Diamond Like Carbon (Dlc) Films (a Primer)

In: Science

Submitted By chcastan
Words 2213
Pages 9
Simplified mechanisms are presented for the growth of DLC films. The role of hydrogen and oxygen in the deposition is mentioned and detailed reactions are shown for one of the existing models of amorphous hydrogenated carbon film growth (a-C:H). The subplantation process for hydrogen free amorphous carbon (a-C) is discussed. A simple application example for the growth of a-C:H film using an oxygen-acetylene torch is included.

Several review papers portray the preparation and state of the art of DLC films [1-5]. There are basically two different types of DLC films: amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H), and amorphous carbon (a-C). They are differentiated on the number of sp3 (diamond like) vs. sp2 (graphite like) bonds, and the role that hydrogen (or OH) plays in the formation and structure of the film. A diamond like structure exists when sp3 bonds form between carbon atoms during the growing of a carbon film. The sp3 fraction is defined as: (Eq. 1)
As the sp3 fraction increases the film tend more towards diamond properties and behavior. Diamond is a crystal with sp3 fraction of 1.

The first kind of DLC, that we will refer to as Amorphous Hydrogenated Carbon (a-C:H), hydrogen plays a fundamental role. A diamond like structure will not form without the presence of hydrogen, which can have a concentration up to 50% (atomic) of the final film obtained. The sp3 fraction in a-C:H films is usually less than 50%. There are an assortment of techniques used to deposit a-C:H films [1], all essentially based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The more common ones are: hot filament CVD, microwave plasma CVD, plasma jet, arc jet, plasma torch, and even the simple oxyacetylene welding torch [6]. All these techniques work by activating the gas phase carbon-containing precursor. The precursor (say CH4) has to be diluted in an excess of…...

Similar Documents

Diamonds as an Alternative Investment

...| Are diamonds investor’s best friend? | Study on polished diamonds as an alternative investment. | | Presented by:Daria GoldobinaStudent number:080006193Supervised by:Anh L. TranIn partial fulfilment of the:BSc Business Studies, Cass Business SchoolDate:24th March 2011I certify that I have complied with the guidelines on plagiarism outlined in the Course Handbook in the production of this dissertation and that it is my own, unaided work.Signature:__________________________________________ | | This work is dedicated to the memory of my beloved grandfather Ivan Smolin. He was a sweet, kind and sensitive man who devoted his life to studying precious stones and metals. He enriched my life with passion to beauty. If God wanted us to bend over he'd put diamonds on the floor Joan Rivers Contents Acknowledgements 3 Executive summary 7 I Introduction 10 Ground for discussion 10 Objectives 10 Methodology 11 II Literature review and hypothesis development 12 Overview 12 Introduction 12 History of diamonds 12 Industry structure 13 DeBeers cartel 15 Diamond valuation 16 Diamond valuation process 16 Determinants of diamond prices 18 Diamond as an investment 19 Types of investment 19 Problems associated with investing in diamonds 20 Benefits associated with investing in diamonds 20 Alternatives to investing in diamonds 23 Hypothesis development 25 III Methodology 26 Data collection 26 Primary......

Words: 19903 - Pages: 80


...Until the beginning of the eighteenth century all known diamonds came from the Golconda region near Hyderabad in India. Pliny wrote an incredible account of how diamonds were found in an inaccessible valley. The locals threw meat into the valley and the diamonds stuck to it. Eagles carried off the meat to their nests from which the diamonds were recovered. At their peak the Golconda diamond fields probably supported many thousands of workers but were practically exhausted by the late seventeenth century. In 1844 diamonds were discovered in Brazil and for a while the Chapada Diamantina, or Diamond Highlands, in the state of Bahia, became the diamond capital of the world attracting prospectors and adventurers in the same way that the California Gold Rush did. A series of major diamond finds in South Africa from 1867 onwards, coinciding with a decline in production in Brazil, soon made it by far the biggest source of diamonds. As in Brazil and Indian the first finds were alluvial but by 1869 diamonds were being mined in South Africa. Their value depended on their rarity and Cecil Rhodes realised that if suppliers competed against each other that would be threatened. By the end of his short life Rhodes had gained control of the diamond mines and extended British rule over much of southern Africa. Mark Twain said of him that when he stands upon the Cape of Good Hope, his shadow falls to the Zambesi (Twain, 1904). One area that was not under British rule was South-West Africa...

Words: 380 - Pages: 2

Carbon Nanotubes

...Running Head: CARBON NANOTUBES 1 CARBON NANOTUBES CARBON NANOTUBES 2 ABSTRACT This paper talks about Carbon Nanotubes. It explores their Mechanical, Electrical and Thermal properties. Carbon Nanotubes are basically allotropes of Carbon and have nanostructure , which in turn is cylindrical in shape. These have proved to be a very valuable invention and are increasingly finding usage in manufacturing of high quality products owing to their properties like immense strength and unique electrical properties. They are among the stiffest and strongest fibers known till date. CARBON NANOTUBES 3 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Recent researches have time and again revealed that Nanotubes are and can be ultimate High strength Fibers. They have extraordinarily high tensile strength and elastic modulus which is one of the prime reason for the stiffness and strength that they possess. They have generally been found to be flexible and stretchable and continue behaving so under normal conditions. Though, under excessive ......

Words: 735 - Pages: 3

Blood Diamond Movie Review

... The movie “Blood Diamond” is directed by Edward Zwick. This movie is considered as one of the great movies because the diamonds mined at Africa are traded in exchange for firearms and other weapons which are used in civil wars, coups and cruel military dictatorships, and what makes the story interesting is that, which side is worse? Is it the government or the rebels? So the first thing we see in this story if we will relate it to economic situation is that, people face tradeoffs. RUFs mine diamonds and sell to those people who will give them firearms in exchange for diamonds. Back to the story, this story takes place in 1999 in Sierra Leone, which during that time, is at civil war. The story stars Leonardo DiCapprio, played the role as Danny Archer, who is a diamond smuggler who needs money to leave Africa for good. There, he meets Solomon Vandy. His life changed when the Revolutionary United Front or RUF invaded their village, killed many people, and kidnapped most children and men. His family escaped, and he is sent to the forced labor camp to mine diamond. During that time, diamonds have really high value because they are traded for arms and is sold for a very high price. When Solomon is sifting sand on a river bank, he saw a 100 karat pink diamond which he initially hides then later buries. No less than a minute, it happened that there was government raid, he captured and he was sent in jail. There he meets Danny, who made deal with him. For diamond: Danny will help......

Words: 2192 - Pages: 9

Blood Diamond

...The makers of “Blood Diamond,” an exceptionally thriller starring a most excellent Leonardo DiCaprio, want you to know there may be blood on your hands, specifically your wedding finger. The story involves so-called conflict diamonds, illicitly mined stones that have been used to finance some of the most vicious wars in Africa. If films were judged solely by their good intentions, this one would be best in show. Instead, gilded in money and dripping with sanctimony, confused and mindlessly contradictory, the film is a textbook example of how easily commercialism can trump do-goodism, particularly in Hollywood. The 2006 movie (Blood Diamond) was recently seen by me, this is an American political war thriller film produced and directed by Edward Zwick, starring Leonardo DiCaprio, Jennifer Connelly and Djimon Hounsou. The title refers to blood diamonds, which are diamonds mined in African war zones and sold to finance conflicts, and thereby profit warlords and diamond companies across the world. During Sierra Leone Civil War in 1996–2001, the film shows a country torn apart by the struggle between government soldiers and rebels. It also portrays many of the atrocities of that war, including the rebels' amputation of people's hands to discourage them from voting in upcoming elections. The film's ending, in which a conference is held concerning blood diamonds, is in reference to an actual meeting that took place in Kimberley, South Africa in 2000 and led to the Kimberley......

Words: 749 - Pages: 3

Carbon Nanotube

...TERM PAPER OF CHEMISTRY TOPIC: CARBON NANOTUBE Submitted to Submit by: Mr. Balwant Singh Bhist Mr.Shailja Kant yadav Deptt. Of CHEMISTRY Roll. No. : - A02 Sec: - RC5911 REG NO.:-10905256 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take this opportunity to present my vote of thanks to all those guidepost who really acted as lightening pillars to enlighten our way throughout this project that has led to successful and satisfactory completion of this study. I would express my sincere gratitude to my parents for trusting and investing in me and my future and providing for all my needs and requirements. I also express my deep sense of gratitude to my teacher, Mr. Balwant Singh Bhist – Department of Chemistry, Lovely Professional University for her constant guidance and kind support throughout this project. I am heartily thankful to my friends Anil Choudhary, Pratik Anand, Suresh Hembrom for helping me with their thoughtful......

Words: 3070 - Pages: 13

Blood Diamond - Film Review

...«BLOOD DIAMOND» - Film review. Blood Diamond is an Oscar-nominated political war thriller movie from 2006 directed by Edward Zwick. The movie stars Leonardo DiCaprio, Djimon Hounsou, Jennifer Connelly, Kagiso Kuypers and Stephen Collins. The movie is set during the Sierra Leone Civil War, from 1996 to 2001. We get introduced to the main characters, Danny Archer and Solomon Vandy, both living in Sierra Leone. Solomon gets kidnapped by the RUF (Revolutionary United Front). He got separated from his family, and his son got kidnapped too, and turned into a child-soldier. Solomon got sent to work as a slave in the diamond mines. If the slaves found any diamonds, the RUF would use the diamonds to buy military weapons. One day Solomon found a big shiny diamond, and he tried to hide it, but one of the RUF-soldiers caught him hiding it and Solomon got arrested, but the diamond stayed hidden. Behind bars, Solomon met Danny Archer, who had been arrested for diamond-smuggling. Danny found out about Solomon’s hidden diamond, and he offers to help Solomon finding his family in-trade for the diamond. Finding the diamond, and getting Solomon’s family back is the main-conflict in the movie. Throughout the movie we follow the main characters, Solomon and Danny. Salomon is introduced as a normal and happy family-father with a normal life. This changes when he gets kidnapped by the RUF. Salomon gets more and more angry and unstable during his time away from his family. He wants the best......

Words: 664 - Pages: 3

Blood Diamond

...ENGL 1157 05/05/2013 Blood Diamond I think, Blood Diamond could have been little shorter. While the film includes a number of political and sociological insights, the story is tepid and loses momentum as the storyline bogs down. The main character, played by Leonardo DiCaprio, has an effective arc that is believable because it does not force him to act contrary to his nature, but it takes a long time for Blood Diamond to get us to DiCaprio's moment of recognition. Pacing issues aside, this is a well constructed movie and clearly the product of a director who understands how to make a top-notch motion picture. It looks great and sounds great. If only Edward Zwick's mastery of the medium had extended to pruning the screenplay and editing the final result, Blood Diamond might have been a great film rather than one worthy of only a lukewarm recommendation. The story takes place in 1999 Sierra Leone, when the country is embroiled in a civil war. In this case, it's hard to determine which side is worse: the government or the rebels. As is often the case in this sort of bloodbath, atrocities abound and it's the innocent farmers and villagers caught in between who pay the price. Diamonds, one of the country's largest exportable commodities, are being smuggled out and purchased on the open market despite a supposed international ban on the purchase of so-called "conflict diamonds" or "blood diamonds." This historical background is accurate, although the three primary......

Words: 1015 - Pages: 5

Blood Diamond

...the movie Blood diamond. Edward Zwick displays the complete transformation of Archer over the course of the movie, from a greedy anti-hero to a selfless hero who puts others before himself. Archer’s epiphany starts after meeting Solomon Vandy in prison, the local fisherman who found the rare pink diamond. Another person that play a huge role in determining the identity of Archer is Maddy Bowen, the reporter from New York. I will be discussing the specific scenes in which I think Archer starts his transformation into becoming a better person (IMDb.com). Solomon is captured and forced to work in an RUF diamond mine. Soon after, his elementary-school-aged son is also captured. Later he is shown at an RUF camp, being taught with a group of children his age to forget their families, pledge absolute loyalty to the RUF, fire weapons, and to kill without shame. At the mine, Solomon discovers a remarkably large and valuable pink diamond and buries it for safekeeping. The Sierra Leone army launches a deadly air strike against the rebels and the survivors, including Solomon, are arrested and brought to a jail in the capital. Because of a diamond-smuggling deal gone wrong, Danny Archer ends up in the same jail and learns about Solomon's pink diamond. He arranges for Solomon's release, hoping to get the diamond for himself in return for helping Solomon to find his family. Archer then tracks down Maddy Bowen, an American journalist looking to do a story on blood diamonds, and promises......

Words: 1241 - Pages: 5

The Carbon

...starting. Through chaos life would form in so many years no one could count them. It would take a billion men a trillion years to hope to know when the first particles came over. This occurrence brought the pure substance, the first substance, the Great Carbon Essence. The Pure Carbon Essence seeped into our universe and soon there was no more space, so the universe moved. Expansion started as with any known civilization. Soon the Great Carbon Essence had moved trillions of miles and were content, but it was not so forever. For nothing good can stay. Particles were getting bunched, many wanted more space to move free. The universe was to slow. Some Essence took initiative and brought about a change. This was the beginning of change. Some of the Pure Essence exchanged with each other their innards and changed. They slowly began becoming tainted. Soon elements off all kinds formed and the Great Carbon Essence did away with them. There was an attempt to banish them through the cracks in the universe, into the void. These attempts ceased when the tainted became too many and soon the Great Carbon Essence dictated that if change be coming it had better be for a greater good. The tainted essences came together with the Great Carbon Essence and formation began. Particles came together, fused with one another, bonded. Clouds of dust and new gases expanded throughout our universe, all the while pushing outward. The boundaries of our universe continued to expand and these clouds......

Words: 712 - Pages: 3


...The ratio of water loss to carbon gain, or water-use efficiency. suggest a partial closure of stomata1—small pores on the leaf surface that regulate gas exchange—to maintain a nearconstant concentration ofCO2 inside the leaf even under continually increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. photosynthesis indicates that increasing atmospheric CO2 should lead to an increase in both photosynthetic uptake and water-use efficiency4—that is, the ‘CO2 fertilization effect’. These include: climate change; nitrogen deposition and accumulation; changes in leaf area, canopy height, surface roughness and the coupling of the canopy to the atmosphere; and long-term instrument drift. This analysis shows that the general trend and magnitude of the increase inWei is independent of recent changes in environmental factors. The lack of a consistent trend in climatic forcing across all sites (with the exception of vapour pressure deficit, D) further suggests that changes in climatic drivers are not responsible for the consistent increase in Wei. potential drivers of the observed changes in Wei, the only driver that is changing sufficiently and consistently through time at all sites is atmospheric CO2. The direct tradeoff between water loss and carbon uptake through the stomata—equations (1) and (2)—means that, as water-use efficiency increases, either evapotranspiration (Ee) decreases or gross photosynthetic carbon uptake increases, or both occur simultaneously. balance.......

Words: 287 - Pages: 2


...Carbon Emissions Josie Williams Bethel University November 10, 2015 Instructor: Dr. Red Prudhon Abstract Our nation has taken a very important step in slowing the making and use of ozone-destroying chemicals. Some simple things the everyday Americans can do to prevent future damage to the ozone layer and better use or conservation of carbon emissions is to become more educated on how to better make use of the chemicals already present in the environment and not produce more harmful chemicals. There are some simple measures that can be taken by just influencing the ability of natural cures, like rain forest, to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. Carbon Emissions Carbon emissions is one of the main greenhouse gases, it is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally emitted from the earth’s surface, and through human function, respiration, and plant function, photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide is release when we exhale and is used by plants as necessary part of photosynthesis, which produces glucose, carbohydrate that must be consumed by humans in order to have energy. Also from these natural processes, carbon dioxide is also emitted through the combustion or burning of fossil fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gas. This happens when vehicles are driven as well as when power plants and industrial plants are utilized. Combustion also called burning......

Words: 975 - Pages: 4

Blood Diamond

...May 4, 2010 How do conflict diamonds fuel the conflict in regions they come from? From my impression of the films Blood Diamond and Lord of War, the illegal act of trading arms for diamonds seems like business as usual. It’s not until you look at, where the diamonds come from, how they are mined and who controls/owns the gems, that you begin to understand why these precious stones are called “Blood Diamonds”. Most diamonds on the market come from expensive mining operations run by large corporations, who drill into large bodies of volcanic rock containing diamond deposits, known as kimberlites. Sources like these are not easily accessible to anyone and in the case of Africa, “conflict diamonds come primarily from places where rivers have washed over kimberlites and spread their wealth down river in thick deposits of mud and gravel”. (stemming the flow) In west Africa, there are many well known regions which contain some of the world’s largest diamond deposits. INTRODUCTION The link between diamonds and armed conflict in Sierra Leone is obvious, and has been exposed, investigated, and deplored by humanitarians, journalists, politicians, and diamond industry leaders. Less obvious are the complex, entrenched relationships between exploitative systems of financial intermediation and resource management, poverty, and the spectacular, mysterious wealth of the diamond trade. Diamonds have facilitated, not caused, and armed conflict. Pre-war economic and social......

Words: 436 - Pages: 2

The Montage in the Film

...The Montage in the Film Statement of Original Authorship I hereby certify that this research paper is my own work, based on my personal study and/or research and that I have acknowledged all material and sources used in its preparation. I also certify that the research paper has not previously been submitted for assessment and that I have not copied in part or whole or otherwise plagiarized the work of other students or authors. i Abstract With the start and development of the movies, the film technique is more and more developed and widely used. And the montage technique is one of it. It plays an important role in the development of the film industry. Montage originates from a French architectural term, which has been borrowed by the film-making field and refers to the choosing, cutting and combining of separate photographic material so as to make a connected film. Keywords: widely used, Montage technique, originate ii Table of Contents Student Statement of Original Authorship ………........………….. i Abstract ………………………………………………......................……….. ii Table of Contents ………………………………….........................……. iii Introduction………………………………………........................……..……1 Definition of montage...............................................................1 The application of montage …………………..................…………..…. 2 Method of using montage ……………………………..................……….3 Conclusion …………………………………………………...............………..……4 References …………………………………….............

Words: 1669 - Pages: 7

Diamond Chemicals

...UV2493 Version 1.5 DIAMOND CHEMICALS PLC (A): THE MERSEYSIDE PROJECT Late one afternoon in January 2001, Frank Greystock told Lucy Morris, “No one seems satisfied with the analysis so far, but the suggested changes could kill the project. If solid projects like this can’t swim past the corporate piranhas, the company will never modernize.” Morris was plant manager of Diamond Chemicals’ Merseyside Works in Liverpool, England. Her controller, Frank Greystock, was discussing a capital project that Morris wanted to propose to senior management. The project consisted of a (British pounds) £9-million expenditure to renovate and rationalize the polypropylene production line at the Merseyside plant in order to make up for deferred maintenance and to exploit opportunities to achieve increased production efficiency. Diamond Chemicals was under pressure from investors to improve its financial performance because of both the worldwide economic slowdown and the accumulation of the firm’s common shares by a well-known corporate raider, Sir David Benjamin. Earnings per share had fallen to £30.00 at the end of 2000 from around £60.00 at the end of 1999. Morris thus believed that the time was ripe to obtain funding from corporate headquarters for a modernization program for the Merseyside Works—at least she had believed so until Greystock presented her with several questions that had only recently surfaced. Diamond Chemicals and Polypropylene Diamond Chemicals, a......

Words: 3845 - Pages: 16