perception about the economy is of great importance in politics and how it is conducted. Take for instance what is stated on the option and attitude forming factor of perception over reality the American public uses to form a decision about the economy.......

Words: 856 - Pages: 4

What Does Innovation Really Mean?

...What Does “Innovation” Really Mean? Introduction: What does “innovation” really mean? “Technically, “innovation” is defined merely as “introducing something new”, there are no qualifiers of how ground-breaking or world-shattering that something needs to be – only that it needs to be better than what was there before. The fact is, innovation means different things to different people”. (Sylver, 2008) Author’s Qualifications: Brianna Sylver is a writer, researcher, entrepreneur and founder of Sylver Consulting, which works with multinational organizations. Sylver Consulting is known for applying innovation methodologies and consumer research techniques to develop new products and services, prospect new business opportunities and establish innovation processes. (Sylver, 2008) Summary: This article relays information on how an innovative consultant can aid a company in moving their product or starting a new product. It is important to understand what innovation truly means in the organization or to the client in order to know what changes need to be made or what is required of the organization. Sylver states, “the consulting firm contracted for the innovation services first needs to understand the client’s motivation for seeking innovation services. (Sylver, 2008) The client usually looks for innovation services due to one of the three situations: 1. “They are engulfed in the flames of the “burning platform”. (Sylver, 2008) This is where the organizations profits...

Words: 665 - Pages: 3