Classical Theory Durkheim

In: Social Issues

Submitted By stef03111
Words 1432
Pages 6
The Sociological Method and Suicide “Collective life did not arise from the individual life; on the contrary, it is the latter that emerged from the former” (Durkheim in McIntosh 1997:197). This might be hard to understand because we are an individually motivated society, but what Durkheim is saying is that individual life occurs as a result of the collective life, that society is not made up of individuals. Through theories based on observation, society is treated as a fact. Each person has a function in order to keep society together. Durkheim calls this the Sociological Method, and explains this method through social facts. These social facts are the collective phenomena existing independent of us individually. Collective conscience is spread throughout society delivering solidarity through common beliefs. With everyone playing a role Durkheim is telling us that everyone is necessary. People end up doing things in relation to one another and act on their duties and roles such as a citizen. What drives the individual to conform with the rest of society are the social forces outside of them. It is instilled in us to pay attention to the patterns in society. The degree to which an individual is a part of society tells us about their social integration, whereas the degree of an their actions and wants are controlled by their society tells us about their social regulation. Durkheim uses social integration and social regulation throughout his study of suicide to describe the four types, egoistic, altruistic, anomic, and fatalistic. (Durkheim in McIntosh 1997:214) “Suicide is applied to all cases of death resulting directly or indirectly from a positive or negative act of the victim himself, which he knows will produce this result.”
Four types of suicide Egoistic suicide is described as retreating from the outside world with little to no social…...

Similar Documents

Classical Theory

...              Question:  (i.)  Critically  evaluate  the  classical  theory  of  organization  and  management  in  the  light  of  contemporary business environmental changes facing managers in Nigeria    (ii.)  How  did  the  neoclassical  and  contingency  theories  improve  on  the  imperations  of  the  classical approach?                (i.)  Critically  evaluate  the  classical  theory  of  organization  and  management  in  the  light  of  contemporary   business environmental changes facing managers in Nigeria    Classical  organization  theories  (Taylor,  1947;  Weber,  1947;  Fayol,  1949)  deal  with  the  formal  organization  and  concepts  to  increase  management  efficiency.  Taylor  presented  scientific  management  concepts,  Weber  gave  the  bureaucratic  approach,  and  Fayol  developed  the  administrative theory of the organization. They all contributed significantly to the development  of classical organization theory.  Taylor's scientific management approach  The scientific management approach developed by Taylor is based on the concept of planning  of work to achieve efficiency, standardization, specialization and simplification. Acknowledging  that  the  approach  to  increased  productivity  was  through  mutual  trust  between  management  and workers, Taylor suggested that, to increase this level of trust,  • the  advantages  of  productivity  improvement  should  go  to  workers, • physical  stress  and  anxiety  should ......

Words: 2186 - Pages: 9

Critique of Classical Theory & the Rise of Keynesian Theory Classical Economic Theory

...Critique of Classical Theory & The Rise of Keynesian Theory Classical Economic Theory Classical theory of economics states that a free market economy is self-regulating and that with full employment, the economy would reach equilibrium. The classical theory is fundamentally based on the Say's Law which states that "Supply creates its own Demand". This also made the classical economists believe that there was nothing to prevent an economy from growing and hence attaining a state of full employment. This would be achievable as long as employees are willing to work for a wage that was no more than their productivity and in this situation, the profit-seeking businesses would want to employ everyone. According to the Classical economists, full employment of real GDP stays the same regardless of the price level. During a recession or a depression, the aggregate demand in the economy would fall and in the current price levels, consumption reduces and thus there would be an excess of goods in the market. This excess supply would result in the fall of the prices as well as wage rates and hence go back to the state of equilibrium. The Great Depression & critique on the classical economic theory But this theory was proven wrong by the Great Depression as it was seen that when output is below the full employment level, price levels did not fall because wages and resource prices did not fall as they were sticky. In order to have more employees, the employers needed to......

Words: 759 - Pages: 4

Classical Sociology

...Rene Descartes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Immanuel Kant. They altered the way in which the social world was viewed and helped pave the way for other classical social theorists to explain the individual’s role in society. Karl Marx, Alexis de Tocqueville, Henri De Saint-Simon, and Emile Durkheim are only the names of a few classical social theorists who set out to explore the role of an individual within society. These men believed that Reason, along with the application of a scientific approach, would be able to positively change the world and break through to a new form of power and authority. Although the ideas and theories of these men give rise to far greater advancement in sociological theory, there is a failure in intuition, and thus, a failure of the classical sociological element. The first section of this paper includes an explanation of classical sociology along with an overview of the theories associated with some of the greatest sociologists of this time. The next section of this paper explores reasons and explanations for the failure of classical social theory and interpretations to why before-mentioned theories were compromised. The final section of this paper summarizes some of the conclusions drawn about the failure of this particular ideology. I. Classical Sociology/Theories Explained Classical sociology includes the idea that people can change the course of history through developmental progress. The object of study was society itself. The......

Words: 2468 - Pages: 10

Classical Theory of Growth and Stagnation

...traveling lecturer. He later became a professor of logic, ethics, rhetoric, jurisprudence and political economy.[3] [edit]Introduction Adam Smith has not received as much recognition for his theory of growth as he has for his theory of value and rent, but the fact still remains that he does provide a consistent dynamic model. Adam Smith identified three major sources of growth: (i) growth in the labour force and stock of capital (ii) improvement in the efficiency with which capital is used in labour through greater division of labour and technological progress (iii) promotion of foreign trade that widens the market and reinforces the other two sources of growth.[citation needed] To understand the final growth process as stated by Adam Smith in this theory, we first need to look into the individual components, which have laid the foundation of the theory. These are Adam Smith's Production Function, his views on the process of growth of labour force and capital accumulation in the economy. [edit]The production function Adam Smith recognized only three factors of production: land, labour and capital. Considering these three factors, his production function may be expressed as Y=ʄ(K,L,N) where, K represents the capital L denotes labour force N stands for land Adam Smith, in his theory, has not assumed his production function to have Diminishing marginal productivity. However, his production function is subject to increasing returns to scale (which means that,......

Words: 1835 - Pages: 8

Education Management Using the Classical Theories

...supervision 8. Scientific theory ensured efficiency and minimized waste. Applications of the scientific theory in Education Management 1. Members of staff, teaching and non- teaching, should know the aims and objectives of the school. With well-defined aims and objectives, better performance is expected and accountability is facilitated. 2. In school, all teachers must know the direction in which to move and work together for a joint objective specified in their mission statement. 3. He specified that staff should be specialised and this is evident all teachers and even the support staff are employed on basis of subject specialization with college qualification. 4. Provision of appropriate tools and materials to workers and teachers enables them to perform well. Criticism of the scientific theory 1. Humans were machines and therefore their psychological and social aspects was ignored 2. There was no feedback from the workers because of the dictatorship; the only feedback obtained was the production. 3. Machine and tools soon replaced workers this led to joblessness and shortage of jobs 4. There was monotony of work because one was only doing to the skill they were only trained on. 5. There were no other kinds of motivations to the workers apart from monetary. 6. Employees(workers) had no say in decision making 7. It was not humane. Henri Fayol Administrative......

Words: 1125 - Pages: 5

Classical Management Theory

...I. Classical Management Theory The Evolution of Classical Management Theory The Industrial Revolution was a time where innovation really began to change the way that products were produced and sold. The invention of machines to produce goods in the 19th century drastically improved productivity, which in turn lowered the cost to the consumer. The lower price resulted in a greater demand for products and thus a greater need for more factories and workers. Responsibilities of a manager As factories increased in number, managers continued to search for ways to improve productivity, lower cost, increase quality of their products, improve employee/manager relationships and increase efficiency. The focus shifted from using machines to increase productivity to how they could increase employee productivity and efficiency. When they did this, they began to notice some new problems inside their factory systems. Employees were dissatisfied with their current working conditions, and many lacked the necessary training for how to do their work efficiently. Managers then began to formulate and test possible solutions, one of which was to find the best possible way for workers to perform and manage their tasks. The research resulted in the development of classical management theory. Factory workers must be placed in suitable job roles. Expansion of Classical Management Theory Classical Management theory expanded throughout the first half of......

Words: 1390 - Pages: 6

Durkheims Theory of Division of Labour

...Essay on Durkheim’s Theory of Division of Labour by Sikandar Khan Essay on Durkheim’s Theory of Division of Labour – Durkheim’s “Theory of Division of Labour” is often regarded as his major contribution to the field of sociological thought. Durkheim’s doctoral thesis, “Division of Labour in Society” – 1.893, is his first major book. In this, the influence of Auguste Comte is clearly evident. The theme of this book is the relationship between individuals and society or the collectivity. It is indeed a classic study of social solidarity. In this book he reacted against the view that modern industrial society could be based simply upon agreement between individuals motivated by self-interest and without any prior consensus. He agreed that the kind of consensus in modern society was different from that in simpler social systems. But he saw both of these as two types of social solidarity. In his famous work “The Division of Labour in Society” Durkheim tried to determine the social consequences of the division of labour in modern societies. A major theme in all Durkheim’s writings is the importance of shared social norms and values in maintaining social cohesion and solidarity. He argued that the nature of this social solidarity depends on the extent of the division of labour. Meaning of Division of Labour: The concept of “Division of Labour” has been used in three ways: (i) in the sense of the technical division of labour, it describes the production......

Words: 1936 - Pages: 8

Classical Political Economy and Rise to Dominance of Supply and Demand Theories

...10/24/2012 Econ 2 Classical Political Economy and Rise to Dominance of Supply and Demand Theories Supply and demand describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability at each price and the desires of those with purchase power at each price. When supply and demand comes into effect, Capitalism is well expected to be presented upon the economy. That’s the only way for our economy to progress and gain wealth within our nation. In order to progress and grow as an economy Surplus in prices of goods and other products exist, may very well be listed under capitalization in some cases. Surplus means being more than or in excess of what is needed or required. Surplus was said to have originated in production in a competitive capitalist system. I found this very true to believe due to the fact that it is a major deal in society today. I take surplus today to be based solely on greed of the capitalist. America is a Capitalist country itself, seizing any opportunity it can. I’ll get to the supply and demand controversy of that later. When breaking down which one of the surplus-sharing classes during any particular historical phase were ‘progressive’ in the sense of furthering the process of accumulation and how the emerging and accentuating conflict of classes determined the dynamics of the system, I immediately began thinking about who the process of the surplus system was really progressive for. Seeing how purchase power for the higher class of......

Words: 845 - Pages: 4

Evaluation of Classical and Human Relation Theories of Management

...the classical and human relations approaches of management theory. One of the most important human activities is managing. Since the development of the first human civilizations managing has been essential to accomplish aims and objectives and ensure the coordination of individuals Olum (2004). Management is defined as the combination of the skills and talents of individuals concerned with getting things done through people by taking into account the resources for profitable activities Pettinger (1994). In the early twentieth century, Henry Fayol defined management as the process of “forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling” Fayol (1949). Subsequently, Koontz and O’donell (1988) suggested the definition of management as “an operational process dissected by analyzing the managerial functions such as planning and organizing”. Over the last centuries management has been studied with the view of establishing what constitutes a successful manager Petinger (1994). The search for applicable principles of management initiated in the last years of nineteenth century in Europe and America Cole (2004). Like any other social practice, at the heart of management is theory that managers can deploy to achieve competition advantage and use more incisive interventions McAuley et al (2007). In addition the basic requirement of managers for meeting the challenges like competition, use of sources and maximum output is the knowledge of management theories......

Words: 2227 - Pages: 9

Classical and Human Relations Theories

...THE COMPARISON OF CLASSICAL APPROACH AND HUMAN RELATION APPROACH IN ORGANISATION STUDIES 1. What is Organisation and Organisational Behaviour? Organisation is a cooperative interaction dynamic in social system with the purpose of satisfying individual needs (Barnard, 1938). This is not a sole definition about organisation, there are many other terms about organisation such as, Mintzberg (1983) Organisation is "Every organized human activity -- from the making of pots to the placing of a man on the moon -- gives rise to two fundamental and opposing requirements: The division of labor into various tasks to be performed, and the coordination of these tasks to accomplish the activity". Organisational behaviour focuses on the study of the people behaviour within the organisation (Luthans, 1995). The Organisational Behaviour commonly known as the study and understanding of individual and group behaviour, and the path of structure towards improvement of organizational performance and effectiveness (Robbins, 1998). Another term of Organisational behaviour is a major discipline towards description, understanding, and prediction of human behaviour within formal organisation. Organisational behaviour as discipline is the clear recognition that organisations make internal settings that influence the behaviour of people within it and to some point the internal condition of an organisation is influenced by the large components such as economic, politic, social, and technology which...

Words: 5281 - Pages: 22

Classical Theories of Morality

...Social Responsibility Classical Theories of Morality Walden University   Nicomachean Ethics viewpoint by Aristotle, the Metaphysics of Morals by Immanuel Kant and the Utilitarianism Theory of morality view by John Stuart Mill are the three classical theories of morality. An individual’s acts did not define who they were morally, but the person’s life as a whole did according to Aristotle. Meaning, the things a person did over their lifetime would determine if they had morals or not. This was known as the Nicomachean Ethics viewpoint. In today’s society, this could relate to someone who was an overall moral citizen, but one day that changed for them and they did something horribly wrong. For example, a husband or a wife killing their spouse and the spouses lover because they were found cheating. Aristotle believed the action that was an abnormality should not be considered when considering whether the person was good or bad, but that their good works over their lifetime should be considered. Aristotle believed there were three types of life: one devoted to sensual pleasures, one seeking out political interests and the other being a life of thoughts (Arthur, J. and Scalet, S., 2014). With very different beliefs Immanuel Kant believed that if an action is wrong it will forever be wrong, and there is no justification for those specific actions. However, he does make note that most decisions are based on a sense of duty and people’s rights, and felt that those......

Words: 691 - Pages: 3

Classical Theory

...The Classical (Structural) Organizational Theory was introduced in the early 1900s, with an emphasis on the efficiency of the work process. Within this theory there are three schools of thought that include scientific management, bureaucratic management, and administrative management. Scientific Management looks at the best way to perform a job. Frederick Taylor is credited for the development of this principal. Taylor’s approach emphasized increasing productivity by focusing on the efficiency of the production process. Taylor believed that the only way to expand productivity was to raise the efficiency of the workers. He believed that doing this would create more work for more workers and increase production while shortening hours for workers. His theory states that jobs should be designed so that each worker has a well-specified, well-controlled task and specific procedures and methods for those jobs have to be strictly followed (Shafritz & Ott, 2001). This approach would keep workers mentally focused on the task at hand and eliminate the feeling of just putting in time. Production came first and works came second. Taylor developed four principals of scientific management: (1) discover the most efficient way to complete tasks, 2) designate workers to tasks which they are the most qualified to complete, 3) workers must be supervised and either rewarded or punished based on their performance, and 4) managements position consisted of planning and controlling (Shafritz......

Words: 1830 - Pages: 8

The Development of the Classical Theories of International Trade Between Countries

...------------------------------------------------- The development of the classical theories of international trade between countries March 30, 2016 Danel Louw 17752302 March 30, 2016 Danel Louw 17752302 Contents Introduction 1 1 Mercantilism 2 2 Absolute Advantage 2 3 Comparative Advantage 3 4 Factor Proportions 4 5 Bibliography 6 * * Introduction International trade may seem simple. It is simply the exchange of goods between two people or entities from two different countries. People trade because they get some kind of benefit in the transaction. Sometimes it is something that they need and sometimes it is something that they desire. International trade it is not always that simple. There is a lot of theory, business strategy and policy behind it. International trade can be described in many different ways. There are many different theories, classical and modern, that we use to describe International trade. Mercantilism Mercantilism was developed in the sixteenth century. It was the first effort in developing an economic theory at the time. This theory stated that a country’s wealth was determined by the amount of its gold and silver holdings (Anonymous, 2012). Mercantilists believed that a country should increase its holdings of gold and silver by promoting exports and discouraging imports. In other words the government would use policies to encourage exports while restricting imports. They would do this by rewarding......

Words: 1083 - Pages: 5

Classical Sociological Theory Seminar

...In “The Theory of Leisure Class,” Thorstein Veblen’s talks about conspicuous consumption. He explains how people show their class through the clothes that that they wear. The type of clothes that people wear show how much they do or do not work for a living. People’s appearance also shows how much other people work for them. The article, “In Defense of Our Wicked, Wicked Wicked Wicked Ways,” written in the New York Times, explains how conspicuous consumption in the present future is a positive outlet for people to express what type of lifestyle they want and can live. The writer describes how people now can enjoy luxurious things and pieces of the lifestyle through purchases. It gives the industrious class a chance to be or enjoy this of the predatory class for a certain amount of time. The writer also explains how the lower class an occasionally purchase and enjoy conspicuous leisure. People can buy opportunities for discounted leisure activities and enjoy in small increments. Conspicuous consumption also allows people who work a lot show their hard work publically and enjoy from it. I have conflicting views on conspicuous consumption. I believe it is unnecessary, a waste of money, and shows people how insecure you are about yourself. Wasting money on items feeds into the capitalistic society and prevents the unfortunate to prosper. I think people should invest any extra money they have on helping society like donating to charities, feeding/housing the homeless,......

Words: 364 - Pages: 2

Classical Management Theories

...Introduction Classical theorists strived to develop one all encompassing theory that would improve management’s effectiveness within an organization and methods for dealing with the challenges they faced (Hartman, n.d.). There are three primary “classical” theories: Scientific Management, Bureaucratic Management / Autocratic management, and Administrative Management. This paper will discuss the three primary management theories as well as discuss several other theories relating to some of the primaries, and some that were slight precursors to the classical movement such as Change Management and Autocratic Management (Sridhar, n.d.). Classical Perspective The oldest of the "formal" viewpoints of management emerged during the late nineteenth and came to be known as the classical perspective. The classical perspective roots in management occurred rapidly through expanding manufacturing organizations that typified U.S and European industrialization. Early contributions were made by management practitioners and theorist from several corners of the world (Eastern, n.d.). The classical perspective consists of three main subfields: 1. Scientific Management (by Frederick Taylor) 2. Bureaucracy Management (by Max Weber) 3. Administrative Management (by Henry Fayol) Scientific Management Theory In the 19th century machinery was changing the means of production, and managers needed to find more efficient ways of production. Traditional methods of production, where a......

Words: 4106 - Pages: 17