Aids: the Modern Black Plague

In: Social Issues

Submitted By blaine
Words 3272
Pages 14
AIDS: The Modern Black Plague

The AIDS epidemic has reached a crisis level in Africa and needs to be addressed by the United States. Efforts to teach the population AIDS prevention, reduce the price of certain medications, and influence the local leaders to teach their citizens about AIDS should be considered by the United States. Along with those efforts, the United States needs to help with the aftermath of the epidemic. In order to fully understand what the United States needs to do to help, we must first realize why the AIDS epidemic has risen to a crisis level in Africa.
When the HIV virus matures it turns into what is known as AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). It is a life threatening disease that when contracted is eventually fatal. There are treatments and medications that can help slow the painful symptoms of the disease, but so far research has not found a cure. Since the early 80’s AIDS has become quite a scary issue because of its life-threatening nature. Unlike the common cold or other viruses transmitted through the air, AIDS is only transmitted by sexual contact or by the sharing of needles. AIDS, though a worldwide problem has now climbed to an epidemic level in Africa. CW Henderson, writing for AIDS Weekly, reports that, “70% of the world’s AIDS cases are located in sub-Saharan Africa”(20). Anderson goes on to report that, “The disease kills 6,000 people a day in Africa, has orphaned about 15% of children in the worst-hit cities, and by some estimates will lower life expectancy in sub-Saharan Africa from 59 in the early 1990’s to 45 by 2015”(20). Michael Lemonick, writing in Time magazine, reports that, “In South Africa, 1 in 5 adults is infected” (38). Just like the black plague of Europe in the Middle Ages, AIDS has become a modern plague and Africa has been hit the hardest.
Why has Africa born the brunt of this infectious…...

Similar Documents

Bubonic Plague Research Paper

...Bubonic plague is an infectious disease that is spread by the bacteria Yersinia pestis. These bacteria remain in a dormant state primarily in a rat flea’s foregut. Once the flea has bitten a victim it regurgitates the contents in its foregut into the bite location. Once the bacterium has entered into a mammal’s warm body it begins to reproduce and spread throughout the mammal’s body. The reproduction of this bacterium creates large painful swollen lymph nodes which are called buboes. Once these buboes get large enough they begin to ooze infected body fluid so that any contact between an infected person and a healthy person will facilitate the spread of this disease. (The Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012) The areas where the buboes form are the neck, armpits, upper femoral, and groin. Once a person has been infected with Yersinia pestis it usually takes 2-5 days until they begin to show signs and symptoms of the illness. These symptoms include acral gangrene which is gangrene of the extremities to include fingers, toes, lips, and tip of the nose. Total body chills that also comes with severe uncontrollable shakes. A high fever of 102 degrees Fahrenheit that induces muscle cramps. Seizures are another common symptom as well as pain begins before the buboes begin to form. In very extreme cases the victim will begin to change skin color to a pinkish hue. Some more less common symptoms are the vomiting of blood, heavy breathing, aching limbs, extreme pain, and coughing. With cases that......

Words: 1704 - Pages: 7

Aids

...that is greatly affected by acquired immune deficiency syndrome also known as AIDS. This is the final stage of HIV which causes severe damage to the immune system. People who have AIDS are more likely to get infections and tumors that wouldn’t affect people with working immune systems. The spreading of the disease is hard to control because anyone who comes in contact with any bodily fluid of an infected person will most likely end up getting it as well. “About 22.5 million people in Africa have been infected by AIDS as of 2007”. The adult rate of infection worldwide is 1% while in Africa it is about 6.1%. The severity of the epidemic is largely caused by the “poverty, lack of female empowerment, and high rates of male worker migration”. One of the worst parts about the AIDS epidemic in africa is that the national health systems are ill equipped for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, which means that in all honesty the people are basically hopeless. Anything that they can do medically costs way more than the normal African has. In Europe from 1348 to 1350 there was an outbreak of the Yersinia pestis bacterium. This disease was also known as the black plague. It caused the deaths of 30 to 60 percent of europes population. More than 350 million people died from this epidemic. The European population took 150 years to recover from the high amount of death. The original carriers of the plague were the rats that were found on merchant ships. The disease infected......

Words: 936 - Pages: 4

The Black Plague

...R. Glover Professor Schmitt English 2111-45 November 27, 2012 The Black Plague The Black Plague is a disease contracted from diseased animals, mostly by fleas, to human. The Black Plague then may be contracted by humans touching or breathing on one another. This disease is highly deadly and the bacterium that causes this disease is Yersinia Pestis. The Black Plague or as many call it “The Black Death” arrived in Europe by sea October 1347 when twelve Genoese trading ships docked at the Sicilian port of Messina after traveling through the Black Sea. Europe’s communities were devastated by the amount of suffering and death the disease brought to the people. The most common characteristic of the black plague is the black boils that appear all over the human body and then the boils bursts open with the blood oozing out black. The black blood that oozes out is why people call it the black plague. The symptoms of the disease can progress to other categories of the black plague which are: septicemia plague, pneumonic plague, and bubonic plague. The Sopticemic plague is the rarest deadliest bacterial infection caused by a bacterium called Yersinia Pertis. The plague begins to destroy the human body “when the bacterium enters the bloodstream through an open wound the person is known to be infected by plague. The bacterium multiplies in the blood and results in septicemic plague. This form of plague like the other types is capable of causing disseminated intravascular...

Words: 747 - Pages: 3

Aids in Black Women

...Asa S. Smith AIDS/HIV in Women Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, better known as AIDS, is a raging epidemic. Taking nearly 2.1 million lives and 300,000 children are living with the disease and it shows no sign of slowing down. A person has a collection of symptoms and or illnesses caused by the most advanced stages of HIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection. Once the virus weakens your immune system, and your CD4 cells are reduced to a certain number, a patient is considered to have AIDS. This condition progressively reduces the effectiveness of the immune system and leaves individuals vulnerable to opportunistic infections and tumors. A common disbelief about the illness is that you can die from it which is not all factual. You can indeed die once you have contracted the illness but it is from your body’s inability to fight off the common colds and infections that cannot be cured by your immune system because it has become far too weak. AIDS first appeared July 5, 1981 by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It was first reported in five homosexual men in Los Angeles. In the beginning, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention did not have an official name for the disease, often referring to it by way of the diseases that were associated with it, for example, lymphadenopathy, the disease after which the discoverers of HIV originally named the virus. They also used Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections, the name by which a task......

Words: 1589 - Pages: 7

Black Plague

...this letter so just to let you know it is the year 1347. I am living in the great city of Sienna, Italy with my dear husband and my two young children. My life isn’t going so well right now it’s falling apart, all due to the outbreak of the black plague. I bet you have already come across it because it’s spreading without stop from city to city, but if you haven’t yet let me inform you that it’s the most horrifying thing I have ever experienced in all my life. This disease has killed millions of people including my neighbors, relatives, and my loved ones, no one is safe. The black plague starts off with painful swelling and almost tumor like lumps on your body called buboes usually located in your groin and underarms and can be as large as the size of an egg. Next you will start vomiting and have an extremely high fever and you will start seeing dark blotches all over your body caused by bleeding under your skin. If you haven’t passed away yet the disease will attack your nervous system and create you to have excruciating painful spasms. Lastly the buboes will pop and there will be black liquid discharge from it. All in all most victims suffer a painful death; it is just so depressing to see your whole city perish this way. The black plague had such a major impact on the world, it affected it socially, religiously, and it even affected the economy. It affected the world socially for many reasons the most obvious being the population shortage. About 50-70% of people died in......

Words: 905 - Pages: 4

Plague, Is It a Threat

...ESSAY TOPIC: Plague, is it still a threat?  History  Aetiologgy and treatment  Plague in the modern world Abstract The plague is a communicable disease, having a high mortality rate without treatment. There are three huge pandemics in history with millions of deaths occurring. The first pandemic occurred around the year 541AD and was called “plague of Justinian”, the second pandemic “Black Death” occurred in 14th century, and the third epidemic resulted in China around the 1860s. There are three main types of plague such as bubonic plague, septicaemic plague and primary pneumonic plague, with each type of the plague; the antibiotics are the most important method of treatment for plague currently. The Yersinia pestis, as the causative agent of plague, is a Gram-negative bacillus in the bacterial family. This disease is transmitted by the biting of fleas, which occur in some animals such as the rats, rabbits and dogs. Early detection, reporting, isolating and early treatment are very important in preventing huge scales of the plague’s happening. People should take more precautions to prevent plague from infection. Today, this infectious disease is still a threat for people around the world, especially in Africa, Asia and South American countries. “Plague or its cause, Y. pestis, has been used by humans as a weapon (bioterrorist weapon) against other humans for centuries, including this current time”(Nettleman, 2012). The plague is an infectious bacterial disease,......

Words: 1644 - Pages: 7

Black Coalition for Aids Prevention

...Analysis of recruitment issues and their impacts on the strategic issues The Black Coalition for AIDS Prevention (Black CAP) motto is "Because All Black People’s Lives Are Important", they aim at reducing the multiplication of HIV/AIDS infections within the Black communities in Toronto and improve the life of those affected by HIV/AIDS (Black Coalition for AIDS Prevention, 2014). Between 1999 and 2003 the number of Black people having AIDS increased by 80% (Remis 2006) and in 2003 about 12% of the population with HIV/AIDS in Toronto were black (Lawson et al. 2006). Black CAP seems to have a very dedicated workforce, however as Ryan noticed the present workforce was not enough and his workload was quite high. Ryan had about 75 volunteers at his disposal however studies have shown that more than 33% of the volunteers for a year will not be volunteering the next year as mentioned by Eisner et al. (2011, 2009). In 2013 the estimated worth of volunteer time was $22.55 per hour (National Value of Volunteer Time 2014), so instead of relying more and giving more responsibilities to paid workers Shannon could put more trust in his volunteers. Before the arrival of Ryan at Black CAP, the organization was short on staff, so his first initiative was to recruit more staff which was a good as these people were delivering on the funders’ requirements. Response to the funders meant that they will continue to donate. However with the introduction of new staffs Ryan workload increased as......

Words: 2118 - Pages: 9

Bubonic Plague

...Bubonic plague is believed to have brought the Byzantine empire to its knees in the 6th century. This is the first ever documented record of bubonic plague in human history. But the fact that bubonic plague continues to afflict human population even today is a matter of concern. Your bubonic plague research paper would revolve around the premise of it being a deadly disease, but we assure you that we won’t scare you by the facts. Bubonic plague is typically differentiated from other infections because of its roots in the bacteria, Yersinia pestis or Pastuerella pestis. The bacteria typically infects the spleen, lungs, kidneys and brain. It is spread by virtue of rats and fleas. The staff at ProfEssays.com could as Help with Bubonic Plague Research Paperwell spell out some of its symptoms as shivering chills staggering gait stuttered speech memory loss weakness The early symptoms lead to graver consequences, and the ultimate zenith is reached when the patient ultimately breaths his last. Several deaths were caused by bubonic plague in the 14th century when medical science wasn’t developed as it is today. A nursing and healthcare term paper could focus on the facilities provided to modern healthcare officials that were not available in the 14th century. It killed almost 30 per cent of the contemporary European population. Infection is spread through fleas and rodents. It is a common occurrence to have rodents whenever there are earthquakes or other such calamities.......

Words: 1154 - Pages: 5

Ap European History Black Plague Dbq

...Throughout history, diseases and disasters have shaped people’s beliefs and concerns. During the 13th century, the Bubonic Plague was no exception to this theory. Authors, physicians, and European travelers expressed their beliefs regarding the plague, how their lifestyles had changed because of it and how they believed it spread throughout the great continent of Europe. These groups of authors, physicians and travelers all formed their own beliefs and concerns about the plague such as Erasmus of Rotterdam who believed that “the plague and sickness in England is due to the filth on the streets…” (Doc 2) At the time, physicians were believed to have more informed beliefs and concerns than other members of society due to their advanced educations. In fact, Johann Weyer, a German physician, claimed that townspeople smeared the bolts of the town with an ointment directly intended to spread the plague to anyone who touched it. In turn, many people died, including members of the royal family. Weyer even believed that heirs of the dead paid people to spread the cream so that they could inherit their fortunes more quickly. (Doc 4). On the other hand, Giovan Fillipo pronounced in 1576 his motto of, “Gold, fire, the gallows: gold for the expense of the pest houses to quarantine the diseased, the gallows to punish those who violate the heath regulations and to frighten the others, and bonfires to eliminate infected things.” (Doc 6) The motto of Fillipo was well respected by his fellow...

Words: 1091 - Pages: 5

The Plague

...The Plague If there is one part of life that humans have trouble overcoming it is natural disasters. They are unexpected, incurable, and often unconquerable. One specific type of natural disaster is that of sickness. Plagues are disastrous evil afflictions of an epidemic disease causing a high rate of mortality. A historically famous plague in the fourteenth and fifteenth century is the Black or Bubonic Plague. The social and economic effects of the plague in Europe were harmful to the population and economy. The Black Plague is an Oriental Plague marked by inflammatory boils and tumors of the glands. Such break outs were found in no other feverish disease. Inflammatory boils often appeared and black spots which indicated decomposition of the body ultimately appeared on the skin. Another symptom of the plague was openings with a discharge of offensive matter. Due to the significant pain and rapid spread of the plague medicine was ultimately never found, although attempted. People consumed in the plague died within three days of getting it. The plague began in 1333, fifteen years before it broke out in Europe. Many natural disasters were engulfing the Asian countries; floods, starvation, droughts, and the plague. A drought and food shortage had crucified the country which was started by floods of the Kiang and Hoai Rivers. After all of these disastrous events still an earthquake, continued floods, and food shortage ended in late 1300’s. Around 1339 in northwestern Europe...

Words: 1602 - Pages: 7

Bubonic Plague

...  Contents I. Abstract II. Introduction III. Background Information IV. Discussion V. Diagnosis Test VI. Prevention VII. Conclusion VIII. Bibliography Abstract According to archeologists, Bubonic plague may have originated from Egypt and not in Asia as originally thought. The disease is termed ‘Black Death’ and is said to have also begun in North Africa. Archeologists and fossil insect experts report that the disease may have distributed as a result of the flooding of River Nile that forced the rats to infest the human populated areas during the 3500 B.C. The causative agents of Bubonic Plague are known as Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) that are normally classified as Gram-negative, bipolar-staining coccobacilli. The coccobacilli are either rod or oval shape, and they is short. The Y. pestis metabolism is fermentative just like the other enterobacteriaceae, and they produce a thick antiphagocytic capsule that prevents the white blood cells from the ability to ward off the Y. pestis infection. In this paper, the disease Bubonic Plague will be discussed in details, including its causes, and the place where the recent outbreak has occurred. Introduction Bubonic Plague is brought by the Yersinia pestis, which is a Gam-negative, bipolar-staining coccobacilli. As learned in classes, the coccobacilli are rod or oval in shape, and normally short in size. Just like other Enterobacteriaceae, the Yersinia pestis has a fermentative type of metabolism, and......

Words: 1781 - Pages: 8

Black Plague

...Black Death The Black Plague is known as one of the worst pandemics in human history. The plague originated in China and Central Asia which then spread westward into Europe. It is said that disease spread through fleas and rats that lived on ships and along trading routes. The black death killed millions of people from China, to India and even as far as North Africa. Eventually. infected traders from Italy introduced the plague into Europe which in turn spread quickly to France, Spain, Portugal, England, Germany, Russia and Scandinavia. In the 14th century, at least 75 million people on three continents perished due to the painful, highly contagious disease. The main transition of the disease was said to be from fleas that were carried by rats. Trading ships and trading routes allowed the rodents to spread the plague quicker as they passed through countries. The rats would eventually die from the flea bites and the bacteria, but the fleas would survive and move onto other animals and even humans. When a person is infected, they would suffer from fever, headaches, nausea, and vomiting. Also swelling would occur and dark rashes appeared on the groin, legs, armpits and neck. The black death was also called the Pneumonic Plague, because it affected the lungs which then caused the disease to be spread through the air by cough and sneeze. The plague spread quickly due to overpopulated and unsanitary cities. There was no proper treatment so most people died within a week......

Words: 283 - Pages: 2

Aids in the Black Community

...Aids Within the African American Community “I tested HIV positive in 2002. I was 16. The reason why I went for an HIV test was because my ex-boyfriend at that time had gotten sick in the past few months, and then he died. No one would tell me why he died. No one would tell me what he had. I felt it was my responsibility to actually find out for myself if he did have HIV or AIDS. The only thing to do, was for me to go for an HIV test. When I was told that I was HIV positive, I could not believe them. I kept on asking them, "Why do I have HIV? Why do I still look healthy? Why am I not thin? Why am I not sick? Why am I not feeling sick? I feel normal and I look normal. Why do I have HIV?”-Thembi Ngubane of South Africa AIDS have been spreading throughout our world continuously as the years pass. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is a disease in the immune system that is transmitted through blood products by needles or sexual contact; a result of HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus). AIDS affect not only the health, but also the happiness and life of a human. A cure has not been found for this disease, but medication to slow down the succession of AIDS. Few do not suffer from AIDS, but is a worldwide plague that will not go away. AIDS have killed millions of people throughout the world. This epidemic has been harming the lives of many people, particularly within the black community. African Americans face the most severe burden of AIDS in......

Words: 795 - Pages: 4

The Black Plague

...The Black Plague “The Renaissance Death of England” Jayne Ritzinger GS102 – Introduction of Life Science September 2, 2009 The Black Plague in a Medieval Perspective “The Renaissance Death of England” The Sixteenth Century and Bubonic Plague The year is 1350 and death has travelled Western Asia and Europe for a decade. The death rate has exceeded 10 million due to the Black Plague, which is the curse of Europe (Bollinger, 1983). Travelling by boat and carriage, the Black Death has infected the known world from Constantinople to London. “The first attack, known since the late sixteenth century as the Black Death but to contemporaries as “the great mortality”, occurred in southern England in 1348; by the end of 1349 it had spread to Central Scotland” (Morgan, 1984). Rats and the lice that traveled on them were the common cause, but the Sixteenth Century had no such mechanism to identify the causation of the plague “Plague is characterized by periodic disease outbreaks in rodent populations, some of which have a high death rate. During these outbreaks, hungry infected fleas that have lost their normal hosts seek other sources of blood, thus escalating the increased risk to humans and other animals frequenting the area” (Plague, 2009). As defined by the Center for Disease Control, the Black Plague is defined as follows: Plague is an infectious disease of animals and humans caused by a bacterium named Yersinia Pestis. Epidemics of plague in humans usually involve house rats...

Words: 1817 - Pages: 8

The Plague

...B. The reason that the plague was even more frightening then a modern disease such as AIDSs was because it killed people rapidly. Unlike AIDs, the plague killed people as fast as over night. D. The scientific cause of the plague was unknown. Medieval physicians were unable to identify the true cause because it spread so easily that it was almost impossible to know where it came from. They also didn’t know the reason behind it or how to treat/cure it. E. People from the fourteenth century thought that the plague first came from all the trading such as through the merchandise exchange. Then they thought it could have been from the wrath of God since it was out of nowhere and because it also spread really fast. The last reason they could come up with was that the evil one was coming to take everyone and that it would soon be the end of the world. F. The plague not only had an effect on the human population. It also had an effect on Europe’s economy. Since the population dramatically decreased, that only meant that the economy went bad. The reason behind this was because there was no supply or demand for supplies since everyone seemed to be dying. G. Some effects that the plague had on people’s behavior and moral was bad. People started to lose faith and felt like they would soon die and that there was no way out or anyway to avoid the plague. They waited for the Evil One to visit them. In other words kill them. I. Historians often use direct quotes from eyewitness, and......

Words: 478 - Pages: 2