Co2 Emission

In: Science

Submitted By ssjayasinghe
Words 396
Pages 2
An issue of major concern is the possible effect of the burning of fossil fuels and other contributors to the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. We owe our presence on Earth to carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases. CO2 helped stabilise temperatures to levels suitable for life. The action of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in trapping infrared radiation is called the greenhouse effect. This occurs when heat energy from the sun passes through the atmosphere and warms up the Earth. In turn, the Earth radiates this energy back towards space. The greenhouse gases – water vapour, methane, ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide and CO2 – absorb some of this energy and emit it in all directions, including back towards Earth. The Earth's surface is about 34ºC warmer as a result. It may measurably increase the overall average temperature of the Earth, which could have disastrous consequences.
Because the potential consequences of global warming in terms of loss of snow cover, sea level rise, change in weather patterns, etc are so great, it is a major societal concern.
The runaway effect results in a chain reaction loop where sea surface temperature increases, leading to increased atmospheric water vapor that leads to more trapped thermal energy. If the rising temperature approached the boiling point of water, the oceans would begin to convert to water vapor, the water vapor would increase the effectiveness of heat trapping and accelerate the greenhouse effect, this would cause the temperature to rise further, thus causing the oceans to evaporate faster. This would cause the temperature increase to ‘run away,’ causing more and more water loss through evaporation from the ocean.
When the amount of energy rises on the Earth’s surface, more water evaporates. The water that evaporates returns to the Earth as rain. The mounting radiant energy on…...

Similar Documents

Emissions

...alternative and indicate which alternative you believe is best and why. In regards to the information given in the Polluter case, there are several ways the company can classify the $3 million purchase of emission allowances (“EAs”) from Clean Air Corp. First, it is important to understand the Polluter’s intention for the EAs and nature of their ‘business.’ In order to understand what are the “feasible alternative classifications in the statement of cash flows” for the $3 million purchase, Polluter will determine what type of asset they will classify the EAs as on their balance sheet. Following are three alternatives Polluter can consider as outlined in Deloitte’s “Accounting for Emission Rights” paper: 1. The EAs are intangible assets as defined under SFAS No. 142, Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets, because they lack physical substance but do not meet the definition of a financial asset under SFAS 140. 2. EAs are listed as financial assets because markets and exchanges for the trading of EAs provided evidence that they qualified as financial assets as the allowances would be readily convertible to cash. 3. An alternative view is that they are listed as inventory, as they are part of the necessary costs to comply with environmental regulations and emissions reduction schemes. Polluter currently has significantly high levels of greenhouse gas pollution, which are emitted throughout their normal course of business operations. As stated in the case,......

Words: 437 - Pages: 2

Reducing Ontario's Co2 Emissions by 50%

...part includes reducing CO2 emissions as part of the development of an energy and resource supply that is renewable, low emission and sustainable. This target is very important because of the environmental damage that is being done to the world. In terms of deforestation, humans have cut down about half of all forests in the world ("Ontario's northern boreal," 2009). If this were to continue at a similar rate, the majority of the world’s biodiversity would be irreversibly lost. In addition to this, the loss of the world’s forests also contributes to global warming. With oil prices at an all time high, it is very evident that our supply of oil, that was once thought to be inexhaustible, is declining. In order to maintain the present complexity in society, a reliable and abundant source of energy needs to be established. This must be done in order to soften the collapse that society will face when the inevitable shortage of oil hits. In addition, the new sources of energy must have very low or zero CO2 emissions. This is vital to slow down the progress of global warming, which is already starting to reveal itself to the world. The last few years have seen natural disasters occur at an unprecedented rate. In order to ensure that society can retain its complexity and overall well-being, these issues must be dealt with. The following report proposes a plan on how the target can be reached in one region of the world. The goal of the plan is to reduce CO2 emissions by 50%,......

Words: 7819 - Pages: 32

Co2 Emission of European Union Countries: a Short Review

...for giving me such opportunity. I must cite that he gave me the apt direction and showed me the accurate way to complete the assignment. CO2 EMISSION OF EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES: A SHORT REVIEW Beginning… “EU promises 20% reduction in carbon emissions by 2020” –it was published as headline in 21st February, 2007 in a number of leading newspapers of the world. From that commitment it is clear that the amount of carbon emission in the countries of EU is at an alarming state that vibrates their concern to such thinking. Trend… All the 27 member nations of EU are developed and according to the climatologists, such categorized countries are mostly responsible for the excessive release of carbon and other Green House gases that are causing the planet to warm. We can more be cleared from the graph showing the trend of the emission of CO2 of the EU countries- From the graph it is clear that the highest release was reported during the decade of 1971-80 and it was sudden. Since then the release is decreasing very slowly. Although it is decreasing it is actually not in a fare condition as the graph is on the basis of average amount of emission. So it is time to decrease the amount to on an average of at least 0.2%. Otherwise with the total emission of world’s CO2, it will eventually be gone up and will cause negative consequences of climate change more effectively. Close examination of the......

Words: 531 - Pages: 3

Emissions

...Purchase of 2012 Emission Allowances What is the appropriate classification in the statement of cash flows in Polluter Corp.’s (the ―Company’s‖) December 31, 2010, financial statements for its purchase of 2012 emission allowances (―EAs‖) from Clean Air Corp.? Accounting Alternatives — Purchase of 2012 Emission Allowances Alternative 1 — The Company should classify the purchase of the 2012 EAs from Clean Air Corp. as an investing cash outflow in its December 31, 2010, statement of cash flows. Proponents of Alternative 1 believe the Company should classify the purchase of EAs as investing activities in the statement of cash flows given the Company’s election to classify the EAs as intangible assets on its balance sheet. Although EAs are not specifically mentioned in ASC 230, proponents of Alternative 1 believe, given the Company’s accounting policy, the EAs represent ―productive assets.‖ ASC 230-10-20 defines investing activities as follows: Investing activities include making and collecting loans and acquiring and disposing of debt or equity instruments and property, plant, and equipment and other productive assets, that is, assets held for or used in the production of goods or services by the entity (other than materials that are part of the entity’s inventory). Investing activities exclude acquiring and disposing of certain loans or other debt or equity instruments that are acquired specifically for resale, as discussed in paragraphs 230-10-45-12 and 230-10-45-21. Further,......

Words: 252 - Pages: 2

Ccs Technology to Co2 and Ghg Emission

...Abstract: Carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas (GHG), is the major exhaust gas due to human activities contribution to79% of Canada’s total emission. CO2 is released into the atmosphere by means of burning fossil fuels, coal, and land clearance. As the concentration of CO2 accumulates into the atmosphere, climate change and global warming becomes worse. Canada is the leading country in piloting the carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology to reduce the emitted CO2 into the atmosphere by storing the captured CO2 underground, it could reduce GHG by 14-19% before 2050. Shell Ltd. Quest project is the first project to use CCS technology in the Athabasca oil sand projects in Canada. The Post combustion method is being used today at a smaller scale than desired. It is estimated that if post-combustion was to occur at a large industrial scale, it required energy of 25-37% of the total energy, and an estimate of about $3500/kW for the capital cost of an IGCC capture plant installation. Pre-combustion capture has a lower cost in carbon capture and higher capture percentage (90-95%) than the post-combustion capture, but requires more expense on the equipment in order for the process to work. Oxyfuel has the best efficiency (~90%) but requires 15% or more of the overall energy with a capital cost for oxyfuel installation of $1000/kW and a $60/MWh retrofit cost. Geological storage is a favourable method, where the captured CO2 travels to the storage site usually through......

Words: 2701 - Pages: 11

Investigation of Averaged Radiation and Co2

...INT1Task 3 An Investigation of Averaged Radiation and the Properties of CO2 Abstract The methodology used when calculating the effective temperature of rotating planetary bodies treats the average input over an entire rotation as a valid approximation of the overall energy received. The resulting temperature calculations are assumed to be accurate enough to be used as working inputs for climatological models or the theories they are derived from. Research and examination of radiation laws raises doubts about the viability of such averaged inputs, and this reasoning is used to inform and test a hypothesis. Background The purpose of this paper is not to go into a full derivation of the physics behind the absorption and emission of electromagnetic radiation. Planck, Stefan, Boltzmann, Einstein, and Wien were all better suited to such an examination, and the experimental apparatus needed to plumb the realms of quantum physics further is not easily acquired. The work of Stefan and Boltzmann is accepted herein as a valid description of the ideal case where emissivity is equal to unity, also known as a black body. The discovery in 1905 by Einstein[1] that emission spectra are quantized is not his most famous finding, of course, however it is the one for which he received a Nobel Prize. While his work with other scientists in Brussels is not as well known, one of his fellow Nobel Laureates Max Planck initially rejected, but was later convinced by Einstein who had......

Words: 3747 - Pages: 15

Comparison of Co2 Emissions from Electric Vehicles and Internal Combustion Vehicles

...Comparison of CO2 Emissions from Electric Vehicles and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles | | In order to determine if the emissions of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) was significantly less from electric vehicles (EV) compared to gasoline powered vehicles, an evaluation was conducted using 5 EV’s and 5 comparable gasoline powered vehicles that were driven 8,000 miles with the average CO2 emissions being measured. The results were that the average CO2 emissions for the EV’s were 4,329 lbs. and the average CO2 emissions for the gasoline powered vehicles were 6,433 lbs., which equates to a 32.7% difference. These results did answer our research question but raised subsequent questions as to whether electric vehicles are the long-term solution in reducing overall non-renewable energy. | | March 22, 2012 March 22, 2012 1.) Introduction The purpose of this experiment was to determine if the emissions of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from electric vehicles (EV) is significantly less than that of internal combustion vehicles (ICE). Our rational for this experiment is due to the increasing number of electric vehicles that are being manufactured and purchased and to answer the question: Is there really a significant positive impact on the environment or more of a psychological impact for society? To answer this question we began research on how the U.S. is getting its electricity. There are several sources of electricity in the U.S., with coal at 48.9%, natural gas at 20%, nuclear......

Words: 2401 - Pages: 10

Emission Trading

...Emission Trading-Introduction Good afternoon everyone, today we are going to present on the topic of Emissions trading or what people always refer to as cap and trade. The purpose of this mechanism is to to make it cheaper for companies and governments to meet emissions reduction targets so as to alleviate environmental problems caused by pollution, like global warming. Unlike traditional environmental regulations, which are based solely on the threat of penalties, emission trading is a market-based approach which attempts to provide economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. As to how does it actually works, a central authority, usually a governmental, or intergovernmental body sets a limit or cap on the amount of a pollutant that may be emitted. The limit or cap is allocated to firms in the form of certain amount of emissions permits which represent the polluting property right. Firms that keep their emission levels below allowed level may sell their surplus permits to other firms and vice versa, if a firm wants to emit more pollutants than they are allowed, they have to buy emission permits from other firms in the market, this is the trading of permits. There are some several important and significant examples of the application of the emission trading concept. First, It is the central element of the Kyoto protocol in the form of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Second, it is the cornerstone policy of the European Union Emissions......

Words: 310 - Pages: 2

Sodium Hydroxide as a Component of a Device to Reduce Carbon Dioxide (Co2) and Carbon Monoxide (Co) Emission by Motorcycles

...reduce Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission by Motorcycles” aimed to reduced and to prevent the widespread of Carbon dioxide (CO2) and Carbon Monoxide (CO)which causes pollution in the atmosphere. The device is made up of Sodium Hydroxide, a chemical that is usually used in the manufacturing of soap and paper. It has a low-prize available in laboratory stores. Sodium Hydroxide was used to react with Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide forming Sodium Carbonate and H2O which is a good source to manufacture glass and household cleaning products. The emission testing Center was used to determine the ability of the said device to reduce the amount of Carbon Dioxide emitted by Motorcycles. In the conduct of the experiment , nine motorcycles were used −three that uses Protec, three that uses Unleaded and three that uses Regular. Wherein the initial amount of Carbon dioxide which is 4.43 ppm was emitted by the fuel Protec, 3.97 ppm of CO2 was reduced. In the fuel Unleaded, it has an initial amount of 12.67 ppm carbon dioxide emitted; 12.27 ppm of carbon dioxide is reduced. As of the Regular fuel, 1.91 ppm is the initial amount of carbon dioxide emitted and an amount of 1.2 ppm of carbon dioxide is reduced. Sodium Hydroxide as a component of a device has also the ability to reduce the amount of Carbon dioxide emitted by motorcycles. Wherein the initial amount of Carbon dioxide which is 2.50 ppm was emitted by the fuel Protec, 2.12 ppm of CO2 was reduced. In......

Words: 436 - Pages: 2

The Gdp – an Analysis of Its Relation to Co2 Emissions, Car Ownership and Urban Population

...THE GDP – AN ANALYSIS OF ITS RELATION TO CO2 EMISSIONS, CAR OWNERSHIP AND URBAN......

Words: 2739 - Pages: 11

Sources of Co2 Emissions

...Name: Date: Instructor’s Name: Assignment: Title: Sources of CO2 Emissions (example) • Would you expect to see an increase or decrease in CO2 emission in the data over the past 40 years? Why? (example) • Purpose o State the purpose of the lab. • Introduction o This is an investigation of what is currently known about the question being asked. Use background information from credible references to write a short summary about concepts in the lab. List and cite references in APA style. • Hypothesis/Predicted Outcome o A hypothesis is an educated guess. Based on what you have learned and written about in the Introduction, state what you expect to be the results of the lab procedures. • Methods o Summarize the procedures that you used in the lab. The Methods section should also state clearly how data (numbers) were collected during the lab; this will be reported in the Results/Outcome section. • Results/Outcome o Provide here any results or data that were generated while doing the lab procedure. • Discussion/Analysis o In this section, state clearly whether you obtained the expected results, and if the outcome was as expected. o Note: You can use the lab data to help you discuss the results and what you learned. Provide references in APA format. This includes a reference list and in-text citations for references used in the Introduction section. Give......

Words: 275 - Pages: 2

Emission

...Yleana G. Gobal Emission USA vs China Emission: Is defined as the act of producing or sending out something, such as energy or gas, from a source [1]. In order to determine how countries such as China and the United States can reduce emission, we must first discuss the factors that are causing these two particular countries to be the world's top emitters. The two key greenhouse gases emitted by human activities are: (1) Carbon dioxide (CO2) - Fossil fuel use is the primary source of along with deforestation and (2) Methane (CH4) - Agricultural activities, waste management, energy use, and biomass burning all contribute to CH4 emissions [2]. Full responsibility for emitting these two key greenhouse gases cannot be pinned to just one country. It all comes down to basic supply and demand: the relationship between demand and supply underlie the forces behind the allocation of resources [3]. In efforts to play a role in controlling emission, too many consumers (i.e. USA, European Union, among others) want these emission-reducer recourses--causing the primary supplier (China) to not only attempt to supply more but also face its own increase in emission. This report will discuss the following sections: (a) economic & population growth, (b) greenhouse technologies, (c) human exploitation, and (d) conclusion. Economic & Population Growth Despite a growing economy and growing population, the energy consumption in the United States is not expected to rise at a......

Words: 1090 - Pages: 5

Co2 Emissions

...CO2 Heat Up Image polar bears standing on one leg due to shrinking ice caps that is the reality in today’s world. Ever since the industrial revolution in the 1850’s, people started to use fossil fuels as energy sources. Fossil fuels create tons of CO2 emissions that get stuck in the atmosphere. These emissions could negatively impact both wildlife and humans alike. CO2 emissions are a big problem in today’s society, and emissions need to be reduced to protect the environment. Some people say CO2 emissions are a myth, and these emissions don’t cause global warming. In the past the Earth heated up to end the Ice Age, and they argue the same cycle is happening today. While the Earth did heat up in the past, it has never reached this kind of global temperature. According to NASA’s climate change graph that shows the Earth’s temperature before fossil fuels and after fossil fuels, the temperature after fossil fuels were used is much higher than before, so this proves CO2 emissions rise global temperature and cause global warming. This creates big problems for the environment. CO2 emissions heat up the Antarctic ice caps causing them to melt. The Antarctic ice caps has been on a slow decline ever since 1992. According John Cook, “Between 1992 and 2011, the Antarctic Ice Sheets overall lost 1350 giga-tonnes (Gt) or 1,350,000,000,000 tonnes into the oceans, at an average rate of 70 Gt per year (Gt/yr).” Even though the Antarctic ice cap gained some of the lost ice from 2011 to......

Words: 629 - Pages: 3

Sources of Co2 Emissions

...Name: Date: Instructor’s Name: Assignment: SCIE211 Phase 3 Lab Report Title: Sources of CO2 Emissions Purpose The purpose of this lab is to research and state reasons for the trend of carbon dioxide emissions from data provided by the Earth System Research Laboratory over the past 40 years. Introduction Fossil fuels, wood, and living organisms are only some of the things that carbon is found in. The Earth uses CO2 to sustain life using the Carbon Cycle. Plants use the carbon for photosynthesis as the humans release the same through respiration. However, carbon dioxide emissions are traced to be increasing with time among many nations around the world. This increase is said to be as a result of the increase in the use of fuels such as coal due to industrialization (responsible for 40% carbon dioxide emission worldwide). (Kornelis, 2012). Moreover, research shows that these carbon dioxide emissions are likely to increase in the near future with an estimated value of 10% (Kornelis, 2012). Hypothesis The rate of carbon dioxide emissions into the environment are increasing with time. It’s expected that the emissions will be high now and in the future to come. Methods For this lab, a website link (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/obop/) to an interactive map of the world titled “GMD Observatory Operations” was provided and the following procedures followed. i. I clicked on a starred location on the map and one location opened. ii. To the right of the screen,......

Words: 557 - Pages: 3

Emissions Trading

...------------------------------------------------- Emissions Trading ------------------------------------------------- Assignment 2 ------------------------------------------------- Onesteel Prepared by: Wayne Andrews Student number: 41712986 September 2011 Subject Number : ECFS905 Lecturer : Julian Turecek Class : Sydney P. T. Company Selection Select an ASX200 company that is expected to have a carbon exposure equal to or greater than 2% of EBITDA at a $23/t carbon price. Question 1 Determine the company’s carbon exposure, including direct (Scope 1) and indirect (Scope 2) emissions and establish that its exposure is greater than 2%. The following table summarises Onesteel’s actual and estimated for FY10, FY11 and FY12 emissions and imputed carbon cost under the currently proposed Carbon Tax, relative to reported EBITDA. Table 1 – Implied impact of carbon pricing imputed to 2010 results | Company Guidance | Fixed Price imputed for comparison | Fiscal year commencing | FY10 | FY10 | FY11 | FY12 | Carbon Price (FY10/11 theoretical) | 23.0 | 23.0 | 23.0 | 23.0 | EITE Assistance Rate | 94.5% | 94.5% | 94.5% | 94.5% | EBIT DA $Mil | 619.0 | 619.0 | 638.0 | 717.6 | Type 1 Emissions | 2.55 | 2.55 | 2.66 | 3.05 | Type 2 Emissions | 1.34 | 1.34 | 1.40 | 1.60 | Total Emissions Type 1 &......

Words: 4880 - Pages: 20