Cost Personal

In: Social Issues

Submitted By Dieeg8
Words 618
Pages 3
Annotated Bibliography
"Introduction to Should Vaccinations Be Mandatory? : At Issue." Should Vaccinations Be Mandatory? Ed. Roman (Espejo.) Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven, 2014. N. pag. At Issue. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 4 Feb. 2016. This site provide basic information about how the religion has his own reasons to don't take the mandatory vaccinations,they try to make it non mandatory.It may be relevant because it has to do with the subject and from this point of view are against.The article speaks clearly that vaccines should not be mandatory especially for religious people and they have their way of seeing the world and see vaccines as unnecessary,this supports the research in the sense that it is against the mandatory vaccines.In fact if there are other sources that support this conclusion nonreligious but other items exactly where they think that vaccines should not be mandatory.Of course, a person can rely on this article and be of great help also be easy to understand because the reading level is not as high, if you ask me would say that is normal average.
(Klein, Kristin, and Sherry Luedtke.) "HPV Vaccinations Should Be Given to All Adolescent Girls." Should Vaccinations Be Mandatory? Ed. Roman Espejo. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven, 2014. At Issue. Rpt. of "Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: A Case for Mandatory Immunization?" N.p.: n.p., 2008. N. pag. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 7 Feb. 2016. This source provides specific information about whether the vaccine should be mandatory for all adolescent women, it is not much help for this work because it focuses more on diseases that can be had only in women. More than anything this article was written to delve into the consequences of not receiving the vaccine. for my work it is not very important because it is not closely related to what my topic speech. The information…...

Similar Documents


...Material Cost Classifications Consult Ch. 6 & 7 of Health Care Finance and other sources to complete the form. This worksheet requires you to match the definitions and examples of types of cost, and the types of centers where costs occur. Part 1: For each term in Column A, select the correct definition from Column B on the right. Write the corresponding letter of the definition next to the term. Column A F 1. Indirect costs A 2. Direct costs D 3. Fixed costs I E H B C G 4. Variable costs 5. Step-fixed costs 6. Responsibility centers 7. Revenue centers 8. Cost centers 9. Shadow cost centers Column B – Definitions A. Costs incurred directly as a result of providing a specific service or good B. Centers charged with controlling costs and generate revenue C. Have no revenue budget and no obligation to earn revenue D. Costs that do not vary as service volume varies E. Fixed over some range of service volume, but rise to a new level for a higher range of service volume F. Costs that cannot be tied directly to the patient’s stay in the bed G. Exist as budgets on paper only H. The places where costs occur and have budgets I. Costs that change as volume changes Part II: For each real-world example, select the correct term from the list on the left. Write the corresponding letter of the real-world example next to the term. Column A K 1. Indirect costs M 2. Direct......

Words: 423 - Pages: 2

Cost Cost

...Part of the process of pricing your product is including the costs of producing that product. Those costs include the direct and indirect costs associated with producing your product. Direct Costs Direct costs are costs that can be easily traced to a particular object (also called a cost object), such as a product, the raw materials used to manufacture a product, or the labor associated with the work to produce the product. If your company produces a widget and a production manager is hired to oversee production of that widget, then the production manager's salary is a direct cost. If you own a carpet cleaning business, which is a service organization, and you hire workers just to clean carpets, their wages are direct costs. Direct costs are often, but not always, variable costs. Variable costs increase as more units of the product are manufactured. As a result, raw materials are variable and direct costs. But, if there is a supervisor overseeing the manufacturing of this particular product, their salary is probably the same regardless of how much of the product is manufactured, so it is a fixed cost. Direct Materials and Direct Labor The most common direct costs are direct materials and direct labor. Direct materials are the materials that can be specifically identified with the product. If you are a furniture maker, your direct materials would be the wood that goes into making your furniture along with the nails, varnish, and other products that you apply......

Words: 644 - Pages: 3


...Cost Descriptions Paper Cost Descriptions One of the most common terms heard in the business world is fixed cost. Fixed costs do not depend on the amount of sales or the current level of production of a company. A fixed cost does not vary it remains the same every month. “By installing modern, sophisticated equipment, you can virtually eliminate labor in the production of inventory. At high volume, you will do quite well, as most of your costs are fixed. At low volume, however, you could face difficulty in making your fixed payments for plant and equipment” (Block & Hirt, 2004, p. 114). The lease payments on the building that houses a company is a fixed cost, always costing a set amount each month or quarter. Another common cost term is variable cost. Variable costs depending upon quantity produced or the amount of material used. An example of this would be a firm paying for its raw materials if they slow production less raw material is purchased lowering the variable cost. On the other hand if production speeds up more material must be purchased raising the variable costs. Combined fixed and variable costs make up total cost. Total cost is, simply put, the total economic cost of production. A mixture of fixed and variable costs is termed semi-variable costs. These costs are fixed up to a certain amount and once that amount has been reached the costs become variable. The greater the level of production the higher a semi-variable cost. An example of a semi-variable......

Words: 653 - Pages: 3


...Question 1. Costs may be broadly classified as: Selling and administrative Product and marginal Fixed and variable Fixed and indirect Question 2. For a hot bread shop, which of the following costs would most likely be classified as variable rather than fixed? Flour Advertising Equipment lease payments Rent of premises Question 3. Which statement is correct in relation to fixed costs per unit of output? They stay the same irrespective of the level of activity They increase as the level of activity increases They decline as the level of activity declines None of the above Question 4. A total cost line is non-linear and of a convex nature, when it is: A fixed cost A linear variable cost Expenses involving economy of scale benefits Expenses where a high level of demand caused supply shortages Question 5. Which of the following would not normally represent an example of a semi-variable (semi-fixed) cost? Spare parts-vehicle service centre Electricity-hairdresser Telephone-butcher Depreciation of equipment Question 6. What does the point where the total cost line cuts the revenue line represent? Break-even point Relevant range The margin of safety Total fixed cost Question 7. What statistical technique can be used to determine the fixed and variable components of different cost types? Probability analysis Regression analysis Correlation Factor......

Words: 750 - Pages: 3


...for technological change. “It is ridiculous to call this an industry. This is rat eat rat; dog eat dog. I’ll kill ’em, and I’m going to kill ’em before they kill me. You’re talking about the American way of survival of the fittest.” Ray Kroc (founder of McDonald’s) When Microsoft was designing Zune, the Microsoft workers were sent a link to a video of Steven Jobs (the CEO of Apple) showing Jobs stating, “The only problem with Microsoft is that they have no taste—Absolutely no taste.” The goal of Microsoft showing the video to Microsoft workers was to infuriate the Microsoft workers sufficiently so that they would show that not only do they have taste, but that they can bury Apple and its iPod. It was to make the competition with Apple personal. It didn’t work, and Apple went public with its “no taste” view of Microsoft in a series of TV ads that portrayed the Apple computer as the tasteful computer compared to a rather stodgy PC. In earlier chapters we’ve seen some nice, neat models, but as we discussed in a previous chapter, often these models don’t fit reality directly. Real-world markets aren’t perfectly monopolistic; they aren’t perfectly competitive either. They’re somewhere between the two. The monopolistic competition and oligopoly models in previous chapters come closer to reality and provide some important insights into the “in-between” markets, but, like any abstraction, they, too, fail to capture aspects of the actual nature of competition. In this chapter, I......

Words: 9559 - Pages: 39


...wider need for a consultative stance, I have added in this edition two examples of how consulting skills can be useful, actually transformative, in a broader context than strictly for people in a support or consulting role. I have picked two sectors of society where the call for change and reform has been shouting in our ears for decades with little to show for it: health care and education. These are also service industries, which is where most of us work these days. Both of these fields are in the throes of the language of reform. But most reform efforts are more about improvement rather than rethinking something more fundamental. The health care “reform” is xiv What's New? flast.indd xiv 04/01/11 11:09 AM mostly about cost control, who pays, and increasing the pressure on standardization. There is no reform in that conversation, just better or different management. Real reform in health care will come from changing our relationship with our service provider and having service providers change their relationship with each other. In consulting terms, we need more balanced contracting, more joint discovery, and a new dialogue. This is starting to occur, and Chapter Twelve presents a great example from a very special surgeon, Paul Uhlig. Like health care, the current conversation about education reform is also not reform; it is just more controls and imposed standards masquerading as reform. True reform will shift our thinking about the culture of......

Words: 100763 - Pages: 404


...AFFECT COST. ECONOMIES OF SCALE When more units of a good or service can be produced on a larger scale with less input costs, then economies of scale are achieved. Economic growth is achieved when economies of scale is realized, this then implies that as a company grows and production units increase, the company will have a better chance to decrease its costs. There economies of scale are the cost advantages that a company obtains due to expansion, which leads to unit cost reduction as the scale of operations increase. There are two sources of economies of scale: internal and external economies. Internal economies are specific to a company while external economies of scale are beneficial to all the entire industry. Internal economies of scale include the following: 1. Labour economies- Increased of labour is a major source of labour economies. The extent of division of labour is preconditioned by the scale of output. As output increases and the labour force grow, a greater degree of specialization, with all its advantages, may become possible. 2. Technical Economies- Technical economies of scale occur when a business invests in new technology and is able to increase production. As a result, production costs per unit will fall. For example: a) Economies of superior technique: * Firms can use high technique and capital goods. * Firms can install high quality machine and capital goods. * Using these, will result in more efficiency, reducing the......

Words: 981 - Pages: 4


...Solution of 2012 Mid Term Exam Cost Accounting- Third Year Question No. One: 1- ABC Company Schedule of Cost of Goods Manufactured For October Direct material costs Beginning inventory of Direct Materials 4,000 Direct materials purchased ………………………135,000 =Cost of direct materials available for use………..139,000 (-)Ending inventory of Direct Materials………….. (5,000) Direct materials used…………………………………………………………….…134,000 Direct manufacturing labor costs………………………………………………….…50,000 Manufacturing overhead costs Salaries of factory supervisors………………….....15,000 Salaries of factory managers ……………………...10,000 Factory supplies (3000+8000-2500)……………......8,500 Factory rent…………………………………………9,500 Factory depreciation……………………………....25,000 Total Manufacturing overhead costs …………………………………………….…...68,000 Total Manufacturing costs………………………………………………………….252, 000 Add beginning work-in-process inventory, ……………………………………….…13,000 Deduct ending work-in-process inventory, ………………………………………… (15000) Cost of goods manufactured (to income statement) ………………………………$ 250,000 2- ABC Company Income Statement For March 2011 Revenues ( 8000* 50)………………………………………………………………400,000 Cost of units sold: Beginning finished goods, ……………………………… 0 Cost of goods manufactured ………………………….250,000 Cost of goods available for sale……………………….250, 000 Ending finished goods (2000 units* $25)………....... (50,00) Cost of Units sold…………………………………………………………………….(200,000) Gross......

Words: 472 - Pages: 2


...CLASSIFICATION OF COSTS: Manufacturing We first classify costs according to the three elements of cost: a) Materials b) Labour c) Expenses Product and Period Costs: We also classify costs as either 1      Product costs: the costs of manufacturing our products; or 2      Period costs: these are the costs other than product costs that are charged to, debited to, or written off to the income statement each period. The classification of Product Costs: Direct costs: Direct costs are generally seen to be variable costs and they are called direct costs because they are directly associated with manufacturing. In turn, the direct costs can include: Direct materials: plywood, wooden battens, fabric for the seat and the back, nails, screws, glue. Direct labour: sawyers, drillers, assemblers, painters, polishers, upholsterers Direct expense: this is a strange cost that many texts don't include; but (International Accounting Standard) IAS 2, for example, includes it.  Direct expenses can include the costs of special designs for one batch, or run, of a particular set of tables and/or chairs, the cost of buying or hiring special machinery to make a limited edition of a set of chairs. Total direct costs are collectively known as Prime Costs and we can see that Product Costs are the sum of Prime costs and Overheads. Indirect Costs: Indirect costs are those costs that are incurred in the factory but that cannot be directly......

Words: 767 - Pages: 4


...COST AND VALUE MANAGEMENT IN PROJECTS Ray R. Venkataraman and Jeffrey K. Pinto John Wiley & Sons, Inc. This book is printed on acid-free paper. Copyright  2008 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on the web at Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created...

Words: 94122 - Pages: 377


...Direct Costs vs. Indirect Costs Direct costs are any costs that are paid directly towards the material, labor, etc. of a product or service. Any cost associated with administrative needs, or ‘behind-the-scenes’ type costs, are known as indirect costs. Almost every venue of manufacturing, healthcare, or business in general has some form of indirect costs. Many times, these costs are overlooked when paying for a service or product. They are costs wrapped into the total cost of an item or service that you don’t normally think about. Direct costs are involved and associated with every service or product purchased, as are indirect costs, usually, even when you don’t think about it. Indirect costs affect the healthcare field, research, accidents, etc. Indirect costs in healthcare could be anything from administration to disability pay while a patient is off from work. “Indirect costs in published U.S. studies were based on estimates from physician panel and survey data and included loss of earnings associated with unemployment and underemployment, productivity losses, as well as loss of caregiver earnings not considered in this study” (Ivanova, Birnbaum, Kidolezi, Ying, Mallett, & Caleo, 2010). “Researchers have long been unhappy at the bite indirect costs take out of research grants, but have rarely taken direct action to control expenditures that determine those costs – indeed they may have felt powerless to do so” (Johnson, 1991). Building plans for Stanford University......

Words: 1473 - Pages: 6


...five-step decision process in order: A = Make predictions about future costs B = Evaluate performance to provide feedback C = Implement the decision D = Choose an alternative a. D C A B b. C D A B c. A D C B d. D C B A Answer: c Difficulty: 2 Objective: 1 44. The formal process of choosing between alternatives is known as a. a relevant model. b. a decision model. c. an alternative model. d. a prediction model. Answer: b Difficulty: 1 Objective: 1 45. Ruggles Circuit Company manufactures circuit boards for other firms. Management is attempting to search for ways to reduce manufacturing labor costs and has received a proposal from a consulting company to rearrange the production floor next year. Using the information below regarding current operations and the new proposal, which of the following decisions should management accept? Currently Proposed Required machine operators 5 4.5 Materials-handling workers 1.25 1.25 Employee average pay $8 per hour $9 per hour Hours worked per employee 2,100 2,000 a. Do not change the production floor. b. Rearrange the production floor. c. Either, because it makes no difference to the employees. d. It doesn't matter because the costs incurred will remain the......

Words: 7235 - Pages: 29


...calculated for only one life cycle not necessary to use the LCM of lives as it is for PW and FW . IE 347 Week 5 Industrial Engineering Dept. 1/8 Dr.Serhan Duran (METU) Annual Worth Analysis Basics When alternatives being compared have different lives, the AW method makes the assumption that: 1 2 3 The service provided by alternatives will be needed for at least the LCM of years or more The selected alternative will be repeated over each life cycle of the LCM in exactly the same manner The cash flow estimates will be the same in every life cycle Example Eric Forman, a project engineer is assigned to start up a new office in Wisconsin. Two lease options are available: Location A Location B First cost, $ $-15,000 $-18,000 Annual lease cost, $ per year -3,500 -3,100 Deposit return, $ 1,000 2,000 Lease term, years 6 9 For Location A, demonstrate the the equivalence at i = 10% of PW ($-55,888.4) over three life cycles and AW over one cycle. Dr.Serhan Duran (METU) IE 347 Week 5 Industrial Engineering Dept. 2/8 Annual Worth Analysis Basics PW A=? $1000 6 $1000 12 $1000 18 0 1 2 $3500 $15,000 $15,000 $15,000 1 From PW = $ − 55, 888.4 over 18 years AW = PW (A/P, 10%, 18) = −55, 888.4(0.12193) = −6, 814.47 2 Directly from AW over 6 years AW = −15, 000(A/P, 10%, 6) − 3500 + 1, 000(A/F , 10%, 6) = −15, 000(0.22961) − 3500 + 1, 000(0.12961) = $ − 6, 814.54 Dr.Serhan Duran (METU) IE 347 Week 5 Industrial Engineering......

Words: 1024 - Pages: 5


...methods be used in an offensive manner to defraud and deceive legitimate creditors. First, in most cases fraudulent transfers are illegal, and second, courts have been aggressive in placing defendants in jail for contempt of court when creditor deception is suspected. That being said, the cost to defend lawsuits has risen exponentially as the amount of litigation has grown. Old tools such as statutory protection, insurance, and self-insurance may not suffice in twenty-first century America. These are the reasons for asset protection.   With these words of encouragement, we now address the main rules of asset protection.The RulesRule one: Do not own significant assets in your own name. First, having assets in your own name allows anyone to attach a judgment to the assets with very little trouble, especially real estate. Second, with some minor limitations, anything owned in your personal name can be attached and seized by a creditor. This means that if I own a car and someone is injured in the car, even if I did nothing wrong to cause the injury, theoretically the injured person can sue me for everything I own, including the car, the house, brokerage accounts, bank accounts, and my personal assets. By creating trusts, LLCs, S corporations, and so on, the only assets that can be taken in the same lawsuit are the assets owned within that entity, which in our example would be, with any luck, only one or two automobiles.   Rule two: Use multiple entities to own your assets.......

Words: 5352 - Pages: 22

Cost on It

...among enterprises is not price competition, but the product quality, technology and innovation, and customer services competition. Through reading the book Information Technology for Managers, I learnt that Information Technology includes all tools that capture, store, process, exchange, and use information. To increase revenue and profits, many enterprises were using IT to gain competitive advantages. In the context of information technology development, enterprises in different levels of IT stages are carrying out various IT related strategies according to their needs and specific conditions. Therefore, there is no necessary link between the cost of IT investment and the achievement of business benefit. First of all, with the population of smart phone devices, people have enjoyed the benefit of IT in the daily life. The trend of personal IT consumption encourages the development of enterprise IT. For most companies, more than 85 percent of IT related budget is just maintaining the daily operation. For our company, taking advantage of the rest 15 percent part is pivotal to win in the marketplace. As the IT division controller, I plan to integrate IT operation with business management, setting up a communication platform both for employees and customers. The inside enterprise networking system will short the time to prepare conference, reduce travel expenses and save the average time of workers to find information through our search engine. At the same time, we also commit......

Words: 431 - Pages: 2