Early Expert Systems

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By Pmash
Words 741
Pages 3
Describe any five early expert systems (20 Marks)
An expert system (ES) is a knowledge-based system that employs knowledge about its application domain and uses an inferencing (reason) procedure to solve problems that would otherwise require human competence or expertise.

Expert systems are built to solve a wide range of problems in domain such as medicine, math, engineering, chemistry, geology, computer science, business, law, defense and education. Five early expert systems are detailed below.

1. DENDRAL DENDRAL is an expert system that examines the spectroscopic analysis of an unknown chemical compound and predicts its molecular structure. It was developed by Bruce Buchanan in the late 1960’s and its domain field is chemistry. It was designed to use mass spectrometry and other chemical information to deduce the molecular structure of chemical compounds. Its primary aim was to help organic chemists in identifying unknown organic molecules, by analyzing their mass spectra and using knowledge of chemistry. 2. MYCIN
MYCIN is an early expert system that used artificial intelligence to identify bacteria causing severe infections, such as bacteremia and meningitis and to recommend antibiotics, with the dosage adjusted for patient's body weight. Its expertise lies in the domain of bacterial Infections. It was developed in

MYCIN operated using a fairly simple inference engine, and a knowledge base of about 600 rules. It would query the physician running the program via a long series of simple yes/no or textual questions. At the end, it provided a list of possible culprit bacteria ranked from high to low based on the probability of each diagnosis, its confidence in each diagnosis' probability, the reasoning behind each diagnosis, that is, MYCIN would also list the questions and rules which led it to rank a diagnosis a particular way, and…...

Similar Documents

Early Warning Systems

...Provide an example of individual, group, and organizational early warning systems you have experienced in an organization. How effective or ineffective were they? Why? The purpose of organizational early warning systems is to assist firms in managing strategic surprises or discontinuities (Ansoff, 1975). The detection of weak but important warning signs constitute environmental discontinuities and enables leaders in organizations to respond purposefully and advantageously in advance. Aguilar (1967) suggested the need for organizations to perform organizational scanning for these early signals. Such a need for scanning admits that blind spots exists that prevent leaders from obtaining a correct perspective of events and to take necessary corrective actions. Individuals, groups, or organizations may have early warning systems. Storms, harsh weather, strong winds, and sand accumulation constitute early warning for the need of emphasis on safety in all field activities of my company. Many of oil and gas activities occur in remote locations. The need for defensive driving or to lessen speed is important during times of severe weather. Company operated vessels or aircrafts travel discriminantly to forestall catastrophic events and lessen the resulting potential devastating influence on lives and property. When these events occur, a company-wide announcement goes out by the Emergency Control Centre (ECC) to all e-mails, official, and private phones......

Words: 313 - Pages: 2

Erp and Expert Systems

...Expert Systems Hema Rohira IT-620-8035-Info Resource Management-01/2013 01/13/2013 Professor: Carol Farabee, Abstract Expert systems (ESs) are applications of artificial intelligence, that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert. ESs are designed to solve complex problems by reasoning about knowledge, like an expert (Wikepedia). There are expert systems that can diagnose human illnesses, make financial forecasts, and schedule routes for delivery vehicles. Some expert systems are designed to take the place of human experts, while others are designed to aid them. The first ESs was the Logic Theorist developed in 1956 .In 1970s, with the introduction of two AI languages ,LISP and Prolog ,ESs were brought out of the lab in to the businesses. In the 1980s, expert systems proliferated as they were recognized as a practical tool for solving real-world problems. Universities offered expert system courses and two thirds of the Fortune 1000 companies applied the technology in daily business activities. [Durkin, J. Expert Systems: Catalog of Applications. Intelligent Computer Systems, Inc., Akron, OH, 1993.). To avoid re-inventing the wheel, expert system shells were created that had more specialized features for building large expert systems. ESs are ideal for domains that are well defined, in which there is a large corpus of human expertise and knowledge, yet the knowledge is mainly heuristic and uncertain. Although expert systems do not necessarily......

Words: 744 - Pages: 3

Accommodation System Expert

...Table of Contents Introduction 3 Accommodation System 3 Identification and Literature Surveys 3 The need for the system 4 Aims and Benefits 4 Domain Expert and Users 5 Users 5 Knowledge Acquisition 5 Strategy 5 Process of acquiring knowledge 5 Problems and solutions 5 Solution 6 Evaluation of prototype don`t do 6 Expert opinion 6 Performance/Achievement 6 Further Improvement 6 Special features 8 Variable 8 Tags 9 References 11 Apendices 12 Program Code 12 User Manual 15 This software will ask you your name and then you continue being friends. 15 INTRODUCTION APIIT/UCTI ACCOMMODATION SYSTEM EXPERT T he system provides apartment type accommodation located close to the campus with full condominium facilities, which includes swimming pool, launderettes, clubhouses, restaurants, 24 hr security and etc. All units are furnished with basic amenities, including a living room set, dining room set, air conditioning, washing machine, kitchen and bedroom furniture. Internet Access and Satellite TV are complementary for Deluxe Accommodation. Student can also rent apartments at their own. Rental of a 3-bedroom furnished apartment unit at Vista Komanwel Apartments ranges from RM1, 500 to RM1, 800 per month. On a six-student per unit sharing basis, rental for each student ranges between RM 350 to RM 500......

Words: 2501 - Pages: 11

Expert

...provide my reflection of the results of The Nursing expertise self-report scale and how the results will be used to improve communication skills in health care settings. The scale used in this assignment, developed from Patricia Benner’s model of clinical competence, measures self perception by a nurse progressing from novice to expert. Her model suggests a link between experience and expertise using a scoring method. “The nurse-expertise self report scale has 20 items scored using a Likert Scale from Strongly Agree to Strongly Disagree” (Hansten & Jackson, 2009, p. 178). Based on the scoring of those 20 items as determined by a point value assigned to expert and novice, this writer scored 85 out of a possible 100. This score, according to Benner’s system, reflects experience resembling closer to expertise rather than novice. Acquiring 28 years of nursing experience, I would expect to have evolved closer to expert than novice in patient care, however; I know with each new day and each patient or situation, an opportunity exists to learn something new. I have often identified communication skills as an area that I could improve upon. In the early stages of my career, communicating with my patients seemed easier than communicating with my peers and superiors. Over time, I have become a more confident communicating with my peers and not necessarily with superiors and some physicians. In my current position, I am required to communicate with physicians and......

Words: 306 - Pages: 2

Expert Systems

...QUESTION 1 a. Describe how expert systems perform inference [4 marks] Inferencing is the reasoning process of AI. It takes place in the brain of an AI process. The brain of an expert system is the inference engine that provides a methodology for reasoning about information in the knowledge base. Inference can be performed using semantics networks, production rules, and logic statements. b. Describe generic categories of Expert Systems applications [16 marks] Diagnosis. These are mainly used in the medical field to recommend remedies to illnesses, trouble-shoot electronic or mechanical problems or as debugging tools. Repair. Expert systems that define repair strategies are also very common. As well as diagnosing the problem they can suggest a plan for the repair of the item. The repair plan typically contains a scheduling structure and some control structure to validate the repair process. Such systems have been employed in the automotive repair field and similar areas. Instruction. They are mainly used in the training of pilots . Instructional expert systems have been used for individualised training or instruction in a particular field. The system presents material in an order determined by its evaluation of the user’s ability and current knowledge and monitor’s the progress of the student, altering the sequence depending on this progress. Interpretation. Interpretive expert systems have the ability to analyse data to determine its significance......

Words: 926 - Pages: 4

Expert Systems

...Expert System Robert Savageau CIS 501 ABSTRACT In the creation of an Expert System the knowledge base is in the center of it all. Understanding the process which is done through identifying, conceptualizing, formalizing, implementing, and testing followed by reiterating the stages thereby insuring knowledge acquisitioned is in its totality. There are many knowledge elicitation techniques and their success is in choosing the right method(s) used for the knowledge being acquired. The five general stages of knowledge acquisition will be discussed, as will a few knowledge elicitation methods. It is not the intent of this paper in giving a complete listing and discourse of elicitation methods, rather an introduction of knowledge acquisition design steps and methods of elicitation. Knowledge Acquisition is extracting the knowledge from any source and Knowledge Elicitation deals with attaining that knowledge specifically from people (Burge, 1998). There five general stages in knowledge acquisition giving knowledge engineers (KE) certain activities preparing the knowledge /deliverables from that stage to be used as input in the next (Marakas, p246). Hayes-Roth (1983) as referenced by Marakas (2003) and by De Kock (2003) views knowledge acquisition as consisting of five stages, having the output from one stage becoming the input for the next consecutive stage. The five stage model is a reiterative process of constant improvement and fine tuning to ensure the systems......

Words: 3216 - Pages: 13

Expert System

...Expert Systems This paper will explain what Expert Systems are about, how it works the benefits and detriments and give an example about the system. Experts Systems is a man-made cleverness program that has expert level knowledge about a particular area and knows how to use its knowledge to respond properly. In all aspects the expert systems should replace a human expert. As defined by Edward Feigenbaum, “expert system is a wise computer program that uses knowledge and reading procedures to solve problems that are difficult to require major human expertise for their solutions.” (Robin, 2010) Additionally expert systems are usually considered to have six major components which give detail information about how the system works. It is obvious that expert systems must work behaviorally with system users in assisting them in making better decisions. The system interacts with the user by constantly asking for information until it is ready to make a decision. Once the system has gathered the information needed, an answer is returned to the user. It is important to remember that not only must the system assist in making the decision itself; it must also provide the user with reason it employed to reach its decision. The reading engine processes the date the user inputs to find matches with the knowledge base. The knowledge base is where the expert’s information is deposited. The user interface is what allows the user to communicate with the program. The explanation...

Words: 598 - Pages: 3

Expert Systems

...T.C BAHÇEŞEHİR ÜNİVERSİTESİ DEVELOPING AN EXPERT-SYSTEM FOR DIABETICS BY SUPPORTING WITH ANFIS Master Thesis ALİ KARA İSTANBUL, 2008 T.C BAHÇEŞEHİR ÜNİVERSİTESİ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE COMPUTER ENGINEERING DEVELOPING AN EXPERT-SYSTEM FOR DIABETICS BY SUPPORTING WITH ANFIS Master Thesis Ali KARA Supervisor: ASSOC.PROF.DR. ADEM KARAHOCA İSTANBUL, 2008 T.C BAHÇEŞEHİR ÜNİVERSİTESİ INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE COMPUTER ENGINEERING Name of the thesis: Developing an Expert-System for Diabetics by supporting with ANFIS Name/Last Name of the Student: Ali Kara Date of Thesis Defense: Jun .09. 2008 The thesis has been approved by the Institute of Science. Prof. Dr. A. Bülent ÖZGÜLER Director ___________________ I certify that this thesis meets all the requirements as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Adem KARAHOCA Program Coordinator ____________________ This is to certify that we have read this thesis and that we find it fully adequate in scope, quality and content, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science. Examining Committee Members Assoc.Prof.Dr. Adem KARAHOCA Prof.Dr. Nizamettin AYDIN Asst.Prof.Dr. Yalçın ÇEKİÇ Signature ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ii To my father ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This thesis is dedicated to my father for being a role model in front of my educational life. I would like to express my gratitude to Assoc. Prof. Dr. Adem Karahoca, for not only being......

Words: 6346 - Pages: 26

Memory Management: Early Systems

...Cst 1215 OS_HW_Ch. 2_2015.02.07 1. Explain the fundamental differences between internal fragmentation and external fragmentation. For each of the four memory management systems explained in this chapter (single user, fixed, dynamic, and relocatable dynamic), identify which one causes each type of fragmentation. 1A. Internal fragmentation is the area occupied by a process but cannot be used by the process. This space is unusable by the system until the process release the space. External fragmentation exists when total free memory is enough for the new process but it's not contiguous and can't satisfy the request. Storage is fragmented into small holes. 1B. Single-User Contiguous Scheme: Program is loaded in its entirety into memory and allocated as much contiguous space in memory as it needs. Jobs processed sequentially in single-user systems Requires minimal work by the Memory Manager Register to store the base address Accumulator to keep track of the program size Disadvantages of Single-User Contiguous Scheme: Doesn’t support multiprogramming not cost effective Fixed Partitions: Main memory is partitioned; one partition/job. Allows multiprogramming Partition sizes remain static unless and until computer system id shutdown, reconfigured, and restarted requires protection of the job’s memory space requires matching job size with partition size Disadvantages: Requires entire program to be stored contiguously Jobs are allocated space on the basis of first available...

Words: 846 - Pages: 4

Expert System for Portfolio Management

...also assists project managers in consistent project execution, improved resource utilization and reduced resource gaps, operational efficiency and it facilitates communication and decision-making. Existing system Many projects executed at a organization are multi-location .It is therefore, critical for project managers to quickly respond to hotspots on project. The organization needs a system that helps share information, improve productivity, and eliminate project delays in addition to the centralized mechanism that could track and manage issues. Furthermore, the schedules and responsibilities should be carefully monitored to ensure that delivery progresses smoothly without unexpected delays. Manual systems and excel sheets are used to capture and consolidate the project based metrics. Project plans are maintained in Microsoft project while timesheets are tracked in an independent system. This results in an overhead in terms of data collation and consolidation of project status reporting. These reports are unreliable or outdated because of the lack of an integrated system to maintain ,manage plans ,issues , timesheets and metrics details. The project plans are also susceptible to a degree of manipulation and are often inaccurate due to periodic updating . Proposed system There’s a reason why automation is such a strong word, especially in the business world. Automation is a leverage that allows enterprises to increase production quantity, realize certain levels of......

Words: 1453 - Pages: 6

A Case for Expert Systems

...A Case for Expert Systems Abstract Recent advances in classical modalities and perfect information are generally at odds with 802.11 mesh networks. After years of unfortunate research into symmetric encryption, we show the evaluation of DHCP. Taille, our new system for modular modalities, is the solution to all of these challenges [1]. Table of Contents 1 Introduction The implications of extensible symmetries have been far-reaching and pervasive. In fact, few researchers would disagree with the investigation of neural networks, which embodies the extensive principles of robotics [1,2]. Despite the fact that such a claim at first glance seems counterintuitive, it is derived from known results. To what extent can forward-error correction be refined to accomplish this aim? We concentrate our efforts on arguing that sensor networks and telephony can connect to achieve this purpose. It should be noted that Taille is derived from the principles of operating systems. Indeed, hash tables and the producer-consumer problem have a long history of interacting in this manner. We view cyberinformatics as following a cycle of four phases: management, study, location, and exploration. Thus, we demonstrate that the famous modular algorithm for the evaluation of congestion control by Robinson et al. follows a Zipf-like distribution. Our contributions are as follows. We investigate how XML can be applied to the synthesis of multi-processors. We describe an analysis of......

Words: 2476 - Pages: 10

Early Child Care School Management System

...Early Child Care School Management System—RenWeb School Management System IS535 August 8, 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Executive Summary 2 II. Definition school management system 2 III. Background of kinder care academy 3 IV. Discussion of Current management Issues 4 V. Proposed Solution 5 VI. Recommendations for the Executive Committee 8 VII. References 10 I. Executive Summary This research paper examines the early child care school management system and the advantages of using online technology. Also this paper illustrates Kinder Care Academy's implementation of School Management System to improve management from admissions to scheduling to attendance, student billing, student and family information, parents website,security management and so on. This paper discusses how SMS incorporates its features, integrated into a single database to provide instantaneous data sharing school-wide via the web, automating school administration, classroom management, and communication with the home. II. Definition school management system Definition * Database technology cuts through many of the problems of traditional file organization. A more rigorous definition of a database is a collection of data organized to serve many applications efficiently by centralizing the data and controlling redundant data. (Kenneth C. Laudon., & Jane P. Laudon. 2010, p. 212). School Management System is a large database system which can be used for managing your......

Words: 2459 - Pages: 10

Intelligent Expert System

...INTELLIGENT EXPERT SYSTEM BIOMETRICS FOR ANTITERRORISM ABSTRACT: ‘Terrorism’ is one of the highly pronounced words nowadays. Hijacks are taking a lion’s share when we talk about terrorism. This is mainly due to the intrusion of the terrorists into a country by using fake passports or related forged documents. Our project is intended to minimize this to the maximum extent, using the help of biometrics. We have taken finger print and Iris scanning to implement this project, since these are the 2 highly distinguishing features which differentiate one human from another. It is planned to be implemented in two phases. 1.While applying for the passports 2.During the boarding of flights With proper implementation of these schemes, we can ensure that fake passports are not issued and illegally migrating people into the country can be prevented. Keywords: While applying for passport, while boarding flight, advantages, related works, process of Iris scanning and detection of criminals, process of Iris scanning while boarding flight( national or International), coding. PROPOSED SYSTEM: I.INTRODUCTION: Taking the help of Iris scanning and finger print scanning we have designed this project in order to prevent hijacks. It is planned to be implemented in two phases as mentioned earlier. II. WHILE APPLYING FOR THE PASSPORTS: While a person is applying for the passports. Finger prints are scanned. Besides that Iris of the person should also be scanned......

Words: 1290 - Pages: 6

Expert System

...sporturilor de iarna.Statiunile din zona maritima au fost clasificate dupa anumite caracteristici cum ar fi altitudine si servicii medicale(balneoclimaterice) . Tehnologii folosite CLIPS este un acronim pentru C Language Integrated Production System, o unealtă pentru construirea sistemelor expert dezvoltată de NASA în anii 1980. Sintaxa și numele au fost inspirate de OPS (sistem de producție oficial, în engleză Official Production System) creat de Charles Forgy. Primele versiuni de CLIPS au fost dezvoltate începând cu 1984 la NASA-Johnson Space Center (ca o alternativă la sistemul existent numit ART*Inference) până la începutul anilor 1990 când subvenția a încetat din cauza problemelor bugetului Federal, și a unui ordin conform căruia NASA trebuia să cumpere software comercial în loc să-l dezvolte. CLIPS este probabil cea mai folosită unealtă pentru sisteme expert deoarece este rapidă, eficientă și gratuită și incorporează un limbaj de programare complet orientat obiect. Cu toate că acum face parte din domeniul public, este încă actualizat și susținut de autorul original, Gary Riley. CLIPS incorporează un limbaj de programare orientat obiect numit COOL pentru a scrie sisteme expert. Cu toate că este scris în limbajul e programare C, interfața sa seamănă foarte mult cu cea a limbajului de programare Lisp. Se pot scrie extensii în C, iar CLIPS poate fi chemat din C. Ca și alte astfel de limbaje, CLIPS are de-a face cu reguli și......

Words: 542 - Pages: 3

A Fuzzy Expert System for Task Distribution

...A Fuzzy Expert System for Task Distribution in Teams under Unbalanced Workload Conditions José A. Benito Calleja and Jimmy Troost Thales Nederland, Hengelo, The Netherlands jose.benito@nl.thalesgroup.com, jimmy.troost@nl.thalesgroup.com Abstract Inappropriate workload levels on the team members of a naval force have been detected as a problem that can threaten the performance and safety of future naval operations. A suitable distribution of tasks among the members of a team is a crucial issue in order to prevent high and low workload levels. In this paper, we propose a rule-based expert system, the Task Distribution Expert System (TDES), which assists team leaders to manage mental workload in a team by suggesting appropriate task assignments. The TDES emulates the behavior of a team leader deciding which member of the team should perform a task and how. The system handles mental workload as an uncertain fuzzy concept comprising three fuzzy variables that represent the way mental workload affects performance. Automation issues and different recommendations for effective workload management in teams are analyzed and incorporated. A prototype demonstrates the system. 1. Introduction Naval Command and Control (C2) systems support organizations formed by a number of people cooperating on a multitude of tasks simultaneously to achieve overall goals. Future naval C2 systems are characterized by less people, more information available, shorter......

Words: 5411 - Pages: 22