Computer Organisation

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By bikash01
Words 630
Pages 3
1. Analyse the von Neumann architecture, which is the basis for most digital computers today, with respect to the von Neumann bottleneck. [5 marks]

2. What are the limitations of Moore’s Law? Why can’t this law hold forever? Explain [4 marks]
Intel Founder Gordon Moore stated “The density of Transistors in an integrated circuit will double every year” There are physical and financial limitations. At the current rate of miniaturaturization, it would take about 500 years to put the entire solar system on a chip! Clearly, the limit lies somewhere between here and there. Cost may be the ultimate constraint. Rock’s Law, proposed by early Intel capitalist Arthur Rock is a corollary to Moore’s law. “The cost of Capital equipment to build semiconductors will double every year”
3. Using a "word" of 4 bits, list all of the possible signed binary numbers and their decimal equivalents that are representable in: [6 marks]
a. Signed magnitude
b. One's complement
c. Two's complement Signed Magnitude | One’s Complement | Two’s Complement | Decimal Equivalent | 0111 | 0111 | 0111 | +7 | 0110 | 0110 | 0110 | +6 | 0101 | 0101 | 0101 | +5 | 0100 | 0100 | 0100 | +4 | 0011 | 0011 | 0011 | +3 | 0010 | 0010 | 0010 | +2 | 0001 | 0001 | 0001 | +1 | 0000 | 0000 | 0000 | 0 | 1000 | 1111 | 0000 | 0 | 1001 | 1110 | 1111 | -1 | 1010 | 1101 | 1110 | -2 | 1011 | 1100 | 1101 | -3 | 1100 | 1011 | 1100 | -4 | 1101 | 1010 | 1011 | -5 | 1110 | 1001 | 1010 | -6 | 1111 | 1000 | 1001 | -7 |

4. Given the 8-bit binary number: 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1. What decimal number does this represent if the computer uses: [5 marks]
a. signed-magnitude representation
b. signed-2's complement.
Solution:
Given; A 8-bit binary number 10011101 Find; a) Signed-magnitude representation b) Signed-2’s complement Known; In a signed binary representation the MSB is the sign…...

Similar Documents

Organisation

...1. Inledning 1.1 Syfte/metod Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka en organisation utifrån olika infallsvinklar och med detta som utgångspunk göra jämförelser med kurslitteraturen (Organisation från grunden Forsell och Ivarsson Westberg (2010) I arbetet kommen en undersökning och fördjupning i Öspab ske. För att samla in nödvändig information har därför en intervjuat med VD: n för företaget genomförts vilket har lett till en bättre insyn hur organisationen fungerar och är uppbyggd. Infallsvinkeln i arbetet kommer att fokuseras på arbetsfördelningen samt specialisering och generalisering. 1.2 Bakgrund Öspab är ett familjeföretag som startades år 1958 med en ros och jordgubbsodling. Idag är det ett betydligt större företag med växtvaruhus utplacerade runt om i hela Skåne där de säljer allt från blommar och verktyg till vattenfall. Varje år anordnar de även blomsterutställningar med blommar från hela värden. De har en årlig skörd på 9 miljoner äpplen som de sedan 2008 bland annat använder för att tillverka must. De driver nu ett av Europas modernaste musterier. (Öspab, 2011) 2. Analys För att det ska vara möjligt att analysera Öspabs arbetsdelning måste först en definiering om vad arbetsdelning är göras. Enligt Forsell och Ivarsson Westberg (2010) innebär arbetsfördelning att man inom en organisation delar in arbetet i olika sektioner och moment för att rationalisera arbetat och minska spilltid. Forsell och Ivarsson Westberg (2010) punkterar även......

Words: 1357 - Pages: 6

Organisation

...an area of study whereby organizations serve as the phenomenon of interest for theorization and explanation. The modernist perspective views organizations as objectively real entities operating in a real world and takes a positivist approach to generating knowledge. When well-designed and managed, organisations are systems of decision and action driven by norms of rationality, efficiency and effectiveness for stated purposes. Organisations in a modernist perspective are free of human constructions and drives towards achieving common goals. The symbolic interpretivists view organizations as continually constructed and reconstructed by their members through symbolically mediated interaction. The symbolic interpretive perspective focuses on the organization as a community sustained by human relationships and uses a predominantly subjectivist ontology and an interpretive epistemology. Organizations are socially constructed realities where meanings promote and are promoted by understanding of the self and others that occurs within the organizational context. Symbolic interpretivism focus of organizations evolves around interpretation through language and people in organisations tend to objectify themselves. The postmodernists view organizations as sites for enacting power relations, oppression, irrationality, communicative distortion or arenas of fun and playful irony. There is no existence of tangible or objective organization, only disorganization occurs. Organizations...

Words: 311 - Pages: 2

Organisation Theory

...what truly happens in organisations through the categorisation and scientific measurement of the behaviour of people and system. In this way, modernists can develop general theories explaining many different aspects of one overarching reality and make predictions about the future. Symbolic interpretivism relates to interpretive epistemology which assumes that knowledge can only be created and understood from the point of view of the individuals who live and work in the organisation or culture. Hence, an individual acts in situations which make sense based on one’s experience, memories and expectations. Post modernist sees knowledge as not being accurate because meanings cannot be fixed. There is no independent reality and facts but are only interpretations. Organisations are texts produced by and in language. We are able to rewrite them so as to emancipate ourselves from human folly and degradation. Critical theorist relates to subjectivist where ‘knowing’ the ‘truth’ is ‘tainted’ by dominant ideology and values of those seeking ‘truth’. Nature cannot be seen as it ‘really is’ or ‘really works’ except through a ‘value window’. D. Differentiation The division of labour between different departments is known as horizontal differentiation. The division of authority into different hierarchical levels is known as vertical differentiation. Horizontal differentiation can be measured by counting the number of units or departments within the organisation. Vertical......

Words: 3930 - Pages: 16

Organisation

...SRI SAI RAM ENGINEERIG COLLEGE, CHENNAI – 44. DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS Subject Code: MC1701 Subject Name : Computer Networks 2 Mark Questions 1. Define Network. A network is a set of devices connected by physical media links. A network is recursively is a connection of two or more nodes by a physical link or two or more networks connected by one or more nodes. 2. What is a Link? At the lowest level, a network can consist of two or more computers directly connected by some physical medium such as coaxial cable or optical fiber. Such a physical medium is called as Link. 3. What is a node? A network can consist of two or more computers directly connected by some physical medium such as coaxial cable or optical fiber. Such a physical medium is called as Links and the computer it connects is called as Nodes. 4. What is a gateway or Router? A node that is connected to two or more networks is commonly called as router or Gateway. It generally forwards message from one network to another. 5. What is point-point link? If the physical links are limited to a pair of nodes it is said to be point-point link. 6. What is Multiple Access? If the physical links are shared by more than two nodes, it is said to be Multiple Access. 7. What are the advantages of Distributed Processing? a. Security/Encapsulation b. Distributed database c. Faster Problem solving d. Security through redundancy e. Collaborative Processing 8. What are the criteria necessary......

Words: 2993 - Pages: 12

Organisation

...declining unemployment rate, which does not necessarily means opportunities for workers are increasing. It is understood that those leaving the workforce to retire are older, more highly skilled workers, while those entering the workforce are younger and unskilled. In Jamaica, job training and secondary education is generally poor, hence the younger workforce cannot expect high paying jobs. Unemployment is particularly high among women and younger workforce. Trade Unions Labour unions existed in Jamaica before political parties came into being: the Bustamante Industrial Trade Union was formed in 1938 to protect the rights of workers. The government of Jamaica supports workers rights convention supported by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and has set conditions governing industrial and human relations, established minimum wage standards, and protected low-wage workers from income tax. Additionally, these benefits are provided: social security benefits, which include a retirement pension, food stamps, employment injury, rehabilitation and training. Despite the protection offered by unions and government regulations, conditions for workers in Jamaica are not ideal. Labour actions, strikes, slowdowns and protest have frequently disturbed worked life. The education and training system is Jamaica is of such low quality that few workers have the skills to secure higher paying skilled jobs. The adult literacy rate is significantly higher in Jamaica than......

Words: 658 - Pages: 3

Organisation

...materials, machinery, equipment, etc. This is the point when organising becomes necessary. As more people are appointed, there has to be further division and sub-division of work among them. When an organisation becomes large, separate departments are created to perform different functions. Each department has to be divided into a number of smaller units. Ultimately, the work of the organisation is divided into a number of positions of employees and managers. Relationships are then established among the different positions in the organisation. The outcome of the organising process is a set of formal relationships which is known as organisation structure. In this lesson, we shall study about the process of organising which leads to the setting up of an organisation structure. 13.2 OBJECTIVES After studying lesson, you will be able to : � state the meaning and the process of organising; � enumerate the steps in the organising process; � explain what is done in each step; � state the meaning of authority, responsibility and accountability; � recall the meaning of organisation structure; � describe how an organisation structure is created; � outline the principles of organisation; � describe the types of authority relationships; and � distinguish between formal and informal organisations. 13.3 MEANING AND PROCESS OF ORGANISING Organising refers to the way in which the work of a group of people is arranged and distributed among group members. The function of......

Words: 4429 - Pages: 18

Learning Organisations

...Learning Organisations Moving towards a learning organization is something done BY people, not something done TO people or FOR people by someone else. So, the role of HR has to be in encouraging, facilitating, and supporting a move towards learning organizations. HR can never accomplish this themselves. Then, if executives want to move towards a learning organization, they should direct their operating units to do so, and direct HR to move into a supportive role. If it's the other way around, where HR gets the responsibility, it never works. Knowledge management (KM) "any practice or process of creating, acquiring, capturing, sharing and using knowledge, wherever it resides, to enhance learning and performance in organisations (Scarborough 1999). Knowledge management involves converting knowledge sources by classifying related information then circulating to make the information to take place. Not all information is knowledge or all knowledge is important. According to Blackler (1995), "knowledge is multifaceted and complex, implicit and explicit, physical and mental, verbal and encoded". He also categorises knowledge in four as: embedded (technological - collective), enculturel (Values, beliefs - collective), embodied (practical knowledge - individual), and embraced (theoretical understanding - individual). Contrast on Blackler, Nonaka (1991) proposes that knowledge could be either individual or collective, cannot be both. Yet another argument comes from Scarborough and......

Words: 4209 - Pages: 17

Organisation

...organisation -organisation is a person or group of people intentionally organized to accomplish an overall or set of goals. -organisation is primarily driven by set of goals and aims. -an organisation will have controlled performance with standards, its members identifying: goals, measurement and comparisons of actual versus plan, corrective action. -the most basic organisation will have function such as finance, production and sales. -organisations have a purpose whether it is a company producing and selling ice cream, a charity, a tennis club. -organisations are made up at least 2 people. They have purposes, they use resources, to achieve the purposes. They perform activities in a planned and controlled manner. -the common characteristics of organisations are as follow: -each has an identity_ such as name -each has a purpose or objective_ such as written constitution -each relies of people to achieve objectives -each has a form of structure co-ordinating the people in the achievement of their tasks. Types of organisations There are different types of organisations: 1-Sole traders 2-The partnership 3-Companies 4-Franchising The sole trader The sole trader is the most common form of business ownership and is found in a wide range of activities (e.g. window cleaning, plumbing, electrical work, busking). No complicated paperwork is required to set up a sole trader business. Decisions can be made quickly and close contact can be kept with customers and......

Words: 1740 - Pages: 7

Organisation Design & Organisation Development

...care home provider which resulted in the expansion of the organisation and now the company employees about 3000 staff nationwide. It has been a positive change from the expansion perspective of the organisation however the merger with another provider had a major impact of the existing employees. “Dynamics of the merger process as an attempt to combine different organisational cultures.” (Buono 1985) The quote states that mergers can be optimistic and can help achieve better results in the company’s performance. However not all mergers may work well for employees, and for both merging organisation it is a hard time not only with merging with another company and adapting to their ways of working but also to also retain existing employee commitment is equally important. The managing director resigned as he was not happy with the new changes and structure of the new merger. The position was offered to the merging director who accepted the position. The new managing director has no understanding of the new company, and most importantly had a different management style. “A good cultural fit between merger partners is an insufficient guarantee of wealth creation without good integration planning.” (Cartwright and McCarthy 2005) The rapid growth and the change of the organisation structure had an impact on the organisation. From previously being a flat structure, there has been change in the structure of the organisation to a more hierarchical structure which meant......

Words: 2785 - Pages: 12

Organisation and Management

...Karelia University of Applied Sciences Ari Stenroos Spring 2013 [pic] MKB1011 ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT, 5 crs ASSIGNMENT The idea of this individual assignment is to “convince me of your learning”. The “grade” of your efforts is determined based on the 15 questions. The following key will help you to determine your desirable grade for this assignment: Minimum of 10 proper answers: 1 Minimum of 11 proper answers: 2 Minimum of 12 proper answers: 3 Minimum of 13 proper answers: 4 14 or more proper answers: 5 So all you need is to pick out 14 questions and answer them in a professional student’s way. You are asked to utilise the existing knowledge to be found in lectures, books, articles and information available in Moodle or published in Internet. However, cut-and-paste method doesn’t meet the criteria of learning. In report you must clearly make distinction between references and your own text. Without proper references in text and a comprehensive reference list the paper is assessed with a grade of fail. For instructions, see chapters 4.4. and 5 in Thesis instructions (http://www.karelia.fi/lomakkeet/opinnayte/Thesisinstructions2013Karelia1.pdf). Deadline for handing in the paper is June 10, 2013 (return folder in Moodle). Address papers, as well as potential questions, to Ari Stenroos, (Ari.Stenroos@karelia.fi, +358-50-5632182). ...

Words: 677 - Pages: 3

Mangement and Organisation

...Organisation Culture Research Commonwealth Bank Australia   Executive Summary Organisation culture is a unique combination of the set of values that the members of an organisation believe in. It is a very important determinant of the conditions prevailing in an organisation and the culture says a lot about the values, beliefs and structure of a company. The essence of the culture of an organisation is captured by seven primary characteristics. These are measured on a high to low scale and they are very commonly used to provide a synthesized picture of an organisation’s culture. Eventually, this serves as a basis for the feeling of the shared understanding that members have about the organisation at hand, the way in which the members are expected to behave and the way in which things are done (Lok & Crawford, 1999). Commonwealth Bank has a good employee friendly organisation culture and is more or less a blend of the seven characteristics of organisation cultures. However, it is always better to avoid the flaws in each type of culture and adapt to only the meritorious attributes of these cultures. For this purpose, it is significant to analyse one’s own corporate environment and then figure out which blend of cultures suits best to the organisation as whole. The Bank focuses greatly on the incentivising the performance of the employees, in making the organisation more people oriented, getting a perfect mix of both innovative and stable organisation, in improving the......

Words: 5655 - Pages: 23

Leadership in an Organisation

...Leadership in an organisation 1.1 Research Background The highly competitive market economies have continuously forced majority of organisations around the globe to find various strategies on improving themselves in terms of operations and performance. This is not only vital for meeting their organisational objectives, but also for sustenance (Zheir et al, 2012). Previous researches and studies claim that leadership is the key factor for an organisation or business to survive, operate and perform in today’s competitive market (Ximane,2015);(Bass,1990);( Jung, 2002). Furthermore proper leadership is the strategic element in increasing and achieving organisational goals (Bass &Avolio, 1995) ;( Yousef, 1998). On the other hand, some researches and studies contend that organisational leadership is an embellished concept in that it is not necessary in attaining organisational performance since there are other internal and external factors that come into play ( Ismail et al,1998; (Bass& Avolio,2002;(Munjis,2011). A number of researches and studies have been carried out to demonstrate that leadership and organisational performance, commitment and innovation go hand in hand (Judge, Bono, Ilies and Gerhardt, 2002; Judge and Piccolo, 2004; Keller, 2006; McGrath and MacMillan, 2000; Meyer and Hepard, 2000; Purcell, Kinnie, Hutchinson and Dickson, 2004; Yukl, 2002). Conversely, some studies for instance, House and Aditya (1997) suggest that is not a key factor in achieving......

Words: 7639 - Pages: 31

Computer

...information security sector. These three acts have distinct influence on the level of security in regard to information. Parsons et.al (2010) argues that acts of omission involve the inability to execute important activities when dealing with information. There are certain requirements in the field of information that require constant activities. For example, it is recommended that one should change his passwords regularly to reduce cases of illegal access by unwarranted individuals (Parsons et.al 2010). If an individual does not abide by this, there are chances for unwarranted access that could make that information not to be secure. There are instances whereby an individual switch off computers without logging out their accounts. It is advisable that computer users should log out before switching off computers that are used publicly. These examples of omission are a threat to the security of information. The second human trait is acts of commission. Parsons et.al (2010) indicates that there are cases whereby individuals miss out on the correct procedure of performing a particular action. There are cases whereby forget to enter their passwords in the correct forms hence creating challenges to the information system security (Parsons et.al 2010). Performance of an action without observing the correct sequence could also affect information security. For example, there are certain procedures that one is supposed to follow when storing information. Therefore, the inability to......

Words: 974 - Pages: 4

Organisation

...How does personality influence employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment? Introduction Organisations over the years are facing one of the toughest challenges of having a committed workforce in order to feature in the worldwide economic competition. Besides that, the leading challenge in management is how to assign suitable working position for employees. An employee who is satisfied with their job would perform and commit to their job and organization. Schultz and Schultz (2001) define personality traits are unique; this is because it can be internal or external aspects of a person’s character that will influence behavior. Personality traits are an important construct that has been used to predict job commitment (Judge,Heller & Mount, 2002). Besides that, personality five-factor model is also correlated with overall level of job satisfaction experienced by employees (Judge et al, 2002). Early researches tend to focus on job satisfaction as the key attitude related to employee behaviour such as job commitment and turnover (Locke, 1976).The relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment has been investigated extensively (Okpara, 1996) found that overall job satisfaction is significantly positively correlated with organizational commitment. However, it does not mean job satisfaction and organizational commitment is same. The objective of this assignment is to discuss and explore how personality traits can influence Job Satisfaction and......

Words: 1210 - Pages: 5

Ict in Organisation

...6. Explain if you or your department is facing difficulties to perform certain task weather you have the ICT Most people experience problems with machines and new ICTs are no exception. Living and working with and around machines of is not only a story of benefits, but also of problems, uncertainties, demands for change and conflicts. For example, as well as being one of the most useful and flexible devices, the personal computer is also one of the most problematic, with technical problems, continual upgrades, problematic interfaces, and demands on time and money to name a few. The computer is only one of a series of ICT products from the telephone onward that have been accompanied by a whole range of technical and non-technical problems. Many of those interviewed experienced problems adopting, using or owning ICTs. The type of problem is highly dependent on the type of technology: the PC and Internet connections giving considerable technical, learning, service, upgrade and compatability problems. Mobile phones on the other hand, while occasionally having poor infrastructure difficulties, gave problems of usage, service quality (customer care) and personal identity. It is not only technical issues that cause problems, there are many other equally important practical and social problems. Even for technical systems that are largely stable, where the technical problems have mostly disappeared from view, there still remain a host of issues1. Nearly all the......

Words: 2050 - Pages: 9