American Abstraction: Early 20th Century

In: Miscellaneous

Submitted By blaine
Words 390
Pages 2
Painters and sculptors do not always strive to depict persons and objects realistically. Rather than imitate their subject's natural appearance, some artists deliberately change it. They stretch or bend forms, break up shapes, and give objects unlikely textures or colors. Artists make these transformations in an effort to communicate something they cannot convey through realistic treatment. Works of art that reframe nature for expressive effect are called abstract. Art that derives from, but does not represent, a recognizable subject is called nonrepresentational or nonobjective abstraction. The pivotal event that brought modernism to America was the International Exhibition of Modern Art of 1913, today better known as the Armory Show. The exhibition exposed American audiences to abstract art for the first time. Many ridiculed the fragmentation of cubism and rejected the charged colors of fauvism and expressionism. A few, however, embraced abstraction, and gradually the new styles were incorporated into the American visual vocabulary.
Energized by new artistic possibilities, American artists synthesized European innovations into a variety of forms. Lyonel Feininger's cubist constructions incorporate the color and movement typical of Italian futurism. Max Weber and John Marin fractured images and reassembled the faceted planes into dynamic compositions. The organic abstractions of Georgia O'Keeffe and Arthur Dove add a new dimension to familiar forms from the natural world.
Abstraction dominated American art beginning in the 1930s. Fleeing fascism, a wave of European artists and intellectuals immigrated to the United States, bringing with them avant-garde ideas and artistic approaches. Influenced by the émigrés, American artists became interested in Freudian and Jungian psychological theories that emphasized mythic archetypes, the unconscious and non-Western…...

Similar Documents

British Literature of the 20th Century

...Contents Introduction 3 At the Turn of the Century 4 The 20th Century Literary Background 5 Modernism 6 Poets of the First World War 11 The Interwar Years 13 British Postwar Literature 19 Conclusion 27 References 29 Introduction The 20th century seems to be the most dramatic and unique: it witnessed two world wars and great social, economic and political changes. All this events could not but find their reflection in the arts in general and in the literature in particular. The urgency of the work is determined by the complexity of the period considered and variety of forms and trends which appeared during the century. The object of the project is British literature. The aim of the project is to consider the peculiarities and distinct features of the British literature of the 20th century. In order to gain the project’s aim, during its implementation the following practical issues were studied: - the most distinguished writers of the period; - their contribution to development of the British literature; - key topics. The project’s aim and issues considered predetermined the choice of methods of research. During the project’s implementation the following methods were used: critical survey of the sources on the issue considered, as well as comparison and analysis. Theoretical value of the project is constituted by the analysis of the peculiarities and distinct features of the British literature of the 20th century. Practical value of the......

Words: 9384 - Pages: 38

What Role Does Early American History Have to Play in the Quest for Universal Health Coverage in the U.S. During the 20th Century?

...What role does early American history have to play in the quest for Universal Health Coverage in the U.S. during the 20th century? Fiona Nelson-Lafuse ENG122 Emily Fancy 18th February 2013 INTRODUCTION The topic question for this research paper is, “Most developed countries have universal health coverage. Why doesn’t the United States have universal health coverage? There have been repeated attempts by many different legislators over the past 150 years to introduce some form of universal health coverage to this country; and given the successive failures, it seems crucial to investigate early American history to uncover the origins of this steadfast resistance to universal health coverage; and gain an understanding of the impact those early citizens have had from the time of the Constitution on down through subsequent generations in their quest to keep universal health care off the legislative table. Despite the fact that the Constitution does not explicitly provide for universal healthcare, and there has been constant resistance to any attempts to bring it in, during the period 1900 - 1920, it seemed likely universal health coverage would pass into law – then at the last moment it failed. In the period between 1902 and 1965, 19 attempts were made to push universal health care coverage into legislation; and before this paper moves on to examine the role of social, political and commercial interests in these failures, it is important to consider...

Words: 3168 - Pages: 13

Medical Innovations in the Early 20th Century

...Phunland, you’ll get all three! Your family will have a blast in our park while learning all about medicine advances in the 20th century. There are three sections, all with their own specified theme and rides. Additionally, there are two cool restaurants in which your family can enjoy exotic foods. Learn all about the deadly virus in Polio Park! Featuring fun for the whole family, along with a valuable learning experience, Polio Park is themed around the highly infectious virus that swept the world. Being depicted as early as pre-history, polio is a virus that can affect the central nervous system and lead to the destruction of the motor neurons. This can lead to muscle weakness and paralysis. Before the 20th century, polio was found mostly in children between 6 months and 4 years old. However, before the mid-19th century, people who lived in poorer sanitation areas were constantly exposed to the virus, thus creating immunity. By the early 20th century, huge improvements were made in community sanitation. This lead to a pandemic outbreak of polio in Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand during the first half of the 19th century. By the mid-1950s, there were not one but two different versions of the polio vaccine. This cut polio outbreaks drastically. In this park, all of the rides have something to do with the polio pandemic during the 20th century. In the Jonas Salk/Albert Sabin Rollercoaster Race, the dual roller-coasters (one named Salk, one named Sabin) race......

Words: 1681 - Pages: 7

20th Century Philosophy

...Martha Nussbaum is a 20th century American philosopher, she writes about deep philosophical problems that human beings are faced with today. She uses the teachings of past philosophers to help justify her philosophy. Nussbaums’ philosophy is shaped strongly around changing how we think of ethics to a more “holistic” way. Nussbaum argues something that many philosophers before her built their philosophies on, the idea of “justice” and how one should go about living a “good” life. For Augustine in particular living a completely just life goes hand in hand with having complete order in your life. Nussbaum argues that the “good life” in a way makes people oblivious and vulnerable to what the world truly has in store and could negate their “human flourishing”. Augustine’s’ philosophy takes account of Nussbaum’s ideas the most because he basically objects to any notions of the good life, Augustine recognized that no object can be good or bad, but our will as humans is what takes a good thing and then makes them bad. He believes that the reason evil even exists is because humans are not perfect. Augustine of Hippo also known as St. Augustine was an early philosopher who’s philosophy paved the way for what is now Western Christianity, one if his most important pieces of work, “City of God” is still read widely today. He influenced Western Christianity greatly because he believed that all Christians should be pacifists but at the same time he also asserted that one should always......

Words: 872 - Pages: 4

Early 20th-Century Developments in Human Flight

...was constructed and flown by Curtiss in 1911, and in 1919 one of Curtiss's “flying boats” made the first transatlantic crossing (with stops). He became one of the most successful American aircraft builders in the decades following the invention of the airplane. Aerobatics Antoine de Saint Exupery on a 50 franc note. Francs were replaced by Euros in 1999. The American public may have known airplanes best for their acrobatic flying, or aerobatics, in the years immediately following the Wright brothers' flights because of large cash prizes offered by newspapers. Dubbed the “glorious year of flying,” 1913 was marked by races, competitions, and demonstrations. By flying upside-down and doing loops and other stunts, daredevil pilots proved the maneuverability of airplanes. Pilots also tested the mettle of airplanes in long-distance flights in 1913, including a 4,000-kilometer (2,500-mile) flight from France to Egypt (with stops) and the first nonstop flight from France to Tunisia across the Mediterranean Sea. The end of World War I left a large number of cheap airplanes available for barnstorming and stunt-flying and also for airmail, which was initiated in the mid-1920s. Famous pilots Charles Lindbergh (1902–1974) and Antoine de Saint Exupéry (1900–1944) were among the early airmail fliers. Early Military Developments Before 1914 militaries used airplanes mostly for surveying of enemy territory. (In 1913, the U.S. Army had only six active pilots and the fledgling......

Words: 1252 - Pages: 6

All About My Travels Through the Egyptian Civilization, Early Japanese Civilization, and the Early 20th Century

...All about My Travels through the Egyptian Civilization, Early Japanese Civilization, and the Early 20th Century Deana Mole January, 24, 2014 Hum/205 Mr. Longstreth If you could learn about any three cultures, what would they be? This question was asked of me at one point in my career as an art historian and author. I have written a new textbook about the three periods I most enjoyed investigating and learning about. In this book, I hope to give you information on them and encourage you to dig even deeper to learn more about them. The three periods I have chosen for this book are; Egyptian Civilization, Early Japanese Civilization, and Early 20th Century. These are all very different but as you will see as you read the book that even though they are different they have similarities. All about My Travels through the Egyptian Civilization, Early Japanese Civilization, and the Early 20th Century Chapter 1 Egyptian civilization developed around 5000 B.C.E. During this time, Egypt was divided into two sections, Lower and Upper. Lower Egypt was actually a narrow strip of land located on either side of the Nile River. It ran for 700 miles from the first waterfall in the south to the Nile Delta. (Benton, J. R. & DiYanni, R., 2012, p. 17) Lower Egypt was in the northern part and was on the fertile land of......

Words: 2781 - Pages: 12

Native Americans in the 19th and 20th Centuries

...Native Americans in the 19th and 20th Centuries Table of Contents I Introduction………………………………………………………….P. 4 II Treaties Involving the Native Americans…………………………...P. 4 III Military Actions Involving the Native Americans…………………P. 7 IV Policies Involving the Native Americans………………………….P. 10 V Conclusion………………………………………………………….P. 12 VI Bibliography……………………………………………………….P. 13 I Introduction The term Native American means just what it says. These people were the people that were Native to the land when the first European settlers arrived here. These first settlers were not interested in taking away what belonged to the natives. They were not concerned with trying to change them to become more “civilized”. The early settlers were more interested in learning from them and trading with them for their survival in this new and untamed land. This would not always be the case though. As time progressed hostilities exploded between the Native Americans and the settlers. There were many policies and treaties placed upon the Indians, and when they revolted against these things military actions were what made them accept the fate that they did not want to accept. II Treaties Involving Native Americans Treaties were put in place supposedly to protect the Native Americans. Unfortunately they were mainly used as a way for the white man to take over the Indian’s land and hunting grounds. A lot of the time these treaties were ignored all together by the government that......

Words: 1756 - Pages: 8

Political Movements 20th Century

...Political Movements in the 20th Century HUM/300 Political Movements in the 20th Century During the 20th century several major political events took place that changed the worldwide view of civilization and shook up the collective consciousness. World War I and II showed the dark side of technology when used to hurt humanity. Civil movements surged around the world as a result of minorities trying to regain their identity, which various governments throughout the world restricted. The authors will examine major political events that had a notable effect on the 20th century, including, the influences of World War I and II, the surge of the Civil Rights Movement, and the Gender Equality Movement. The author’s examination will consider the works of artists and how his or her creative expression reflected the mood of the era. Political Events: World War I and II World War I (WWI) started in 1914, and lasted through 1918. The political event that triggered this war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The war tactics employed in World War I changed the methods and strategies in future conflicts bringing more devastation. Some of the new strategies included trench warfare, chemical warfare, and upgraded technology; it introduced chemical weapons including chlorine and phosgene, which produced devastating damages. The exposure to high levels of these gases resulted in temporary blindness,......

Words: 2182 - Pages: 9

20th Century American Immigrations

...HIST125-1201A-12 Phase II – 20th Century American Immigrations 18 January 2012 Jennifer Doucette Colorado Technical University I am a German-American Scientist, “born in Ulm, Wurttemberg on March 14, 1879” to Hermann and Pauline. Because my mother loved music, which enhanced my appreciation for music, she provided violin lessons for me when I was around six years of age. Most of my time was spent in intellectual solitude and relaxation. I spent my early years growing up in Munich, where I begin school at Luitpold Gymnasium, and my father manufactured electrical products. I have one sister named Maja, she was born in 1881. When my father’s business failed, he and I moved to Milan Italy. In 1896, I begin studying in Zurich, at the Swiss Federal Polytechnic Institute. I received my teaching degree in physics and mathematics in 1900; the same year I renounced my German citizenship, leaving me stateless until 1901, when I become a Swiss citizen. (http://german.about.com) I was employed at the Swiss Patent Office in Berlin from 1902 to 1909, at which time, a fellow colleague at Polytechnic Institute named Mileva Maric, out of wedlock, gave birth to our daughter, Liserl. We later gave her up for adoption. On January 6, 1903, Mileva and I were married in Zurich; we have two sons. (Jahr, 2005) In 1905, I published my doctoral dissertation, including Relativitatstheorie, and received a PhD from the University of Zurich. I served, in 1909 as a Professor at the University of Zurich and...

Words: 1296 - Pages: 6

Early 20th Century Music

...Uncovering Mahler, Schoenberg & Debussy In this essay I will talk about three composers who individually had their own take on music and have significantly aided the progression of music composition in the twentieth-century. These three composers are Gustav Mahler, Arnold Schoenberg and Claude Debussy. I will assess their compositional styles by investigating in to some of the structures they used and the meaning and thinking behind their movements and symphonies. Gustav Mahler (July, 1860) was a late-Romantic composer and was a huge influence on modern music both with his music and his conducting. One piece of music that he is forever recognised by is his Song of the Earth (Das Lied von der Erde) composed in 1907-1908. This was first performed later on, unfortunately not conducted by Mahler himself as it was performed after his death. It was a huge piece of work written for two soloists, which was very rarely done, and an almighty orchestra. This would have been his ninth symphony but ‘Mahler refused to call it No.9 out of superstitions dread: Beethoven and Bruckner had got no further than nine, and he half seriously hoped to cheat death by stopping his numbering at eight’. (Cooke 1980, p.104) However others say this isn't the whole truth and that it wasn't named No.9 because this song meant a lot more to him. The song was separated into six separate movements, each of these became their own individual song. However it is the first movement - Drinking song of the......

Words: 1542 - Pages: 7

20th Century Genius Award

...The 20th Century Genius Award Hum/102 October 19, 2011 The 20th Century Genius Award The nominated figure that stands out in my mind as a genius of Western culture would be Albert Einstein. His work and cultural contributions can be classified in both the Age of Modernism and the Age of Pluralism for the 20th Century Genius Award. The following examples will include a synopsis of the life and times of Albert Einstein, A survey of the ideas and works recognizing the reflections of his genius, and an appraisal of his impact on the arts and culture. Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 to Hermann and Pauline Einstein a scientifically minded family, who were non-practicing Jews in Ulm, Wurttemberg Germany. As a child, he was very curious, and lively. Albert attended a Catholic elementary school, and his mother insisted for him to take violin lessons. Although he detested the lessons, and later on decide not to continue with them, he would later on find an appreciation and great comfort in Mozart’s violin sonatas. At the early age of five, Albert was fascinated by complex scientific and mathematical concepts at a very early age. Hermann Einstein shows his son a pocket compass, and Einstein with his sense of wonder, and curiosity realizes that something in “empty” space controlled the needle; he later on describes the experience as a revelation of his life. Albert Einsteins hobbies was to build models and mechanical devices for his amusement although he......

Words: 1724 - Pages: 7

20th Century Philosophy

...identify three prevailing philosophical perspectives at work during the 20th Century. To begin I will research the history of a few new tendencies in contemporary philosophy. Then I will discuss the Tom Rockmore interpretation of such tendencies. Tom Rockmore is Professor of Philosophy and a McAnulty College Distinguished Professor, Dr. Rockmore's current research interests encompass all of modern philosophy, with special emphasis on selected problems as well as figures in German idealism (Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Marx) and recent continental philosophy (Heidegger, Habermas, Lukacs). He is continuing to explore the epistemology of German idealism as well as the relation between philosophy and politics. His most recent work concerns a new theory of knowledge as intrinsically historical. Tom Rockmore believes that there are approximately three tendencies that govern the 20th Century‘s philosophy dispute. These three tendencies according to Tom Rockmore are the Continental philosophy, Anglo- American analytical philosophy and the American (neo) pragmatism. According to answer.com, continental philosophy is a cluster of 20th-century European philosophical movements that see themselves as the ongoing legacy of Hegel, Husserl, and Heidegger and which encompasses phenomenology, existentialism, hermeneutics, structuralism, and deconstructionism, mainly as different with analytic philosophy (answer, 2010). The Anglo- American analytical philosophy is the philosophy that uses the......

Words: 1048 - Pages: 5

Residential Segregation of African Americans in 20th Century America

...In Twenty-First Century, modern America one can trace the effects of various actions and decisions of past government leaders and ordinary citizens in the shaping of the America we see today. Throughout human society, the conflicts, issues, and divisions among peoples, which one observes at any point in time, are not matters of chance, but are products of history, and forces of human undertaking. Today, American society is faced with a residential, geographic phenomenon among urban and suburban communities that disadvantages African American citizens through the discriminatory denial of residential and economic freedom, a Constitutional promise that is guaranteed to all Americans. Modern America is confronted with a socially and geographically segregated society structured on the hierarchies of race, having the greatest consequences for African American communities, the most segregated racial group in American society. The Great Migration of the early twentieth century was a symbolic beacon of hope for African Americans leaving their homes in the rural South to a new land of promise in the urban North. While this migration created vast amounts of opportunity for African Americans that could have not existed in the Jim Crow-era South, the movements of these people would carry the racial divisions and hostilities of society to the level of a national plight. Northern whites implemented various practices in order to manipulate urban housing markets in the effect of......

Words: 6457 - Pages: 26

Representations of Women in Early 20th Century Art

...experiences and responses provoked by them. Thus, art has served as a powerful engine both reflecting and fueling political, social, and religious ideologies.[2] In particular, the subject of women has accumulated controversial discussion in the visual arts because of consistencies witnessed across all these constructs. In exploring female representations in art, feminist scholars have particularly noted the perpetual limitations set upon women not only as subjects but as spectators. While artistic movements progressed over the centuries, it appears the connotations of women have remained stagnant. Even in the early 20th century which saw a turn in traditional gender roles, painting continued to be dominated by the male experience demonstrated in the guises of the nude, despite aesthetic and conceptual differences. Such control gave women little privilege to explore their own experience, resulting in a struggle of identity. After the mid 19th century, paintings of the nude increasingly replaced men with female subjects, although women contented to be absent from major art academies. Unlike their respectable counterparts, images of women actually reinforced ideologies of the power relationship between the genders, as female representations were branded with connotations of the "body and nature, that is passive, available, possessable, powerless".[3] Vanguard artists such as Heckel, Munch and Gaugin frequently used techniques that desensitized their models as individuals......

Words: 2243 - Pages: 9

In What Ways, and with What Results, Did China Develop in the 19th Century and the Early 20th Century? Support Your Answer with Examples.

...China has gone through major changes throughout the second half of the 19th century up till the early 20th century. The result of the Opium Wars opened up China to the rest of the world, which contributed to the fall of the Qing dynasty. The Wars struck a crippling blow to the Qing Empire and it demonstrated how weak China was compared to the European powers. The ailing Qing dynasty during the middle of the 19th century created opportunities for the European imperialists who were interested in crippling China. They wanted to undermine China by enforcing foreign policies in the country, which would contribute to the growing discontent among the citizens since their monarch was hopeless. After the naval expeditions of Zheng He (1371-1435) during the Ming dynasty, the Hongwu Emperor decided to ban all trade and from then onwards, China became increasingly isolationist. The Chinese feared that the result of foreign intervention would be an attempt to take over the country therefore, all the dynasties after that continued to adopt these policies in order to prevent invaders such as Japanese pirates. During the Qing dynasty, the Qianlong Emperor rejected an offer to expand trade because he feared that by trading with foreign countries, the imperialist nations would attempt to take over China by imposing their ideas on the Chinese. China’s desire to shut itself away from the foreign countries was because of its desire to protect itself. After the Industrial Revolution,......

Words: 1309 - Pages: 6