Early Expert Systems

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By Pmash
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Describe any five early expert systems (20 Marks)
An expert system (ES) is a knowledge-based system that employs knowledge about its application domain and uses an inferencing (reason) procedure to solve problems that would otherwise require human competence or expertise.

Expert systems are built to solve a wide range of problems in domain such as medicine, math, engineering, chemistry, geology, computer science, business, law, defense and education. Five early expert systems are detailed below.

1. DENDRAL DENDRAL is an expert system that examines the spectroscopic analysis of an unknown chemical compound and predicts its molecular structure. It was developed by Bruce Buchanan in the late 1960’s and its domain field is chemistry. It was designed to use mass spectrometry and other chemical information to deduce the molecular structure of chemical compounds. Its primary aim was to help organic chemists in identifying unknown organic molecules, by analyzing their mass spectra and using knowledge of chemistry. 2. MYCIN
MYCIN is an early expert system that used artificial intelligence to identify bacteria causing severe infections, such as bacteremia and meningitis and to recommend antibiotics, with the dosage adjusted for patient's body weight. Its expertise lies in the domain of bacterial Infections. It was developed in

MYCIN operated using a fairly simple inference engine, and a knowledge base of about 600 rules. It would query the physician running the program via a long series of simple yes/no or textual questions. At the end, it provided a list of possible culprit bacteria ranked from high to low based on the probability of each diagnosis, its confidence in each diagnosis' probability, the reasoning behind each diagnosis, that is, MYCIN would also list the questions and rules which led it to rank a diagnosis a particular way, and…...

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