Competition Between Elimination and Substitution in Haloalkane

In: Science

Submitted By algae
Words 327
Pages 2
Competition Between Elimination and Substitution in Haloalkane

1.0 ABSTRACT
The main focus of this study is to study the competition between substitution and elimination of haloalkanes. Substitution of haloalkanes
This report will explain the two types of SN1 and SN2 reactions. Later, the factors which influence both SN1 and SN2 reactions will be explained and competition between the two different types of substitutions will be further elaborated to see which conditions favour each type of reactions.
Next, the elimination process of haloalkanes will be discussed and similar to the substitution reaction, the elimination process is also comprised of two types, namely the E1 and E2 reactions. The factors that influence E1 and E1 reactions will be listed and competition between the two types of reactions will be discussed to see which conditions favour which type of elimination reaction.
Later on, to ease the process of determining which reaction is favoured on the haloalkane, we will divide the process to see if the reaction is favoured on SN1/E1 or SN2/E2 reaction as each pairs of reactions are favoured by the same conditions. Then, the primary, secondary or tertiary structure of the haloalkane will further determine whether the major product of each reaction is a substitution product, elimination product or both.
As a conclusion, the details of each reaction need to be taken into account to determine the product of the reaction of haloalkanes. Many factors are taken into account, namely the leaving group, the nucleophilicity, type of solvent, steric effect and structure of haloalkane. Thus, the steps mentioned in this study need to be carefully observed to get the most accurate results.

2.0 OBJECTIVES
There are a few objectives of this study. One of it is to explain the elimination mechanism, which include E1 and E2.The second objective is to study the…...

Similar Documents

The Competition

...The morality of Competition Summary about competition often take the form of: Is competition good or bad? This is indeed the way the main contemporary researchers deal with the problem. Is competition good? They answer: No. Is it bad? Yes, in every way, bad psychologically, developmentally, physically, socially, educationally, and productively. But is this really the case? Surely competition is sometimes bad, but is it always bad, or always as bad as it sometimes is? Consider the following vignette: Jane and Tom lived in a small town. Married with five children, Tom was a carpenter and Jane a homemaker. When Tom lost his job and couldn't find another, Jane offered to go to work to make ends meet. Tom felt threatened. At that time, the carpenter's union was under a federal court mandate and offered an apprenticeship program to women. Jane decided to sign up. After some initial adjustment, and with the encouragement of a woman instructor who had pioneered the entrance of women into the trades, she learned quickly and in a couple of years became a master carpenter, a higher skill level than her husband's. Jane felt guilty about making her husband look bad. But she also knew that without her help her family would have nothing but temporary unemployment insurance to live on. She was also proud of her accomplishment. She became angry when she thought that her husband had for so long belittled her, and enjoyed now demonstrating to him that she could work......

Words: 2894 - Pages: 12

Competition

...How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy* By Michael E. Porter The essence of strategy formulation is coping with competition. Yet it is easy to view competition too narrowly and too pessimistically. While one sometimes hears execu-tives complaining to the contrary, intense competition in an industry is neither coinci-dence nor bad luck. Moreover, in the fight for market share, competition is not manifested only in the other players. Rather, competition in an industry is rooted in its underlying economics, and competitive forces exist that go well beyond the established combatants in a partic-ular industry. Customers, suppliers, potential entrants, and substitute products are all competitors that may be more or less prominent or active depending on the industry. The state of competition in an industry depends on five basic forces, which are di-agrammed in Figure 1. The collective strength of these forces determines the ultimate profit potential of an industry. It ranges from intense in industries like tires, metal cans, and steel, where no company earns spectacular returns on investment, to mild in indust-ries like oil field services and equipment, soft drinks, and toiletries, where there is room for quite high returns. In the economists’ “perfectly competitive” industry, jockeying for position is un-bridled and entry to the industry very easy. This kind of industry structure, of course, offers the worst prospect for long-run profitability. The weaker the......

Words: 4294 - Pages: 18

Downstream Competition Between an Upstream Supplier and an Independent Downstream Firm

...Downstream competition between an upstream supplier and an independent downstream firm by Yaron Yehezkel* Preliminary and incomplete March, 2003 Abstract: I consider an upstream supplier that supplies an input to an independent downstream firm and in addition sells the final product to consumers. I find that the upstream supplier cannot implement the monopoly outcome without imposing maximum resale price maintenance (RPM). RPM increases social welfare if consumers’ valuation for the final product of the downstream firm is high, and decreases social welfare otherwise. When the downstream firm is privately informed about the demand it faces, entry into the downstream market serves as a countervailing incentive that allows the upstream supplier to reduce the information rents. Consequently, asymmetric information induces the upstream supplier to enter the downstream market even if entry is not profitable under full information. Keywords: dual distribution, two-part tariff, resale price maintenance, information rents, countervailing incentive JEL Classification Numbers: L41, L42, D82 * I thank Koresh Galil, Asaf Ravkai, Yossi Spiegel, Manuel Trajtenberg, Marisa Trajterman and seminar percipients at Tel Aviv University for helpful comments. * Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv, 69978, Israel. Email: . 2 1. Introduction Upstream suppliers often adopt a dual distribution system whereby they not only sell their products to retailers but also enter the......

Words: 11783 - Pages: 48

Global Competition

...The effect of global competition on an organization’s strategies for maximizing profits. To talk about global competition is necessary to define what competition is. Competition as a set of patterns or actions taken to obtain the best and highest performance in a particular field of action, in the business aspect is the continuous transformation from companies that want to stay positioned in the market relative to other companies in the same economic activity. On the other hand, the "global economy" is one in which goods, services, people, skills, and ideas move freely across geographic borders, ie the range is no longer just national but spreads to other countries. Globalization on the other hand, is the diffusion of innovations worldwide economic and political and cultural adjustments that accompany it, fostering international integration, which has increased substantially over the past generation, and through it, globalized markets and industries can obtain financial capital in a market and used for the purchase of raw material in another. The global market in turn, are those business relationships between companies in a country with others, requiring the creation of innovative products, attractive domestic and international consumers. In this sense, global competition is business competitiveness to achieve a return of equal magnitude in domestic as well as international ones, which will provide the following benefits: 1. Cost reduction worldwide, 2.......

Words: 435 - Pages: 2

Haloalkanes

...in a sealed tube R—NH2 + HX Note (alc) means an alcoholic solution as opposed to an aqueous solution. Further substitution can occur to give a secondary or even a tertiary amine. However if an excess of ammonia is used, a better yield of the primary amine can be obtained. 3. Nitrile (cyanide) formation R—X + CN- aqueous alcohol R—CN + XAqueous alcohol is used as the solvent, the alcohol dissolves the organic compound while the water dissolves the sodium cyanide (source of cyanide ions) Please note, this reaction allows for the lengthening of the carbon chain. Checkpoint A 1. State what type of alkyl halides (primary “P”, secondary “S” or tertiary “T”), the following compounds are a) 2-chloropropane ………………. b) chloroethane……………… c) 2-chloro-2-methylpropane………………….. U2 mod 1chem. Halogenoalkanes page3 of 4 2. Complete the word equations for the following reactions a) chloromethane + sodium hydroxide  ……………………................................................................................. 3. Write the chemical equations for the word equations completed in question 2 a) ………………………………………………………………….. . Halogenoalkanes undergo nucleophilic substitution mechanisms Primary alkyl halides undergo SN2 reaction (S= substitution, N = nucleophilic, 2 = bimolecular i.e. 2 species involved in forming the intermediate) Tertiary alkyl halides undergo SN1 (S= substitution, N = nucleophilic, 1 = unimolecular i.e. 1 species involved in forming the intermediate) Secondary alkyl......

Words: 669 - Pages: 3

Import Substitution

...Question (1a) Import Substitution Industrialization is an economic policy that emphasises the replacement of imports with domestic production. Many Latin American Countries adopted this policy in a bid to achieve self-sufficiency by reducing its dependence on foreign imports. By using this policy, the Government will either nationalise or heavily subsidise certain industries and even employ protectionist measures on infant industries. Heavy taxes will be placed on imports and exports to discourage local merchants from exporting and in turn, reducing the amount of goods for their local customers. There are many disadvantages in promoting import substitution strategies that will ultimately lead to lower growth rates and possible future recession for the country. Firstly, local industries will become more inefficient over time. Local industries that have long enjoyed the heavy subsidies and protectionist measures from the government will have no incentive to improve themselves. As they only cater to the domestic market, if demand remains constant, an increase in production will only drive down prices. Hence, these industries will not push for increased production, resulting in continued inefficiency. Furthermore, with the high taxes imposed on exports, local companies will not sell their goods overseas. By only selling to the domestic market, they do not enjoy economies of scale. Certain industries need to sell to a large market in order to be profitable, and a domestic......

Words: 565 - Pages: 3

Import Substitution an Industrialization

...Import Substitution and Industrialization in Latin Amercia: Experiences and Interpretations Author(s): Werner Baer Source: Latin American Research Review, Vol. 7, No. 1 (Spring, 1972), pp. 95-122 Published by: The Latin American Studies Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2502457 Accessed: 26/08/2009 09:21 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=lamer. Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995 to build trusted digital archives for scholarship. We work with the scholarly community to preserve their work and the materials they rely upon, and to build a common research platform that promotes the discovery and use of these resources. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. The Latin American Studies......

Words: 12006 - Pages: 49

Security Competition Between the Us and North Korea

...Conclusion This concluding chapter evaluates the implications of this research project through five sections. First, a postscript briefly recalls the process of US-North Korean interaction from the transition to the Administration of George W. Bush in 2001 to Pyongyang’s June 2008 demolition of the cooling tower at the Yongbyon nuclear facility. Secondly, and based on the findings of my empirical case study in Chapters Four and Five, I comparatively examine the strength of offensive realism, defensive realism and constructivism in explaining the extent to which US-North Korean security competition was mitigated from 1993 to 2000. The third section considers the implications of this research project’s findings for the ability of policymakers to exercise security dilemma sensibility. The fourth section concludes this PhD thesis by laying out a proposed research agenda that builds on the findings of this research project. 1. Postscript: Transition to George W. Bush George W. Bush succeeded to the US presidency in early 2001 on a political platform that pointed to elements of ideological fundamentalism and assumptions of inherent bad faith in Pyongyang. Robert Woodward argued that the Bush Administration’s outlook was based on moral absolutism that cast the US as a crusader against the ‘evil’ North Korean leadership. Similarly, Charles L. Pritchard, who served as National Security Council Director for Asian Affairs under the Clinton Administration, and the US......

Words: 9664 - Pages: 39

Competition Between Elimination and Substitution in Haloalkane

...the competition between substitution and elimination of haloalkanes. Substitution of haloalkanes This report will explain the two types of SN1 and SN2 reactions. Later, the factors which influence both SN1 and SN2 reactions will be explained and competition between the two different types of substitutions will be further elaborated to see which conditions favour each type of reactions. Next, the elimination process of haloalkanes will be discussed and similar to the substitution reaction, the elimination process is also comprised of two types, namely the E1 and E2 reactions. The factors that influence E1 and E1 reactions will be listed and competition between the two types of reactions will be discussed to see which conditions favour which type of elimination reaction. Later on, to ease the process of determining which reaction is favoured on the haloalkane, we will divide the process to see if the reaction is favoured on SN1/E1 or SN2/E2 reaction as each pairs of reactions are favoured by the same conditions. Then, the primary, secondary or tertiary structure of the haloalkane will further determine whether the major product of each reaction is a substitution product, elimination product or both. As a conclusion, the details of each reaction need to be taken into account to determine the product of the reaction of haloalkanes. Many factors are taken into account, namely the leaving group, the nucleophilicity, type of solvent, steric effect and structure of haloalkane.......

Words: 4726 - Pages: 19

Price Competition Between Watsons and Other Retailer in Singapore

...Introduction Retail stores in most area around world have competitors close enough to affect their pricing, product availability and other operations. In all countries, the main competition is domestic, not foreign. However, these competitions could limit the growth opportunities and reduce profitability. The retailers operate in highly competitive discount retail merchandise sector. From there, the price war happens. Watsons Personal Care stores are one of the main retailer chains in Singapore and it is fighting in price war with its competitors. In this assignment, I will analyse the problem and the conditions of the firm using suitable models and recommend on how to improve and overcome the current problems. Company Background With a history dating back to 1828, the A.S Watson group has evolved into an international retail and manufacturing business. It is the largest health and beauty retail group in Hong Kong, with over 11,400 stores in 34 markets worldwide serving over 27 million customers per week. The forerunner of the A.S Watson, a small dispensary named The Canton Dispensary, opened in 1829 in Guangzhou, China. In 1871, the company changed its name to the A.S Watson & Company Limited. Today, the A.S Watson is a subsidiary of Hutchison Whampoa Ltd and is based in Fotan, Hong Kong. The A.S Watson operates retail stores that offer health and beauty products, perfumeries and cosmetics, food and electronics. The company also produces and distributes a range......

Words: 3398 - Pages: 14

The Competition Between Immigrants and Natives for Low-Wage Jobs

...English161 The competition between immigrants and natives for low-wage jobs Among all nations, immigration is always a hot topic especially in the Untied States because the country is highly mixed with people from different nationalities. Immigration contains two kinds of immigrants, legal and illegal. Undocumented immigrants that come to the U.S. under the low are illegal immigrants. Their presence come into notice by people who naturally born in the U.S. Some people say that illegal immigration is a great stimulation that can improve the economy in many ways. For example, immigrants quickly fill the low-wage jobs which employers need, and spending the money back to the economy by purchasing products to live off. Others say that illegal immigration reduces wages for native-born Americans since the immigrants are taking over the low-wage jobs and willing to work even for lower wage. I say that even though illegal immigration has some undeniably positive economic effects, the impact on the working poor is negative. Even the illegal immigration generally helps economic growth, it hurts native working poor who live in poverty in the U.S. indeed. These days, more and more people try to come to the U.S. illegally to try to get better opportunities for jobs or make a better living. They quickly fill in low-income jobs, and work hard with lower wages than native-born Americans. It makes employers hard to reject them because the intense competition in the U.S. economy; they......

Words: 1039 - Pages: 5

Haloalkane

...ELIMINATION VERSUS SUBSTITUTION IN HALOGENOALKANES This page discusses the factors that decide whether halogenoalkanes undergo elimination reactions or nucleophilic substitution when they react with hydroxide ions from, say, sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. Details for each of these types of reaction are given elsewhere, and you will find links to them from this page. The reactions Both reactions involve heating the halogenoalkane under reflux with sodium or potassium hydroxide solution. Nucleophilic substitution The hydroxide ions present are good nucleophiles, and one possibility is a replacement of the halogen atom by an -OH group to give an alcohol via a nucleophilic substitution reaction. In the example, 2-bromopropane is converted into propan-2-ol. Note: If you want to read about nucleophilic substitution in this reaction in detail, follow this link. Elimination Halogenoalkanes also undergo elimination reactions in the presence of sodium or potassium hydroxide. The 2-bromopropane has reacted to give an alkene - propene. Notice that a hydrogen atom has been removed from one of the end carbon atoms together with the bromine from the centre one. In all simple elimination reactions the things being removed are on adjacent carbon atoms, and a double bond is set up between those carbons. Note: If you want to read about elimination in this reaction in detail, follow this link. What decides whether you get......

Words: 732 - Pages: 3

Haloalkanes

...INTRODUCTION Haloalkanes or also known as alkyl halides or halogenoalkanes are organic compound in which one or more hydrogen atoms of an alkane have been subtitued by halogen atoms (F,Cl, Br, I) We can also assume that haloalkanes as halogen derivative of alkanes. Monohalo derivatives have the general formula, C_n H_(2n+1) X, or RX where R represents the alkyl group and X represents the halogen atom. Members of the haloalkane homologous series have the functional group C ---- R They are a subset of the general class of halocarbons. Haloalkanes are widely used commercially and, consequently, are known under many chemical and commercial names. They are used as flame retardants, fire extinguishants, refrigerants, propellants, solvents, and pharmaceuticals. Haloalkanes can be produce from alkanes, alcohols. Alkenes and carboxylic acids. Haloalkanes are reactive towards nucleophiles. They are polar molecules, the carbon to which the halogen is attached is slightly electropositive where the halogen is slightly electronegative. This results in an electron deficient (electrophilic) carbon which, inevitably, attracts nucleophiles. Nucleophiles are Lewis bases where it is electron donor. Nucleophiles are negative ions or molecules that have lone......

Words: 280 - Pages: 2

Competition Between Elimination and Substitution in Haloalkane

...Apa Ertinya Saya Menganut Islam__________________________________________________________ ‫َﺎ ﹶﺍ َﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻨﺘ َﺎﺌﻲ ﻟﻺﺴ ﹶﻡ؟‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ِﻤ‬ ‫ﻤﺫ ﻴ‬ Apa Ertinya Saya Menganut Islam Fathi Yakan 1 Apa Ertinya Saya Menganut Islam__________________________________________________________ BAHAGIAN PERTAMA Apa Ertinya Saya Menganut Islam 1. Saya Mestilah Muslim Di Sudut Akidah. 2. Saya Mestilah Muslim Di Sudut Ibadat. 3. Saya Mestilah Muslim Di Sudut Akhlak. 4. Saya Mestilah Muslim Di Sudut Berkeluarga. 5. Saya Mestilah Mampu Mengawal Diri. 6. Saya Mestilah Yakin Bahawa Masa Depan Di Tangan Islam. 2 Apa Ertinya Saya Menganut Islam__________________________________________________________ Mukadimah Bahagian Pertama Bahagian pertama buku ini bertajuk "Apa Ertinya Saya Menganut Islam" membentangkan sifat-sifat penting yang wajib ada pada seseorang bagi membolehkan ia menjadi seorang Muslim dalam erti kata yang sebenarnya. Penggabungan diri dengan agama Islam bukanlah secara warisan, bukan secara hobi malah ia juga bukan penggabungan secara zahir sahaja. Sebenarnya penggabungan yang dimaksudkan ialah penggabungan dengan ajaran Islam itu sendiri dengan cara berpegang teguh dengan seluruh ajaran Islam serta menyesuaikan diri dengan Islam di segenap bidang kehidupan dengan penuh kerelaan. Seterusnya kami akan menerangkan secara ringkas sifat-sifat yang wajib dimiliki oleh setiap muslim untuk memastikan penggabungan dengan agama ini merupakan penggabungan yang sah dan benar. Firman Allah......

Words: 49366 - Pages: 198

Substitution and Elimination

...SN2 vs. E2 SN2 and E2 reactions share a number of similarities. Both require good leaving groups, and both mechanisms are concerted. SN2 reactions require a good nucleophile and E2 reactions require a strong base. However, a good nucleophile is often a strong base. Since the two reactions share many of the same conditions, they often compete with each other. The outcome of the competition is determined by three factors: the presence of antiperiplanar β -hydrogens, the degree of α and β branching, and the nucleophilicity vs. basicity of the reactant species. In order for an E2 elimination to occur, there must be antiperiplanar β -hydrogens to eliminate. If there are none, the SN2 reaction will dominate. On the same token, the SN2 nucleophile needs a free path to the σ * C-LG antibond. α and β branching block this path and reduce the proportion of SN2 relative to E2 . E2 occurs even with extensive branching because it relies on the β -hydrogens, which are much more accessible than the σ * C-LG antibond. The identity of the nucleophile or base also determines which mechanism is favored. E2 reactions require strong bases. SN2 reactions require good nucleophiles. Therefore a good nucleophile that is a weak base will favor SN2 while a weak nucleophile that is a strong base will favor E2. Bulky nucleophiles have a hard time getting to the α-carbon, and thus increase the proportion of E2 to SN2. Polar, aprotic solvents increase nucleophilicity, and thus increase the rate of......

Words: 2048 - Pages: 9