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Dry Gin Production

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) is a skill training program designed to expose and prepare students of higher institution of learning for the industrial work situations they are likely to meet after graduation. The scheme was designed to expose students to industrial environment and enable them develop occupational competencies so that they can readily contribute their quota to national economic and technological development after graduation. The Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) was established by the industrial Training Fund in (ITF) 1973 to enable students of tertiary institution have basic technical knowledge of industrial works base on their course of study before the completion of their program in their respective institutions and also to solve the problem of lack of adequate practical skills in preparation for employment in industries by Nigerian graduates of tertiary institutions. The major background behind the embarkment of students in SIWES was to expose them to the industrial environment and enable them develop occupational competences so that they can readily contribute their quota to national economic and technological development after graduation

1.1 HISTORY OF MORTAYUS GROUP 0F COMPANY
Company Profile
Mortayus Group 0f Company is located at Oje-Owode, Oyo State.
It is headed by Mr. Omede Clement who is the director and manager of the establishment. The company has 24 staff with two assistant managers inclusive working as staff directors.
The size of the company would be approximately double the size of FANS Hall. It is made up of the following units.
The production unit, in charge of production of the gin. The processing unit in charge of filtering, filling and corking the dry gin to its consumable state. The store/packaging unit in charge of packing finished/ready dry gin into bottles. The Director is in charge of the marketing unit. I worked in all the units of the company, especially in the production unit, processing and packaging unit.

1.2 Objective of SIWES
SIWES is aimed at providing skills for students in their various fields. Some of the various objectives why the program was put in place are.
1. To give the Nigerian student acquired skills industrially to perform in their field of study.
2. To enlighten, the students on how to use machinery heavy equipment available in the universities.
3. To give them the knowledge of what they are likely to face in their fields in future.
4. It enhances job transaction within the universities and its environs.
5. It strengthens employers to participate in the educational process.
6. To provide students with ample opportunities to apply the theoretical knowledge in real work situation.
7. To provide an opportunity for students in Nigeria Universities to get acquainted with Industrial Skills and experience in their course of study.
8. To make the transition from the university to the labour market easier and as well enhance students contacts for later job.
9. To prepare students for the work situation they are likely to meet after graduation.
Therefore the success or otherwise of the SIWES depends on the efficiency of the Ministries, ITF, Institution, Employers of labour and the general public involves in the articulation and management of the program. Thus the evaluation of SIWES in tertiary institutions in meeting up with the needs for the establishment of the program is necessary.

1.3 ITF MISSION STATEMENT ITF was established in 1971, the Industrial Training Fund has operated consistently and painstakingly within the context of its enabling laws (Akerejola, 2006) i.e. Decree 47 of 1971. The objective for which the Fund was established has been pursued vigorously and efficaciously.In the three decades of its existence, the ITF has not only raised training consciousness in the economy, but has also helped in generating a corps of skilled indigenous manpower which has been manning and managing various sectors of the national economy. The mission Statement of ITF goes to all the students who participated in the SIWES program to set and Control Standards of excellence and effectiveness in and offer direct training of professionals technicians, technologists and entrepreneurs to meet the human resources needed for rapid industrial nation and sustainable economic development of Nigeria.

1.4 HISTORY OF ITF
The ITF was established by Decree now an act 47 0f 6th October, 1971, to promote and encourage the acquisition of skills in commerce and industry with a view to generating a pool of indigenous trained manpower sufficient to meet the needs of the economy.
This she has successfully been doing for the past 27yrs. The staffs of ITF are fully committed to their duties towards the fulfillment of the mandate. The beehive of activities is prominent in the 27 area offices and 3 skills centaur spread across the country where employers of labour and students are engaged in training activities and other programs of the Fund.

CHAPTER TWO 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW What is Gin? Gin is a spirit which derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries (Juniperus communis). From its earliest origins in the Middle Ages, gin has evolved over the course of a millennium from a herbal medicine to an object of commerce in the spirits industry. Gin was developed on the basis of the older Jenever, and became widely popular in Great Britain when William of Orange, leader of the Dutch Republic, occupied the British throne with his wife Mary. Today, the gin category is one of the most popular and widely distributed range of spirits, and is represented by products of various origins, styles, and flavour profiles that all revolve around juniper as a common ingredient. HISTORY The Dutch physician Franciscus Sylvius is often credited with the invention of gin in the mid 17th century, although the existence of genever is confirmed in Massinger's play The Duke of Milan (1623), when Dr. Sylvius would have been but nine years of age. It is further claimed that British soldiers who provided support in Antwerp against the Spanish in 1585, during the Eighty Years' War, were already drinking genever for its calming effects before battle, from which the term Dutch Courage is believed to have originated.[7] The earliest known written reference to genever appears in the 13th century encyclopaedic work Der Naturen Bloeme (Bruges), and the earliest printed genever recipe from 16th century work Een Constelijck Distileerboec (Antwerp). By the mid 17th century, numerous small Dutch and Flemish distillers (some 400 in Amsterdam alone by 1663) had popularized the re-distillation of malt spirit or malt wine with juniper, anise, caraway, coriander, etc., which were sold in pharmacies and used to treat such medical problems as kidney ailments, lumbago, stomach ailments, gallstones, and gout. Gin emerged in England in varying forms as of the early 17th century, and at the time of the Restoration, enjoyed a brief resurgence. When William of Orange, ruler of the Dutch Republic, occupied the British throne with his wife Mary in what has become known as the Glorious Revolution, gin became vastly more popular,[10] particularly in crude, inferior forms, where it was more likely to be flavoured with turpentine as an alternative to juniper.
Gin became popular in England after the Government allowed unlicensed gin production and at the same time imposed a heavy duty on all imported spirits. This created a market for poor-quality grain that was unfit for brewing beer, and thousands of gin-shops sprang up throughout England, a period known as the Gin Craze. Because of the relative price of gin, when compared with other drinks available at the same time and in the same geographic location, gin became popular with the poor. Of the 15,000 drinking establishments in London, not including coffee shops and drinking chocolate shops, over half were gin shops. Beer maintained a healthy reputation as it was often safer to drink the brewed ale than unclean plain water. Gin, though, was blamed for various social problems, and it may have been a factor in the higher death rates which stabilized London's previously growing population. The reputation of the two drinks was illustrated by William Hogarth in his engravings Beer Street and Gin Lane (1751). This negative reputation survives today in the English language, in terms like "gin mills" or the American phrase "gin joints" to describe disreputable bars or "gin-soaked" to refer to drunks, and in the phrase "mother's ruin", a common British name for gin. The Gin Act 1736 imposed high taxes on retailers and led to riots in the streets. The prohibitive duty was gradually reduced and finally abolished in 1742. The Gin Act 1751 was more successful, however; It forced distillers to sell only to licensed retailers and brought gin shops under the jurisdiction of local magistrates. Gin in the 18th century was produced in pot stills, and was somewhat sweeter than the London gin known today.
In London in the early 18th century, much gin was distilled legally in residential houses (there were estimated to be 1,500 residential stills in 1726) and was often flavoured with turpentine to generate resinous woody notes in addition to the juniper.[13] As late as 1913, Webster's Dictionary states without further comment, " 'common gin' is usually flavoured with turpentine". Another common variation was to distil in the presence of sulphuric acid. Although the acid itself does not distil, it imparts the additional aroma of diethyl ether to the resulting gin. Sulphuric acid subtracts one water molecule from two ethanol molecules to create diethyl ether, which also forms an azeotrope with ethanol, and therefore distils with it. The result is a sweeter spirit, and one that may have possessed additional analgesic/intoxicating effects . Dutch or Belgian gin, also known as jenever or genever, evolved from malt wine spirits, and is a distinctly different drink from later styles of gin. Schiedam, a city in the province of South Holland, is famous for its jenever-producing history. The oude (old) style of jenever remained very popular throughout the 19th century, where it was referred to as "Holland" or "Geneva" gin in popular, American, pre-Prohibition bartender guides. The 19th century gave rise to a style of gin referred to as Old Tom Gin, which is a softer, sweeter style of gin, often containing sugar. Old Tom gin faded in popularity by the early 20th century. The invention and development of the column still (1826–31) made the distillation of neutral spirits practical, thus enabling the creation of the "London dry" style that evolved later in the 19th century.In tropical British colonies gin was used to mask the bitter flavour of quinine, which was the only effective anti-malarial compound. Quinine was dissolved in carbonated water to form tonic water; the resulting mix became the origin of today's popular gin and tonic combination, although modern tonic water contains only a trace of quinine as a flavouring. Gin is a popular base spirit for many classic mixed drinks, including the martini. Secretly produced "bathtub gin" was commonly available in the speakeasies and "blind pigs" of Prohibition-era America as a result of the relative simple production. Gin has remained popular as the basis of many cocktails after the repeal of the American Prohibition. Sloe gin is traditionally described as a liqueur made by infusing sloes (the fruit of the blackthorn) in gin, although modern versions are almost always compounded from neutral spirits and flavourings. Similar infusions are possible with other fruits, such as damsons or beach plums.
2.1 EQUIPMENT/MACHINE USE
- Bowl
- Beaker
- Conical Flask
- Cylinder
-Alcoholic Thermometer
- Mixing Machine

MIXER

2.2 THE RAW MATERIALS USED IN PRODUCTION OF DRY GIN

-Water
-Ethanol
-Dry Gin Flavour

2.21 WATER Water is a compound of oxygen and hydrogen (chemical formulae H2O)with highly distinctive physical and chemical properties.It is able to many other substance. USES OF WATER * It is used to rinse the bottle and equipment after and before using * It is useful in production of dry gin.

2.22 ETHANOL Ethanol is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages.it is physcoactive drug and one of the oldest recreational drugs still used by humans.it is used in thermometer,as a solvent and as fuel. Ethanol is the systematic name defined by the international union of pure and applied chemistry.(IUPAC)for a molecule with two carbon atoms.(prefix “eth-”),having a single bond between them (suffix “-ane”) and a attached –OH Group
Ethanol is a 2-carbon alcohol.its molecular formular is CH3CH2OH.

USES OF ETHANOL Ethanol is extensively use as a solvent in the manufacture of varnishes and perfume as a preservative for biological specimens.denatured,or industrial alcohol is ethanol to which poisonous or nauseating should have been added to prevent its use as a beverages. Beverages tax is not charged on such alcohol.

2.3 DRY GIN PRODUCTION PROCESS

* Measuring of ethanol into the mixing machine * Addition of treated water * Mixing the ethanol and the water together * Measuring of the alcoholic percentage in the mixture(it must be 43%) * Filling into the bottle using filling machine * Labeling of the bottle * Packaging of the dry gin

2.4 FLOW CHART OF DRY GIN Measuring of the Ethanol

Addition of Treated Water

Addition of gin flavour

Mixing

Measuring of Percent of Alcohol

Filling

Corking

Labelling

Packaging

2.5 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

* Laboratory coat, head tie, nose mask and beard covers must be worn whenever we are in the laboratory. * Unwanted material such as bag, food boxes etc. should be kept in the dressing room. * Eating drinking is not allowed. * All materials/Apparatus used should be return to the store provided.

CHAPTER THREE 1.0 RECOMMENDATION I recommend the Industrial Training for all students of higher institution in Nigeria so that they can gain knowledge and be more exposed to their various fields. This will help them to give their best to the community and help in developing the educational standard and skill acquisition across the country.

2.1 CONCLUSION I participated fully and learnt a lot that has to do with my field of study. I also gained a lot of knowledge from the staff and the company’s manager. I served for the period of six months from July to January, 2014.

Abegunde Y.S, (1987);Research Institutes,Libaries:Functions,Problem and suggested solutions,
Invited paper, Annual General meeting of the Nigeria Library Association (Oyo State Chapter) held
At cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria,Ibadan,Nigeria 12th June 1984. 23p.
National fruit; Vegetables research and Demonstration center (1975);Establishment by the federal government in collaboration with united Nations development programmed and executing agency for the UNDP and the project was known as project NIR/72/2007.
Adegbola C.O.B (1997);Resources Sharing prospect of networking in agricultural research libraries in Ibadan, Unpublished MLS project, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Vol. 5. No pag 15-18.
KUffort Y.I (2009);Lab developed a universal method using a sample blending process.
Sample conditioning to ensure optimal temperature for reading the NMR signal, followed by analysis using the MQC instrument.
Okro,IJ, (1950);National Science and technology Department Agency,1960 transferred the institute to the Ministry of Science and Technology 1992,it has been under federal ministry of agriculture and rural development of Nigeria. Journal of National Science 75(4):199-217 E.U. Definitions of Categories of Alcoholic Beverages 110/2008, M(b), 2008 Definitions ("Standards of Identity") for Distilled Spirits, Title 27 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, Part 5, Section 5.22 ,(c) Class 3 Buglass, Alan J. (2011), "3.4", Handbook of Alcoholic Beverages: Technical, Analytical and Nutritional Aspects, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., ISBN 978-0-470-51202-9 Origins of Gin, Bluecoat American Dry Gin, retrieved 5 April 2009 Gin, tasteoftx.com, retrieved 5 April 2009 Genever, FlemishLion.com, retrieved 3 June 2013 Forbes, R. J. (1997). A Short History of the Art of Distillation from the Beginnings up to the Death of Cellier Blumenthal. Brill Academic Publishers.
Brownlee, Nick (2002). "3 - History". This is alcohol. Sanctuary Publishing. pp. 84–93. ISBN 1-86074-422-2.
The Complete English Tradesman, Vol 2, Page 91 Daniel Defoe, 1727 ..the Distillers have found out a way to hit the palate of the Poor, by their new fashion'd compound Waters called Geneva "Distil my beating heart". The Guardian (London). 1 June 2002. Retrieved 3 May 2010. Johnson, Harry; "Harry Johnson's New and Improved Bartender's Manual; 1900."; "Coffey still - Patent Still - Column Still: a continuous distillation". StillCooker & Friends. Retrieved 29 March 2013. Averell Damson Gin Liqueur, retrieved 8 August 2012
Greenhook Gimsmiths, retrieved 8 August 2012…...

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...in the wastewater purification process is disinfection. Depending on the previous treatment method, the disinfection enhances the quality of the wastewater or is an essential part of the purification process. When the membrane clarification and filtration is used, the disinfection is performed with UV-light. If the water is very turbid, the UV-light is not suitable for disinfection. The other potential disinfectants are, for example, chlorine, radicals and ozone. With the help of these disinfectants it is possible to enhance the water purity even more. Sludge treatment The sludge production depends on the treatment process. Effective pre-treatment before the bioreactor reduces the sludge production and enhances the sludge drying. The sludge that comes straight from the process is centrifuged. The centrifugal treatment raises the dry-substance concentration to 17.27%, compared to the before treatment dry substance concentration of 2.3%. After the decanter centrifuge, the possible sludge handling techniques are holding, incinerator, Dewatering eg steam dryer, filter press or an alternativesludge conditioning process so that combustion is possible Sludge treatment technology 1. Holding tank. A holding tank, also called waste water holding tank or black (water) tank, is a container for storing sewage in marine vehicles equipped with toilets. The contents are emptied into a dump station, which discharges the raw sewage into a sewage treatment system. Holding Tank Sewage System......

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Cotton Gin

...The class visited the cotton gin in Missouri. At the gin the class learned about the particular processes that take place at the gin. The overall main process that takes place at the gin is the separating of the cotton seed from the lint. The class saw the process from separation to packaging at the end of the line. To start the process the cotton is delivered to the gin by a type of gin truck called a module truck that picks up the bales of cotton from the fields. (Modern cotton pickers bale cotton as if it were hay; each bale is called a module.) The module trucks back the cotton up to an escalator type machine, also known as a roller that moves the modules to be unwrapped from its module and then broken down from its bale shape. (The plastic module wrapping is recycled by the gin) The next step is getting the cotton to about 7% moisture. The dryer the cotton the easier it is to work with and to store. Most cotton gins use gas fired dryers. The cotton is also cleaned and some material is extracted. Burs, stems, and sticks are removed from the cotton. The next step can be considered the most important step in the process. The cotton is separated from the cotton seed. This is done by a “gin stand”. The cotton enters a roll box where the lint is removed from the seed. The seeds fall to the bottom of the gin stand while the cotton fibers are brushed off the saws that separated them to begin with. The lint cotton goes through another cleaner where it is brushed again to......

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