Beginnings of American Cinema Fil-110

In: Film and Music

Submitted By avietri917
Words 652
Pages 3
Although the interest in “motion pictures” dates back hundreds of years, it wasn’t until the early 19th century that the American people began to focus on advancing the visual art of film. DIfferent methods of image projection served as the rudimentary foundations of motion picture entertainment, and they advanced rapidly throughout the 1800s. Innovators such as Thomas Edison and Eadweard Muybridge began building off of image-projecting technologies to create the roots of America’s film industry.
The history of the “motion picture” as we know it begins with photographer and entrepreneur Eadweard Muybridge in California in the late 19th century. He used timed exposures of photos of racehorses to capture the different stages of a horse’s gallop and placed them on a projector to simulate motion. He traveled with his creation in hopes of advancing his invention, and he eventually met with Thomas Edison at one of his shows. During this time, Edison and Muybridge worked together while trying to discover a way to set these moving images to sound from Edison’s phonograph. Soon after their meeting, Edison set out to create an even better camera that could capture more images, and eventually created the kinetograph and the kinetoscope.
By the turn of the century, it was evident that the film industry was s profitable enterprise. Many early films contained little to no story line, such as Edison’s The Kiss and The Sneeze. Later, when the ability to pan a camera was born, cinema company and top Edison competitor, Biograph incorporated these techniques into their films. Other early Biograph films were mostly documentary shorts, boxing films, or crude race-based comedy shorts. Edison then went on to create somewhat melodramatic story films and burlesque shorts, causing Edison to expand his ranges of subject matter and eventually merge with nine of his competitors, Biograph…...

Similar Documents

Chick-Fil-a

...Chick-fil-A: "Give More. Grow More. Be More" Chick-fil-A isn’t just an ordinary fast-food restaurant. It is a successful restaurant with certain stables values such as respect and loyalty by Samuel Truett Cathy. Chick-fil-A, Inc. is committed to creating an encouraging and dynamic work environment for its 600 plus staff employees. Its corporate offices provide an engaging environment in which to work and the people carry a variety of experience, creativity and enthusiasm to their jobs. Dan Cathy, Truett Cathy’s son steps in his father’s place. Dan Cathy is a good man with solid honor. He runs a fair and valuable service-oriented restaurant business and he works to make a positive impact on people’s lives and in the communities where we live. Year after year, people find their careers at Chick-fil-A, Inc. to be challenging and rewarding. Cathy loves to add service touches that people don't expect from a fast-food restaurant. The significance of Chick-fil-A is the reputation itself. The staff of each restaurant is superior and sharp. Each team member has an enthusiasm and positive attitude. The service was excellent and outstanding. There is a method where they use to please their customers: the Core 4. The Core 4 steps are enthusiastic tone, enthusiastic smile, emotional connection, and eye contact. The Core 4 requires the correct approach toward a customer from a team member. This technique will emphasize the customers and make them come to a good......

Words: 1152 - Pages: 5

American Cinema

...American Cinema Unit 2 1. Oligopoly is the exclusive ownership of a industry by several companies acting in concert. Vertical integration is the studios’ control not only of the production of movies but also their distribution and exhibition. The story department consists of workers that are professional readers employed by the studio. They hire these workers to find and develop script ideas out of newspapers, magazine articles, plays, and books. Block booking is the tactic of forcing exhibitors to rent movies in groups rather than separately. Radio-Keith-Orpheum was one of the five major production studios in Hollywood. United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc., et al. is the Supreme Court decision which ruled that the studio system constituted an oligopoly because it depended on such illegal practices as blind bidding and block booking. Blind bidding is a standard practice in which an exhibitor was forced to rent a movie from a studio without ever having been given the chance to see it or learn anything about it. Minors, was the name given to the three smaller studios in Hollywood during the studio era. 2. A and B are false 3. Studio system ended after the Supreme Court ruled in the late 1940s that the studios were engaging in unfair business practices. The unfair business practices were owning not only film production facilities but also distribution and exhibition facilities. 4. A false, B true, C true, D true 5. I believe that the studio system changed......

Words: 308 - Pages: 2

Regal Cinema

...competitor and key drivers and trends in the industry. Company Research: We gathered information of the company historical performance and market positioning vis. as vis. its peers. Company projections: We developed a full three statements financial model to forecast the company’s operation based on the industry analysis and company’s track record. Valuation: We have used APV approach to value the company as company’s capital structure keeps changing over time. Furthermore, we also calculated the implied valuation using trading and transaction multiples. Industry Overview Resilient industry The US movie exhibition industry is considered a relatively defensive industry with low revenue volatility. Main reason for this is that the American customers’ willingness to go to the movies is less correlated with the economic cycle. People go to the movies both in the good times and in the bad times. Thus, box office performance can vary widely quarter to quarter due to films released, but is generally steady in longer term (see figure 1). The box office performs in weak macro environments because it is one of the cheapest forms of out-of-home entertainment, such as sports, concerts, vacations, and etc. (see figure 2). Movie theaters continue to draw more people than all theme parks and major U.S. sports combined. Meanwhile, economic expansion cycle and movie exhibitor revenues display little correlation – performance is more tied to the release slate. Figure 1: US......

Words: 3685 - Pages: 15

European Cinema More Complex Than American Cinema

...European cinema is more complex than American cinema. The above statement does not entirely reflect the reality. At the level of creative expressions, the relationship between these two continents has always been, to say the very least, a two-way road. The exchanges concerning Hollywood and the international cinema scene are long-standing and deeply rooted. During the formation of classical Hollywood cinema, many of its key architects were in fact European emigrants – Lubitsch, Dieterle, Lang, Hitchcock, Sirk, to name but a few. More recently, many of Hollywood’s finest contemporary directors – Scorsese, Altman, Coppola and others – have often turned to Europe, to the French New Wave, Italian neo-realism and the New German Cinemas for a source of inspiration and influence. In the Bioscope of 8 January 1925, Joseph Schenck, then president of United Artist, commented brutally on British film productions: “You have no personalities to put on the screen. Your stage actors and actresses are no good on the screen. Your effects are no good, and you do not spend nearly so much money.” Similar remarks can be found about almost any European cinema in almost any decade. It is possible to question the aesthetic standards by which such complaints are made. It can be argued that slow rhythms, deliberate staginess, and lack of star presence or of visible production values are positive qualities which European film-makers have exploited in creative ways and which the Hollywood cinema is the......

Words: 551 - Pages: 3

The Role of Native Americans in the Beginning of What Is Now the U.S.

...The Role of Native Americans In the Beginning of What Is Now the U.S. Giselle van Putten Baptist College of Health Sciences The Role of Native Americans In the Beginning of What Is Now the U.S. During the colonization of what is now the United States of America, many different cultures were brought together. Some of those were the English, which were the Pilgrims and Puritans with their different religious beliefs, the Dutch, the black slaves brought over from Africa, the Spaniards mainly adventurers and explorers, and the Native Americans with their strange customs. Of all of these, the only ones with any knowledgeable information about this New World were the Native Americans. The Native Americans during colonial time, though they were mainly thought to be unequal to their European counterparts, were very instrumental in the survival of the early colonials. Native Americans considered to be unequal The Native Americans were so unlike the Europeans, who believed in the Almighty God and their relationship with Him, that they were looked upon as savages and barbarians [ (Bradford, 2009, p. 46) ]. They had a widely different viewpoint of the world, their place in it and their god. The Natives believed that the land was there for everyone, to live and nurture as the land provided for them, so they disliked when the colonials started to fence and cultivate their lands to show property ownership (“Exploration and the Colonies”, 2009, p. 3). Their beliefs in......

Words: 683 - Pages: 3

Chick-Fil-a

...Chick-fil-A Dustin Grace BUS 360-Belhaven University Over time more and more people have become busier in their everyday lives. Therefore, there is less time to prepare and cook meals for the family. As more parents are on the go, the more they appreciate establishments like fast food restaurants. These types of restaurants are convenient and for the most part inexpensive. Customers can drive up to the drive-thru window to get their food if they don’t want to leave the comfort of their car. They also have the option of going inside and sitting down to enjoy their meal. There are many fast food chains around, but none compare to the phenomenon known as Chick-fil-A. As the company’s name reveals, Chick-fil-A centers their business around chicken. Their slogan that you’ll see on most billboards “Eat Mor Chikin,” is provoking just that. There isn’t a hamburger to be found on the menu. In Chick-fil-A’s case, chicken equals gold and boy do they serve it in many different ways. What genius came up with the novel idea of centering and entire restaurant around chicken? That man would be Truett Cathy. It was the year 1946 when Truett Cathy started his career in the restaurant industry. Mr. Cathy and his brother did not attend a restaurant school and had not knowledge on how to run a restaurant. They both served in the United States Army during World War II. When they came back to the United States after......

Words: 2579 - Pages: 11

Innovations in Cinema

...institution of American society for more than a century. It is big risk big reward type business. It has been the goal of studios and filmmakers to put buts in seats at cinemas all over the world. Over the decades new technologies have added more interest to viewers in the ultimate goal to have the best experience watching a film. In society the cinema was used as a catalyst to forget about what’s going on in daily lives of viewers and take the audience to another world or another time. It was the perfect getaway from troubles of the real world. The Beginning: The first developed film technology was the Kinetoscope projector. Inventor Thomas Edison developed the Kinetoscope. The Cinematograph developed by the Lumiere Brothers was an advancement on its predecessor the Kinetoscope. The Lumiere Brothers would send camera men all over to film various things done by people and they would show the film with their Cinematograph to an audience and from there the cinema was born. Around 1898 a man named George Melies used the technology given and established vast sets and camera tricks as a way to make films even more unique and special. Melies’ films would take the viewer to the moon or on an adventure across the seven seas. People would come to see his films because it was something different. Up to that point films were only a minute or two long but with the success of Melies longer films other producers began making longer films as well. The Birth of the Cinema......

Words: 1417 - Pages: 6

The American Dark Cinema: Classic Film Noir.

...Growing up I watched black and white movies with my dad. They were always just mystery movies to me, but there was something compelling about them. I was intrigued. I find that as I watch these movies again I’m able to view them with a more critical eye looking for what made them so special. Prior to World War II American films were about singing, dancing and happy endings. The occupation in Europe changed all that. Many European directors, artists and actors escaped to America and brought their artistic visions and hellish nightmares with them. The movies they made provided them with a creative outlet. They showed a dark side to humanity in which American soldiers returning from war could relate to. It helped them see that they were not the only ones with problems and that life was not always easy. It helped normalize what they were feeling and perhaps even helped them adjust to coming back home. Film Noir films were a complete change to what the American public was familiar with. They exposed the audience to something new and different. These movies brought an “edge and roughness” to life as they knew it. Most of all they provided new techniques to film making. The director’s innovative use of lighting and cinematography were never seen before. The audience was drawn in to focus on the main characters which I think made the scene more intimate. The actors had to up there performances showcasing their acting ability. Music played a big role in these movies as...

Words: 355 - Pages: 2

Pvr Cinemas

... I R M A N ’ S S T A T E M E N T However, we at PVR also realized that its in unique times like this, that tremendous medium and long term opportunities arise. This is the time to re-examine fundamentals, re-jig the core of the business and go line by line to draw stronger efficiencies. Every single person on the PVR team stood shoulder to shoulder and hammered away at every opportunity to do this, regardless of whether it came wrapped in a good or difficult situations, till silver linings appeared everywhere. PVR used the spaces inherent in times like this, to enter new entertainment and leisure domains. The long awaited bowling centre project was piloted and launched to great acclaim. New cinemas were inaugurated. Production projects were completed and released. Tremendous breadth and depth was added to several operation footprints. Given that PVR depends greatly on its internal accruals to finance expansion, your company’s expansion plans were not curtailed the way other capital market-dependant industry players were. To handle topline and bottomline contraction, PVR teams saved or maximized every rupee. Distribution was revisited and operational costs were pared down across the board without affecting core efficiencies. Capital was raised at reasonable costs to tide the company through requirement situations. Teams in operations did their best to maximize average revenue per user across exhibition and F&B. Marketing maximized......

Words: 51258 - Pages: 206

Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans, a New Beginning in the United States

...Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans, A new beginning in the United States North America is known to have various groups of different ethnic backgrounds and cultures. Most people in the United States if not them have ancestors who moved to the U.S for a better way of living or to escape challenges that arrived in their respected countries. According, to www.education.byu.edu Individuals of the Latin American origin contains over 14% of the population of the United States. The two groups that will be discussed in this paper will consist of American Mexicans the largest of the Hispanic groups and Puerto Ricans who are the second largest group of Hispanics in the United States. The Mexican American and Puerto Rican groups are the fastest growing group in such states as Utah, New York, Illinois, Texas, California, Arizona and Colorado. The Hispanic population continues to rise in the United States as more opportunities are given to them and this paper will introduce different challenges that these two Latino groups experienced in the United States. This paper will identify two of the largest growing Hispanic groups which consist of Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans. In this research paper I will recognize who these two groups are, where they originated, why these two groups migrated to the United States, and also include the challenges that they face pertaining to work, health, education, family, and religion. Originated and Migration Mexican Americans are identified...

Words: 1582 - Pages: 7

Cinema

...strong new technological advancements, etc.) have been found to create values within those coming of age (roughly between the ages of 17 and 23) and those values have been found to remain relatively stable throughout the lives of those within a cohort (Cutler, 1977; Mannheim, 1927; Rentz et al., 1983; Rogler, 2002; Ryder, 1985 [1959]; Schuman and Scott, 1989). These values are derived from the ‘defining moment’ events that were experienced during this highly impressionable time of late adolescence/early adulthood. For instance, those US citizens who came of age during the Great Depression value financial security and still save, even on the verge of death; those who came of age during World War II were and still are the most patriotic of Americans today (cf. Meredith et al., 2002). 190 A. Parment / Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 20 (2013) 189–199 These cohorts meld age descriptors with behavioral motivations and values. The Generation Y cohort, sometimes called Millennials, is an important cohort and target audience for retailers and consumer product companies alike because it is sizeable and has significant purchasing power. The same holds for Baby Boomers, born approximately between 1945 and 1958. A few studies have connected the segmentation of generational cohorts to purchase behavior, more specifically in the domains of fashion (Littrell et al., 2005; Pentecost and Andrews, 2010), travel and tourism (Beldona, 2005), wine consumption (Fountain and Lamb,......

Words: 9940 - Pages: 40

Cinema

...to incite the wrath of film critics 59. contender 60. snubbed 61. nominee 62. glitz 63. razzmatazz 64. nail-biter 65. harrowing 66. disparity 67. tedious/boring/deadly dull 68. atrocious 69. feeble jokes 70. wooden dialogue 71. mediocre acting 72. to be a miscast 73. utter rubbish 74. beautiful 75. haunting 76. terrifying 77. breathless 78. impressively naturalistic 79. sharp sense of place 80. marvelous use of music to define mood, time, space 81. extremely good 82. disappointing 83. hilarious and touching at the same time 84. plodding 85. serious 86. dull 87. melodramatic 88. distasteful 89. stillborn from the beginning 90. worthless 91. as evil as art 92. boring 93. packed with humour and charm 94. once seen will not be easily forgotten 95. it is worthy enough to change the lives 96. clear, unromantic, realistic view of 97. compulsively interesting on many levels 98. It impresses greatly thanks to strong performances and a nice line in subtle humour 99. Not a great film/play, but touching, well-observed, unpretentious 100. It has neither credibility, nor sense. Routine scene follows routine scene, embellished by endless, shallow performances. 101. Strong, extremely moving and beautifully directed and acted. 102. There is so much overall zest and fun in it. I lost my heart to it. 103. I loved it...

Words: 538 - Pages: 3

The Italian American Cinema

...MU AN ! ! The Italian American Cinema ! ! The crucial and influential part of the American Cinema represents the Italian American Cinema. The Italian American Cinema can be defined as films made by Italian Americans about relationships between Italians and Americans in the United States (Moliterno 2002:433). The Italian cinema has been appreciated and adored in the United Stated from its beginnings. Especially valued were its artistic and cultural quality, as well as the ability to transmit the values of the European history into films (Brunetta 2009:9). The reciprocal influences between Italian and American cinema date back to 1912 and have a Polish accent: in that year George Kleine, a film distributor from Chicago, purchased distribution rights to the film Quo vadis? based on the novel written by Henryk Sienkiewicz. After 1912 numerous Italian films flooded America: frequently used motives were Napoleonic campaigns and Homeric battles. Popular titles of movies from that period include Cajus Julius Caesar, Gli ultimi giorni di Pompei (The Last Days of Pompei), Spartacus among many others. Historicalmythological films became inspirational for such directors as David Llewelyn Wark „D.W.” Griffith and Cecil B. DeMille. After World War I popularity in the United States of America gained stars of the early Italian cinema: Francesca Bertini, Lyda Borelli and Pina Menichelli (Brunetta 2009:10). Another crucial moment in the relationship of American and Italian film......

Words: 1073 - Pages: 5

Cinema

...Dissertation : Impact of the Digital Cinema in the INDIAN CINE INDUSTRY. Aims of the Dissertation : To investigate the current trends of digital cinema in Indian Cine Industry. To demonstrate the latest standards used in the digital cinema globally. To compare and contrast the modern digital cinema with previous methods used in the cinema industy. Background of the Dissertation : Indian Cinema Industry is currently one of the largest producer of films in the world wide in terms of ticket sales and no. of films produced. In recent years , there has been tremendous increase in the establishment of digital cinema due to latest technology and commercial institutions of film making. Possibly promoted by recent global business trends , more and more large business cine companies are providing their own production services. If we take past 5 to 10 years back , it is very hard to bring the movies into cinema theatres due to insufficient availability of technology. It is the intention of this dissertation to examine impact on Indian cine industry approach to the implementation of digital cinema. Relationship to Previous Work : One of the multinational Company dealing with digital cinema was by Cineworld where internal management of all the movies was modifying into the new mode of digital phenomenon. Over the years , no. of movies have developed and release which shows the clear understanding of new digital cinema. It has now become professional......

Words: 392 - Pages: 2

Non –Western and Experimental Cinema

...DITI BHATTACHARYA NON –WESTERN AND EXPERIMENTAL CINEMA SETTING A CONTRAST BETWEEN MARGINAL CINEMA AND MAINSTREAM CRITICAL THEORY MA –PG 1 TERM PAPER DEPARTMENT OF FILM STUDIES JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY The term third cinema has found its roots in the so called third world, which generally refers to the nations located in Africa, Latin America and Asia where historical encounter with colonial and imperial forces have shaped their political and economic power structure . at the same time it could be said that the third world is a kind of cinematic response to the first cinema (which conjures images of Hollywood movies , consumption and bourgeoisie values ) as well as second cinema (referring to “nouvelle vague” or the European arthouse filmmaking demonstrating aesthetic but not always political innovation).The reference to the concept of third cinema appeared for the first time in the Cuban film journal ,cine Cubano, (1969) in a report of an interview with members of the cine liberacion group .it was said at that point of time that there is a growing need for the development of a cinema of aggression .one that would put an end to the irrationality that has come before it. Thus beginning in the mid 50s and continuing up to the present these films have helped immensely in forging a sense of national identity and cultural autonomy . it would be interesting to know that at this point of time there was a development of film theory and critical methodology in the first......

Words: 1523 - Pages: 7