Clifford vs James

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By blaine
Words 333
Pages 2
In our last class we examined the argument of William Clifford, and William James. In this essay I will simply examine the two opposing sides. Clifford takes the side of Evidentialism. Evidentialism is the standing that for a belief to be knowledge, it must be supported by evidence. According to evidentialism, everyone has a rational and moral duty to believe only those claims that are supported by sufficient evidence. If a belief doesn't fit in with well established scientific beliefs or isn't discovered through normal scientific practices, then it isn't rational and doesn't count as genuine knowledge. On the other side is James, who believes in Pragmatism. In an essay entitled, Pragmatism's Theory of Truth James wrote ' Truth happens to be an idea. It becomes true, is made true by events. It's verity is in fact an event, a process: the process namely of its verifying itself, its verification. Grant an idea or belief to be true, what concrete difference will its being true make in anyone's actual life? How will the truth be realized? What experiences will be different from those which would obtain if the belief were false? What, in short, is the truth's cash value in experiential terms?'
Clifford says that we harm ourselves and others when we do not question our beliefs. James argues that it is appropriate to resolve particular cases on non-rational grounds, as a matter of choice, passion, or volition. Religious choices are a perfect example. Clifford makes the point we have no right to beliefs that are based on insufficient evidence. Our beliefs must be based on sufficient evidence. James says belief beyond evidence is justified for 'genuine options', when belief in a fact is necessary for the existence of that fact. James asserts that Clifford would have us avoid error but this does not guarantee truth. James believes the risk of being in error is sometimes worth…...

Similar Documents

Henry James

...Although I love traveling, sitting in this musty old coat pocket is quite a bore and our destination on this business trip is less than desirable. “I’m back…” my master droned as he stepped onto the unsophisticated American soil. Whipping me out of his chamber of a coat pocket and handing me to the tall uniformed man, I was admired, scanned, and stamped. The man at the port had never seen such an accomplished one of my kind before. I have ventured between America and the always great Europe an impressive number of times and plan on being stamped at different country boundaries until my pages are worn to the core, and I am an inked mess. “Incredible, Sir this passport is quite weathered. I see you have been many the miles.” “Mr. Henry James is my name and thank you. I take great pride in my travels for they provide one with experience and insight.” With a hard stamp my pages were once again marked with the disgraceful American ink, but either way I was glad to add another traveler’s mark to my collection. As Henry continued to talk about his travels and writing, he waved me around like a trophy to behold. Although glad to be seen and treasured, I wished he would put me away and we could start exploring some more. Getting into the carriage, he slipped me into the breast pocket of his coat which was my absolute favorite spot because it was the closest to his heart. With the crack of the whip, neigh of the horses, and jerk of the wagon we were off again to spend our......

Words: 3063 - Pages: 13

James Thurber

...James Thurber By Rahul Patel/10 [pic] Rahul Patel Mr. Hurdle Composition 11 May, 2012 James Thurber Part I: “Authors of light pieces have, nobody knows why, a genius for getting into minor difficulties: they walk into the wrong apartments, they drink furniture polish for stomach bitters, they drive their cars into the prize tulip beds of haughty neighbors, they playfully slap gangsters, mistaking them for old school friends” (James Thurber). James Thurber was a cartoonist and an author. He was born on December 8th 1984 to his parents, Charles and Mary Thurber. Thurber’s father was a clerk and a minor politician, while his mother was a practical joker and very strong-minded. For example his mother would tell visiting guests that she was in love the post man and she had to be kept in the attic because of it. She would also tell people that she was a cripple and then she would suddenly stand up and tell everyone she had miraculously healed(James Thurber 1 of 5). James Thurber also had two brothers, William and Robert. When Thurber and William were little, they were playing with a bow and arrow, and William shot James in the eye. This led James to be partially blind and because of this injury he couldn’t participate in any sports or activities, but this injury developed a very creative imagination in Thurber’s mind. A neurologist at the time had a theory that he might have Charles Bonnet Syndrome, which is a condition......

Words: 3160 - Pages: 13

James Wolfe

...| Hero Does Not Fit | Does James Wolfe Deserve the Title ‘Hero of Quebec’ | | Zachary Bliss | 12/6/2012 | Dr. Daryl White HI2600 | The battle of the Plains of Abraham was a turning point in the Seven Years War once the British defeated the French at Quebec they never relinquished hold of the city. It did not signal the end to the fighting but it gave the British the upper hand. The French army commanded by Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm was much larger than the British force commanded by Major-General James Wolfe. Montcalm had the help of François-Pierre de Rigaud de Vaudreuil, the governor of Trois-Riviere and when Great Britain declared war on France he commanded the advanced guard of Montcalm’s forces. While Wolfe is heralded as a hero in Britain he does not deserve the title ‘Hero of Quebec’. There is no doubt that James Wolfe was a tremendous leader. He certainly has the history to prove it. He was not however, the best tactician. He had joined the army at the age of fifteen and he was a Lieutenant Colonel and commanding his own regiment by the age of twenty-three. Francis Parkman describes Wolfe as “ardent, headlong, void of fear, often rash, almost fanatical in military duty, and reckless of life when the glory of England of his own was at stake”. He contains the qualities necessary to lead an army and did so quite effectively. His army stood triumphant at the end of the fighting but the British did not really win the battle; the French lost it....

Words: 2186 - Pages: 9

James

...James Endorsements, agents and fans across the world are all things that you would expect a popular pro athlete to have. LeBron James is a basketball player that was dealing with all of this in high school, at the age of 18 (LeBron James, 2005). His sophomore and junior year of high school he was being compared to the greatest basketball players of all time (LeBron James, 2005). To be all over the news with every sports commentator talking about LeBron, he had to have a lot of self control and stay focused on his basketball game, by blocking all the distractions out (The Person, 2005). LeBron James is the basketball icon for his generation; he achieved that by being one of the youngest most successful players in the NBA as of now. Growing up in a broken home LeBron never had a father figure to guide him certain directions in life He did however have a strong mother and relatives who tried their best to raise LeBron. All through his schooling there was some financial trouble in his family life but LeBron had the will to carry on. By middle school his mother knew he was a special boy, talented on the court and in his studies. As high school rolled in LeBron continued to get taller, stronger and better skilled than the other players around him; the coaches soon noticed him and he made varsity as a freshman. During his junior year he was already known around the country as the next Michael Jordan or Magic Johnson. The fans were so unbelievable that many of the games had to......

Words: 317 - Pages: 2

James

...James was born James Ambrose Johnson Jr. in Buffalo, New York, in 1948. He was one of eight children in a family headed by an abusive father who left when James was just seven. From his mother, once a Katherine Dunham dancer who had worked at some of Harlem's most prestigious nightclubs, James learned at an early age about the possibilities show business offered. But with eight kids in her single-parent household in Buffalo, Mabel Johnson's glamorous days were long over--instead of dancing, she worked as a cleaning woman and ran numbers on the side for a local organized crime racket. Through this she was able to clothe and feed her children, and was also able to send some to private school. James went to a Catholic school for a time--even serving as an altar boy--but its strict rules and his love of sports could not keep him out of trouble by the time he entered his teens. His formative years were marked by an increasing penchant for cutting class, petty crime, and a burgeoning relationship with juvenile authorities. Though James seemed on the road to a dead-end future, it was a talent show he entered in high school that finally provided him with the focus his life needed. When he took the stage, "I started off with a bongo beat," James wrote in the manuscript for his autobiography, Memoirs of a Super Freak, reprinted in a 1996 Rolling Stone interview with Mike Sager. "Then I began to sing out this chant. I asked the crowd to sing along, and they did. The feeling of the......

Words: 2090 - Pages: 9

James Doolittle

...James Harold Doolittle Edmond Pukaj Spartan College of Aeronautics Abstract James Doolittle was a man with an outstanding resume in the American Air Force and one of Americas most well-known aviation pilots whose contributions in the Second World War was extremely crucial to increasing American morale. Doolittle also played a major role in creating new instrumentations to improve night flying and flying in hazardous weather. Doolittle broke and set many records in the aviation world and made the impossible possible with his extraordinary flying skills. Made himself a role model for upcoming generations of pilots. General James “Jimmy” Harold Doolittle was a very important individual in American aviation history. Many recognize Jimmy Doolittle as the individual responsible for coordinating the planes that took off on the aircraft carrier The Hornet, for the raid on Japan in the Second World War. James Doolittle was placed in charge of defining which plane to use for this mission. He decided on the B-25 plane determining that it had the highest potential to make the short take-off of the Hornet. Doolittle was known as being a daredevil, scholar, pilot and General. Doolittle’s particular expertise and passion was for flying. He is considered to be the American aviation pioneer. Although his flying expertise is what he is most commonly credited for his accomplishments far exceed this criterion (Daso, 2003) James Doolittle was born on December 14, 1896 in Alameda,......

Words: 1579 - Pages: 7

Clifford Smith

...BIRNAM WOOD/GALLERIES [pic] Clifford Smith Based in New Hampshire, Clifford Smith has been exhibiting nationally since 1976. He earned an MFA at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York in 1979; exhibition highlights include solo shows at the Greenville Museum of Art (Greenville, NC) in 1995, and the Midland Center for the Arts (Midland, MI) in 2010. His work has been part of group shows at several museums including Guild Hall in East Hampton, the Hunter Museum of American Art in Chattanooga and the Arnot Art Museum in Elmira, New York. Clifford Smith’s work is part of a number of public collections including the Yale University Art Gallery; the Greenville Museum of Art and the New Hampshire Historical Society. Smith’s work is also in many corporate collections like the American Stock Exchange in New York; Fidelity Investments in Merrimack, New Hampshire; and Texas Air Incorporated in Houston, Texas. A Realist painter, Clifford Smith imbues his scenes of ocean waves, fields and highways with both sharply observed detail and a sense of passing time. Smith has painted a series of scenes of the high seas, in each case offering a closely cropped image of choppy waves with neither horizon nor anchor in view. The total visual immersion creates a sense of tension and also release. It is an uncompromising view of nature that Smith also applies to his images of roaring highways and urban landscapes. In paintings like Passing Sunset, the subject at first......

Words: 429 - Pages: 2

James vs Us Tax Court Case Brief

...JAMES V. U.S., 61-1 USTC 9449, 7 AFTR2D 1361, 366 U.S. 213 (USSC, 1961) FACTS: In this particular case, the defendant, Eugene C. James, embezzled money from both his union employer as well as an insurance company and failed to include these funds as gross income for tax purposes. The taxpayer disputed that the embezzled money should not qualify as taxable income as the funds were already required to be returned. James used a previous decision from Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. Wilcox to show that the money was not taxable as he had “no claim of right” to the money because he no longer had possession of it. The court held that all income was to be taxed The court ultimately overturned the Wilcox case and ruled that the money was to be included in gross income because both legal and illegal earnings that are) acquired without the consensual recognition of an obligation to repay, are fully taxable. James was required to face legal penalties of three years in jail for his attempt at evading taxes in addition to the tax penalties of the crime. ISSUE: The issue being litigated in this case is whether embezzled funds should be a part of the embezzler’s gross income regardless of a repayment obligation. HOLDING: The Supreme Court ruled in agreement with the lower court’s decision and held that the defendant’s embezzled earnings were to be included on his tax return as gross income. LEGAL ANALYSIS: This ruling was supported by §61 of the Internal Revenue Code......

Words: 534 - Pages: 3

James Madison

...Drew Wilson 10/22/14 History Farrell James Madison and Creation of American Republic Discuss and evaluate Madison’s background and education. In what ways did they prepare him for public life? They prepared James Madison to excel in his studies, so he could later become the president of the United States. James Madison was born on March 16, 1751 in Port Conway, Virginia and died June 28, 1836 in Orange County, Virginia. His parents were Nellie Conway Madison and James Madison Sr. James Madison was the oldest of twelve children, only seven survived infancy. He attended a preparatory school in Orange County, Virginia and tutored at home until the age of eighteen. Then he enrolled at the College in New Jersey, later known as Princeton University. He excelled in his studies Latin and Greek, and graduated early in 1771. He suffered a nervous disorder that affected him greatly. He lacked ambition until the outbreak of the American Revolution and he devoted himself entirely into politics. Madison believed that the biography of a public man should consist of the record of what he had done. Discuss three major accomplishments which help form Madison’s biography. Madison was elected to office for the first time in 1774. Two years later, he took a seat at the Virginia Constitutional Convention. He played a major role for American independence from the British. However, with Thomas Jefferson's election in 1800, Madison moved from Congress to the Executive Branch as......

Words: 495 - Pages: 2

Lebron James

...Project 2014 I. Client: LeBron James II. Tactics: “Re-Established 2014” Beats by Dre commercial and “LeBron James’ First Home Game” commercial by Sprite a. The first of the two tactics I am covering is the “Re-Established 2014” Beats by Dre Commercial. The significance of this commercial is that it is advertising the new Wireless Beats, but it is telling a story far beyond the product. In my opinion, LeBron James is the product in this commercial and it directly corresponds to LeBron returning back home, not only to Cleveland, but also to his hometown, Akron. The commercial does this in an emotional way as LeBron returns and revisits Akron. It shows him entering his former High School, the basketball court he built, his mother, his old neighborhood, and the court in which he started playing basketball. b. The second tactic I will cover is the “First Home Game” Sprite commercial starring LeBron as well. This commercial also corresponds with LeBron returning home, but it has its own specific message. James makes a major statement throughout the commercial by making the notion that he was driven by his hometown fans more than anyone to return to Cleveland. During the commercial, LeBron states, ““Where does my thirst come from? It comes from here, from these people, because their passion, their love, drives me. They say home is where your heart is. My heart is here, it’s always been. This is my first home game.” What James is saying is that returning home is......

Words: 665 - Pages: 3

Clifford Bogges

...CLIFFORD H. BOGGESS: ANALYSIS OF CHILDHOOD & LIFE BEHIND BARS CASEY M. LUNDBERG MARCH 31, 2015 PROF. ADINKRAH: CRIMINOLOGY SUMMARY OF VIDEO Clifford Holt Boggess committed two major crimes. His actions can be categorized as a double geronticide, also known as eldercide, as he murdered two elderly men. Boggess’ crimes against persons were also felony murders because of the robbery that took place as well. Both murders involved a certain degree of planning prior to the kill, classifying them as premeditated crimes; however he did not personally know his victims, making both incidences stranger homicides. A 21-year old white male, Clifford Boggess was on trial for two murders. From the video, I gathered that his family was poor, as his crimes were committed because of financial need. Boggess was unmarried, but had a girlfriend at the time by the name of Phoebe Boles. He had a high school diploma and no college experience. Boggess grew up a religious boy as an avid churchgoer and became extremely in-tune with his religion while on death row, practicing Protestantism before converting to Catholicism prior to execution. However, Clifford Boggess had many Christian friends he consulted with. Boggess was the youngest of 10 children, given up for adoption at a very young age, soon to move in with his foster father’s parents in Texas. These sociodemographic characteristics of the offender will be helpful in further analyzing his felonies. Sociodemographic......

Words: 6558 - Pages: 27

Sherman Alexie vs James Baldwin

...When one thinks of education, it is common to view it as an opportunity to expand the mind and that education is used to facilitate learning new skills,values and thoughts.However, education in America is not as effectual as it should be for everyone, due to institutional racism deeply embedded within the system. As displayed in both Sherman Alexie’s “Superman & Me” and James Baldwin’s “A Talk To Teachers”, children of minority are not given the same opportunities as white children and it is almost predetermined that black or indian children cannot be successful in school. While both essays argued the same general point about education, the way each point was presented contained differed tones and styles, setting the two pieces apart. In Sherman Alexie’s “Superman & Me”, Alexie begins his story by introducing how he learned to read, by using a Superman comic. This is important because it stresses the fact that Alexie did not have the same extensive resources that privileged white children do. Alexie read whatever he could find to educate himself, because he was aware that the only key to success is through obtaining an education. Alexie’s sharing of personal experience creates a connection with the audience. When Alexie speaks about how he learned to read from a comic book, this is almost a depressing statement. However, the audience knows that Alexie was able to overcome this depressing situation to become successful, even though he was never given proper educational......

Words: 783 - Pages: 4

James

...there always are.) · Recruit participants who match your target profile for pilot studies. This means that any feedback — about the study or about the site being tested— will be more relevant. In a pinch, recruiting someone who doesn’t quite fit the profile is typically better than not running a pilot test at all, but the results from those sessions then would not be applicable in the final study. · Does running a pilot study take extra time? Of course. Materials need to be ready earlier, extra participants need to be recruited, and time needs to be scheduled to run the sessions. The payoff, however, is that the final study will run more smoothly, making it easier to get the results that matter to your team and, ultimately, your product. JAMES [->0] - http://www.nngroup.com/courses/measuring-ux/ [->1] - http://www.nngroup.com/articles/quantitative-studies-how-many-users/ [->2] - http://www.nngroup.com/articles/parallel-and-iterative-design/ [->3] - http://www.nngroup.com/articles/task-scenarios-usability-testing/...

Words: 888 - Pages: 4

Clifford and James

...think that there is not enough evidence to believe or not to believe. A philosopher, William K. Clifford, discussed questions about the ethics of belief, emphasizing the importance of the belief of the individual. His evidentalist principle is as follows: “It is wrong, always and everywhere, to believe anything for anyone upon insufficient evidence” (355). In addition to him James challenged Clifford, saying that it is not always possible to use rationality to determine beliefs. According to Clifford, a person can believe only if there is sufficient evidence for that belief. It is not acceptable to believe in something just because a person needs to believe. A person must have a reason. For example, if someone believe just because he or she feels better it is not a good enough reason. The problem when somebody believes in something is that a person stops opposing and testing the belief, and stops seeing real considerations and objections. Clifford gives an example in which a ship owner needed to make a decision if he will take a trip with his old ship or not. The ship owner doubted if the ship could make it or not. There are two outcomes: ship successfully gets to the coast and everyone survives, or ship sinks and everyone dies. The ship owner decided to take the trip and did not think about his doubts. Hopefully, the ship ended up finishing the trip successfully. What Clifford is trying to prove in this example is that negligence is the same in both outcomes because the......

Words: 1394 - Pages: 6

Clifford Chance

...CLIFFORD CHANCE: REPOTTING THE TREE | OPEOLUWA OSISANYA | EMBA 21 | GROUP 2 | ABP Understanding of the Problem Peter Charleton had a difficult task to:  Convince his fellow managing and senior partners to support his campaign to sway the dozens of other partners of Clifford Chance LLP (one of the most successful law firms in the world) to relocate the London Headquarter offices from the central business district of London to a redeveloped business park at Canary Wharf.  The current lease of the offices in London was due to expire in 4years and the firm was growing fast in clientele and employees exceeding the London office’s capacity hence space constraints. A decision is imminent.  The organization needs to occupy and maintain offices that would portray a premium brand image and provide a conducive working environment for the employees.  The relocation to Canary Wharf is a gamble. However, the Clifford Chance London offices is a historic and traditional corporate location with the best services, prestige and comfort associated with the central business district of London. Most critically, relocation away from Central London would affect proximity to key clients, courthouses, litigation offices all of where the most critical Clifford Chance businesses are conducted. Clifford Chance LLP’s Priorities Peter’s objectives are clearly evident from the problem statement. The firm needed to provide space that:  Offered the highest quality work environment in......

Words: 784 - Pages: 4