Diagnosing an Microorganisms Using Stains

In: Science

Submitted By SCINDERS1977
Words 677
Pages 3
When I receive a sputum sample from a patient, my first step that I would take would be to prepare the specimen to be viewed under a microscope. Knowing that it would be Bacillus, Escherichia or Mycoplama, I would start ruling them out one by one.
I would start with Bacillus. They are rod shaped bacterium which form endospores. Their movement is propelled by flagella. Bacilli are gram positive, but because if forms endospores, I would do the Endospore staining. Endospores are resistant to stain and relatively uncommon in bacterial cells. You start with a heat fixed smear. Fixing a slide kills the microorganism. A thin film of the microorganism is put on the slid and allowed to dry. Once dried, it is then fixed by either being passed through the flame of a Bunson burner several times or covered with methyl alcohol for 1 minute. Malachite green is applied and the smear is heated to steaming for 5 minutes, helping the stain penetrate the endospore wall. It is then washed with water for 30 seconds. This removes the stain from the cell except for the endospore wall. Safranin is applied as a counterstain to stain portions of the cell other than the endospore. In the smear, the endospores appear green with the rest of the cell red or pink. If there no endospores in the smear, it would eliminate bacillus as a contributing factor.
Escherichia, commonly called E-coli, are also rod shaped microorganisms, and are gram negative. A gram stain is a differential stain developed Danish bacteriologist Hans Christian Gram. You start with a heat fixed smear using the procedure stated above. After they are fixed, it is then covered with crystal violet (or basic purple dye). After a short time, the dye is washed off and the smear is covered with iodine, which is a mordant. A mordant is a chemical additive to intensify the stain. The iodine is then washed off. At this point, both…...

Similar Documents

Effective Microorganism

...A Detailed Lesson plan in English III I.Objectives: At the end of the lessop, 75% of the pupils should be able to: 1. Recognize describing words; 2. define adjectives; 3. give examples of adjectives ; 4. use adjectives in a sentence ; 5. II. Subject Matter Topic: Using describing words. References: Basics and Beyond Language III,pp. 153-160 Materials: Charts, drawings, chalk board Value integration: Appreciating God’s creation III.Procedure Teachers activity Pupils activity A. Preparatory activities 1.Prayer 2. Checking of attendance 3.Spelling 1. beautiful The young lady is beautiful. 2. bright The bright child perfected the test yesterday. 3. mountains The mountains are full of trees. 4.pretty The pretty baby is smiling. 5.insects There are many insects in the forest. 4.Review Direction : Underline the verb in each sentence. 1.Tom waters the plants every morning. 2.The girls clean the backyard. 3.The boys dig the canal. 4.The men work hard to keep the community clean. 5. The women cook delicious food. 5.Motivation Take a look around you. What can you see? Can you describe them? ...

Words: 599 - Pages: 3

Microorganism

...Microorganism The study of microorganisms is called microbiology. Microorganisms include bacteria, fungi, archaea or protists, but not viruses and prions, which are generally classified as non-living. Most microorganisms are single-celled, or unicellular, but some are microscopic, and some unicellular protists are visible to the average human. Microorganisms live almost everywhere on Earth where there is liquid water, including hot springs, on the ocean floor, and deep inside rocks within Earth's crust. Microorganisms are critical to nutrient recycling in ecosystems as they act as decomposers. As some microorganisms can also fix nitrogen, they are an important part of the nitrogen cycle. However, pathogenic microbes can invade other organisms and cause diseases that kill millions of people every year. Microorganisms can be found almost anywhere in the taxonomic organization of life on the planet. Bacteria and archaea are almost always microscopic, while a number of eukaryotes are also microscopic, including most protists and a number of fungi. Viruses are generally regarded as not living and therefore are not microbes, although the field of microbiology also encompasses the study of viruses. Habitats and ecology Microorganisms are found in almost every habitat present in nature. Even in hostile environments such as the poles, deserts, geysers, rocks, and the deep sea, some types of microorganisms have adapted to the extreme conditions and sustained colonies; these......

Words: 496 - Pages: 2

Diagnosing Performance and Reliability Issues

...Diagnosing Performance and Reliability Issues Robert Collazo Jr. Rasmussen College Diagnosing Performance and Reliability Issues The CIO of MSC company has asked the network team to investigate and resolve a number of performance and reliability problems that have been occurring on their network, He has also requested detailed documentation on why these issues are occurring, how they can be tracked, monitored, and prevented. The network infrastructure of the company consists of 300 computers, 100 laptops, various servers, and associated networking devices. The users are using both Windows Vista and Windows 7 Enterprise editions. Well the first thing I would do is go to the start menu and type in Perfmon, what this will do it will allow me access to the Performance Monitor, the DCS and the report tools. With the DCS (Data Collector Sets) I will be able to gather system information, including configuration settings and performance data, and store it in a data file, also With DCS it will logs processor, disk, memory, and network performance (Internet Protocol versions 4 and 6) counters and kernel trace data It will also log all the information included in the System Performance DCS, plus detailed system information. This will give the client a printed report of what he needs to know Performance wise and diagnostic wise. Now if we needed to track System Reliability, Stability and overall performance Windows 7 has a built in reliability Monitor which Tracks a computer’s......

Words: 508 - Pages: 3

Growth of Microorganisms

...Growth of Microorganisms Culturing is the growing of micro-organisms in prepared media in the laboratory. The prepared medium is called the ‘culture medium’. Bacteria, fungi and algae grow easily in test-tubes, flasks or Petri dishes of culture media. Virus on the other hand, can only grow and multiply inside living cells, so they cannot be grown in a culture medium. Micro-organisms are able to increase in size and multiply in number of cells. The growth of micro-organisms is measured based on increase in population size rather than increase in cell size. Under favourable conditions (food, adequate temperature and humidity) micro-organisms reproduce asexually by binary fission. Generation time varies from species to species e.g. rapidly growing specie like Escherichia coli can divide every 30minutes. Two methods are used to measure the growth of micro-organisms; (i) First Method: This involves inoculating a bacterial sample into a nutrient broth. As the bacterial population increases, the clear liquid medium becomes cloudy / turbid. Increase in turbidity indicates an increase in number of bacterial cells. Turbidity can be measured using a spectrophotometer. Thus by measuring the turbidity of a bacterial culture in nutrient broth at regular intervals, the growth of a bacterial population can be measured. (ii) Second Method: This involves taking small samples of bacteria from a nutrient broth at regular intervals of time and diluting the samples several times. Each......

Words: 288 - Pages: 2

Staining Microorganisms

...Staining Microorganisms Microorganisms are often first observed by coloring the specimen with a dye to emphasize the structures for examination. In order to dye, (or stain ) the specimen, it is fixed, (attached to the microscope slide). ( Tortara, Funke, Case, 2013). To carry through this staining and fixing, the microorganisms are killed and attached to the slide. There are several staining techniques to accomplish this preparation. There are simple stains, differential stains, and special stains. The stain is cationic (basic) or anionic (acidic). Examples of cationic dyes are crystal violet, safranin , methylene blue and basic fuchsin. Examples of anionic dye are, acid fuschin, congo red and nigrosin. Simple stains are, as they are called, “simple”; they are an alcohol solution of a basic dye, and they will highlight the microorganism so the observer can examine the structures , arrangements of cells, and shape of the specimen. If needed, an additive mordant) can be added to the sample to thicken it, making it easier to see. Simple stains are the least expensive method of staining, and can be used with all microorganisms. These are effective because they stain a pure culture and do not have to be washed and re stained. Differential stains are the most widely used staining technique for examining bacteria, as the stains react differently with different cell typed. This method of staining uses the Gram stain and the acid-fast stain. Gram staining is......

Words: 558 - Pages: 3

Diagnosing Change

...Diagnosing the Change Dr. Jay Galbraith is an established expert and consultant in organizational design. What is interesting is that Galbraith identifies Information Technology as having an integral role in what shapes an organization, as well its design. In equating how Blockbuster and Netflix each chose to respond to the emerging presence of the Internet, the relevant factors Galbraith associated with I.T. here are: Buyer Power – buyers are becoming more aware and demanding Variety/Solutions – buyers aware that they are in control want more options/better solutions Speed – buyers expect this variety of options/solutions as quickly as possible Change – the business landscape is rapidly evolving, as are the demand for variety/solutions, as well as an increase in the pressure to bring them faster These factors once realized, can be used in conjunction with Galbraith’s Star model to evaluate an organization, provide a structure for organizational form, this from which a company can align its design. According to Galbraith Management Consultants, the Star Model framework “…consists of a series of design policies that are controllable by management and can influence employee behavior.” The basic premise of the Star Model is that there are five points, each being an organizational design category. These groupings are Strategy, Structure, Processes, Rewards, and People. Following the design of the star, all five classifications must be......

Words: 1560 - Pages: 7

Diagnosing Change

...Diagnosing the Change Dr. Jay Galbraith is an established expert and consultant in organizational design. What is interesting is that Galbraith identifies Information Technology as having an integral role in what shapes an organization, as well its design. In equating how Blockbuster and Netflix each chose to respond to the emerging presence of the Internet, the relevant factors Galbraith associated with I.T. here are: Buyer Power – buyers are becoming more aware and demanding Variety/Solutions – buyers aware that they are in control want more options/better solutions Speed – buyers expect this variety of options/solutions as quickly as possible Change – the business landscape is rapidly evolving, as are the demand for variety/solutions, as well as an increase in the pressure to bring them faster These factors once realized, can be used in conjunction with Galbraith’s Star model to evaluate an organization, provide a structure for organizational form, this from which a company can align its design. According to Galbraith Management Consultants, the Star Model framework “…consists of a series of design policies that are controllable by management and can influence employee behavior.” The basic premise of the Star Model is that there are five points, each being an organizational design category. These groupings are Strategy, Structure, Processes, Rewards, and People. Following the design of the star, all five classifications must be......

Words: 1554 - Pages: 7

Microwave-Assisted Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Rice Straw Using Effective Microorganisms for Bioethanol Production

...INTRODUCTION Background of the Study The evolution of industrialization and mechanization in the 21st century made it possible to transform manual equipment into modern machinery. With this development, global reliance on petroleum-based fuel is constantly increasing, giving rise to a challenge on energy sufficiency. Negative impacts, such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, are associated with the combustion of these petroleum-based fuels (MacLellan, 2010). Major GHG contributors identified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) include industry (20%), residential and commercial (11%), and agriculture (8%) (Bogart, 2013). Adverse effects on health and the environment of using petroleum-based fuels, thus, urge scientific community to search and develop alternative renewable fuel to replace the current and existing petroleum-based fuels. Biofuels have been demonstrated by several researches to reduce GHG emissions as compared to gasoline (petrol) (Leen, 2012). Among the alternative biofuels, bioethanol has received considerable attention in transportation sector because of its utility as an octane booster, fuel additive, and even as neat fuel (Mudliar, et. al., 2009). Bioethanol can be derived from organic materials, such as energy crops like corn, wheat, sugar cane, sugar beet, and cassava, among others (Neves, et. al., 2007). However, due to their primary utility as food, these crops cannot provide the global demand for bioethanol production.......

Words: 10036 - Pages: 41

Diagnosing the Change

...Diagnosing the Change Natalie Howard DeVry University HRM/587 Jay Egger June 1, 2014 Diagnosing the Change This paper will discuss the use of a diagnostic model identifying the performance aspects of the two organizations that I chose. Chevron/Texaco and Coca-Cola are the two companies that I will be looking into to get an understanding of some critical cultural issues and to see what strategies were being used to correct the companies’ complaints about racial discrimination. Nadler Congruence Model I chose to use the Nadler congruence model to identify cultural problems within both organizations’ environment. Nadler uses a model that is based on the principle that an organization’s performance is derived from tasks, culture, structure, and people. It’s a systematic way to use the root elements to drive a force to an organization’s performance. In the case of Chevron/Texaco and Coca-Cola, we will be looking at managerial and the social aspects of both organizations (Nadler’s Congruence Model, 2013). It’s a useful model because it provides an effective checklist to those who are involved in creating change in the workplace. I consider it to be more of a problem-focused model to troubleshoot any problems that could cause an organization’s vision not to be achieved. Chevron/Texaco The problem identified with Chevron/Texaco is racial comments being made toward African Americans and complaints of being paid low wages and not being considered for......

Words: 650 - Pages: 3

Diagnosing Change

...Diagnosing Change Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Congruence Diagnostic Model The important thing that was not initially is that Sony and Microsoft were not performing as they would have expected. It was realized that something should have been done and that certain changes needed to be implemented through the reorganization of the corporate structure. It is a question that would disturb many as why some firm would thrive on a certain corporate structure while others struggle on the same structure (Burke, 2009). It is important that we understand the forces or drivers that dictate performance and what relationship exists between the forces. This can only be done through the help of the congruence model. It determines what is happening the wrong way and then looking at means of fixing them (Burke, 2009). The model is based on the fact that in order for the organization to perform, there are four important elements which are; people, culture, work and structure. The performance of the organization will improve only the above factors are showing congruence. It is understandable that one may have the best team of people working for the organization but once the culture, the structure and the type of work is wrong, then the firm will still struggle. The companies, Sony and Microsoft had the best of technology, and the best team of experts, but they still could not perform as it had been......

Words: 917 - Pages: 4

Microorganisms

...In this essay I will be analysing micro organisms and disease. Firstly I will be defining micro organisms and then explaining the key features of the main categories of microorganisms. Followed by the roles of commensals and pathogens I will then go on to explain how micro organisms are transmitted and the routes of entry to and exit from the human body of micro organisms. I will also be explaining the logical sequence of events that occur from entry of a micro-organism to the body to the appearance of symptoms of a disease and then go onto discuss why not all infections lead to a disease. Finally I will explain a logical sequence the signs, symptoms and treatments of yellow fever which is an infectious disease. Micro organisms are living organisms (such as bacteria, fungi, viruses) which are too small to even be seen with the naked eye but visible under a microscope also named microbe. There are five types of living micro organisms these are bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and algae. Microorganisms are widespread in nature and are beneficial to life, but some can cause serious harm. They can be divided into six major types: bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, algae, and viruses. Bacteria are unicellular organisms. The cells are described as prokaryotic because they lack a nucleus. They exist in four major shapes: bacillus (rod shape), coccus (spherical shape), spirilla (spiral shape), and vibrio (curved shape). Most bacteria have a peptidoglycan cell wall they......

Words: 1792 - Pages: 8

Grapefruit as an Alternative Stain Remover

...Conclusions…...………………………………………………………………………………….19 Recommendations………………………………………………………………………………..20 LIST OF TABLES Table 4.1 – Experiment Run Table 4.1.1 – Results Table 4.2 – Criterion for Collection of Data APPROVAL SHEET This research study entitled “Using Grapefruit Extracts as an Alternative Cloth Stain Remover” prepared by Jason Alexander Lapina, Carlos Ivan Obnial and Ren Jeroham Vargas and in partial fulfillment for the requirements in Research Academic AY 2014-2015 and is recommended for acceptance and approval of ORAL EXAMINATION. Mr. Paulo Genesis Gabane Research Adviser ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- PANEL OF EXAMINERS Approved by the committee of Oral Examination with a grade of ____________________. __________________________ ________________________ _____________________________ DR. YOLANDA SAMBAJON Principal V, SRSTHS ABSTRACT This research aims to prove that Grapefruit, which has D-Limonene, can be an alternative main ingredient for a common cloth stain remover. The researchers aim to find out if there is a significant relationship between the amount of the product to be used and the type of stain to be removed. If this research succeeds, then the researchers should be able to introduce a product that is green and could benefit common household Filipinos. The researchers used materials such as razor blades, baking soda, and water and of course......

Words: 3346 - Pages: 14

Diagnosing Change

...Diagnosing the Change: A Study of Procter & Gamble and Johnson & Johnson Procter & Gamble (NYSE: PG) and Johnson & Johnson (NYSE: JNJ) are both iconic, legacy American businesses that are customer-centric and manufacture consumer household products. Today, both are lead by two exemplary strategic-thinkers, A.G. Lafley, CEO of PG and Alex Gorsky, CEO of JNJ. This paper examines the history of each company and which change images each CEO applies to implement change in their business and practices through applicable examples. Company History Procter & Gamble. In 1837, William Procter and brother-in-law, James Gamble found Procter & Gamble in Cincinnati, OH to provide consumer household products, particularly soap and candles (Procter & Gamble, 2014). PG quickly grew by leveraging its operating environment to drive innovation and design in regard to consumer products. Today, 177 years later, PG is the world’s largest multinational consumer goods company, located in more than 70 countries with over 180 product brands (Procter & Gamble, 2014). Due to its expansive portfolio of products PG is divided up into the following sectors: Baby, Feminine and Family Care, Beauty, Fabric and Home Care, and Health and Grooming (Procter & Gamble, 2014). Johnson & Johnson. In 1886, the Johnson Family found Johnson & Johnson in New Brunswick, NJ to provide consumer pharmaceutical products (Johnson & Johnson, 2013). JNJ is a pioneer in global strategy......

Words: 985 - Pages: 4

Calamansi Stain Remover

...Calamansi as a Stain Remover. Abstract The Investigatory Project on calamansi as stained remover was conduct to determine the alternative product in removing the stain in cloth. This investigatory project research specifically aims: 1. To make an alternative product in Zonrox in removing stains. 2. To protect the hands/skin in the strong chemical that Zonrox containing. Introduction 2 2 Calamansi as stain remover is an alternative way to substitute Zonrox. It is cheap and does not containing high quality of chemical that can burn your skin in hand. This Investigatory Project is usually prepared by student or just an ordinary kid. We all know the calamansi as an ingredient to make a sauce but we don’t know all of its uses so I have decided to do this Investigatory Project it was very simple and easy. This won’t take too long. In this, I’ve use calamansi and I will observe if it is effective in removing stain. Problems 1. What ingredient does the Zonrox have that makes our skin burn? 2. What is the difference of calamansi and Zonrox? Hypothesis I think there is significant in using calamansi as stain remover in washing white clothes. Objectives 1. Is to produce stain remover using natural resources. 2. To discover what is in the Zonrox that makes or skin burn. 3. To discover what is the difference between Zonrox and Calamansi. Observation 6 6 As I observed, the calamansi is a good stain remover because it slowly removes the......

Words: 1057 - Pages: 5

Gram Stain

... And a Gram Stain Janet Myers 12:30p.m. Tuesday February 23 2016 Introduction: Gram staining is based on the ability of bacteria cell wall to retaining the crystal violet dye during solvent treatment. The cell walls for Gram-positive microorganisms have a higher peptidoglycan and lower lipid content than gram-negative bacteria. Bacteria cell walls are stained by the crystal violet. Iodine is subsequently added as a mordant to form the crystal violet-iodine complex so that the dye cannot be removed easily. This step is commonly referred to as fixing the dye. However, subsequent treatment with a decolorizer, which is a mixed solvent of ethanol and acetone, dissolves the lipid layer from the gram-negative cells. The removal of the lipid layer enhances the leaching of the primary stain from the cells into the surrounding solvent. In...

Words: 938 - Pages: 4